—тать€ ' омплексное посттравматическое стрессовое расстройство: современные подходы к определению пон€ти€, этиологии, диагностика и психотерапи€' - журнал 'ѕсихолог' - NotaBene.ru
Journal Menu
> Issues > Rubrics > About journal > Authors > About the Journal > Requirements for publication > Editorial collegium > Editorial board > Peer-review process > Policy of publication. Aims & Scope. > Article retraction > Ethics > Online First Pre-Publication > Copyright & Licensing Policy > Digital archiving policy > Open Access Policy > Open access publishing costs > Article Identification Policy > Plagiarism check policy
Journals in science databases
About the Journal

MAIN PAGE > Back to contents

Complex post-traumatic stress disorder: modern approaches towards definition of the concept, etiology, diagnostics, and psychotherapy

Kadyrov Ruslan Vasitovich

PhD in Psychology

Head of the department of General Psychological Disciplines, Pacific State Medical University; Director of the Center of Clinical and Applied Psychology

690018, Russia, Primorskii krai, g. Vladivosto, ul. Okeanskii Prospekt, 165, kab. 906

Venger Veronika Vladimirovna

Student, the department of General Psychological Disciplines, Pacific State Medical University

690002, Russia, Primorskii krai, g. Vladivostok, ul. Okeanskii Prospekt, 140, korp. 2




Review date:


Publish date:


Abstract: The goal of this article is to summarize and systematize the works of foreign researchers dedicated to psychotherapy of the complex post-traumatic stress disorder. For achieving the set goal, the author carries out a theoretical review of foreign literature on the topic, as well as the analysis of recent foreign research and their summary. Modern living conditions led to increase in the number of people with complex post-traumatic stress disorder, which actualized the problem of seeking effective psychological aid and psychotherapy for this category of people. The author reveals several scientifically proven effective methods of non-pharmaceutical treatment of complex post-traumatic stress disorder, including cognitive behavioral therapy, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, as well as body-oriented therapy and art therapy, which are equally as effective. It is determined that currently that the number one treatment for complex post-traumatic stress disorder is the phase trauma-oriented approach that includes creation of safe environment, stabilization, and mitigation of symptoms; confrontation, analysis and integration of traumatic memories; integration of mental trauma experience, and rehabilitation of the consequences of complex post-traumatic stress disorder. The combination of individual and group work that produces most effective results in therapy is relevant in dealing with complex post-traumatic stress disorder.

Keywords: mental trauma, foreign studies, methods of psychotherapy for CPTSD, CPTSD research, psychotherapy, complex post-traumatic disorder, cognitive-behavioral therapy, EMDR, body-oriented therapy, art therapy
This article written in Russian. You can find full text of article in Russian here .

Schwartz A. The Complex PTSD. Workbook A Mind-Body Approach to Regaining Emotional Control and Becoming Whole. Ц Albany: Althea Press, 2017. Ц 190 s.
Green E. Treating Complex Trauma in Adolescents: A Phase-Based, Integrative Approach for Play Therapists // International Journal of Play Therapy. Ц Vol. 23. Ц 2014. Ц є 3. 131-145 p.
Bohus M., Schmahl C., Fydrich T. A research programme to evaluate DBT-PTSD, a modular treatment approach for Complex PTSD after childhood abuse // Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation. Ц 6 (1). Ц 2019. Ц 1-16 p.
Fernández F. C., Ruiz-Párraga, G. T., Ramírez M. C., Esteve Z. R. Effective ther-apies for the treatment of complex posttraumatic stress disorder: A qualitative systematic review // Sa-lud Mental. Ц 41 (2). Ц P. 81-90.
Karatzias T., Murphy P., Cloitre M., Bisson J., Roberts N., Shevlin M. Psychological interventions for ICD-11 complex PTSD symptoms: Systematic review and meta-analysis // Psychological Medicine. Ц 49 (11). Ц 2019. Ц 1761-1775 p.
Walker P. Complex PTSD: From Surviving to Thriving: A Guide and Map for Recovering from Childhood Trauma. Ц North Charleston: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform, 2013. Ц 374 p.
Zepinic V. (2017). Trauma-Focused Dynamic Therapy Model in Treating Complex Psychological Trauma // Psychology. Ц 8 (13). Ц 2017. Ц P. 4.
Howard A. Prevalence and treatment implications of ICD-11complex PTSD in Australian treatment-seekingcurrent and ex-serving military members // European Journal of Psychotraumatology. Ц Vol. 12. Ц 2021. Ц 1-13 p.
Voorendonk E. Trauma-focused treatment outcome for complex PTSD patients: results of an intensive treatment programme // European Journal of Psychotraumatology. Ц 11 (1):1783955. Ц 2020. Ц 1-11 p.
Ford J. Complex PTSD: Research directions for nosology/assessment, treatment, and public health // European Journal of Psychotraumatology. Ц 6:27584. Ц 2015. Ц 1-5 s.
Li X. Treating Complex Trauma with Art Therapy from a Neurobiological Viewpoint // Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health. Ц 2015. Ц 1-56 p.
Toorenburg M. Do emotion regulation difficulties affect outcomeof intensive trauma-focused treatment of patientswith severe PTSD? // European Journal of Psychotraumatology. Ц 11 (1): 1724417. Ц 2020. Ц 1-11 p.
Karatzias T. Evidence of distinct profiles of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) based on the new ICD-11 trauma questionnaire (ICD-TQ) // Journal of Affective Disorders. Ц Vol. 207. Ц 2017. Ц P. 181Ц187.
Maercker A., Brewin C. R., Bryant R. A., Cloitre M., van Ommeren M., Jones L. M., Humayan A., Kagee A., Llosa A. E., Rousseau C., Somasundaram D. J., Souza R., Suzuki Y., Weissbecker I., Wessely S. C., First M. B., Reed G. M. Diagnosis and classification of disorders specifically associated with stress: proposals for ICD‐11 // World Psychiatry. Ц 12 (3). Ц 2013. Ц 198Ц206 p.
Ford J. Complex PTSD and borderline personality disorder // Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation. Ц 8 (1). Ц 2021. Ц 1-21 p.
Cloitre M. Complex PTSD: assessment and treatment // European Journal of Psychotraumatology. Ц 6:27584. Ц 2021. Ц 1-21 p.
Simon N. Associations between perceived social support, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD (CPTSD): implications for treatment // European Journal of Psychotraumatology. Ц 10 (1):1573129. Ц 2019. Ц 1-10 p.
Ford J. Progress and Limitations in the Treatment of Complex PTSD and Developmental Trauma Disorder // Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry. Ц 8 (2). Ц 2021. Ц 1-17 p.
Gene-Cos N. Sensorimotor Psychotherapy Group Therapy in the Treatment of Complex PTSD // Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health. Ц 4 (6). Ц 2016. Ц 1-7 p.
Madeleine K., Lawrence S., Rachel U., Cornelius K. Complex posttraumatic stress disorder in traumatised asylum seekers: A pilot study // Eur. J. Psychiat. ЦVol. 28. N. 3. Ц 2014. Ц P.137-144.
Thanos K. Evidence of distinct profiles of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD) based on the new ICD-11 Trauma Questionnaire (ICD-TQ) // Journal of Affective Disorders. Ц Vol. 207. Ц 2017. Ц P. 181-187.
Gianluca L., Giuseppe M., Laura S., Veronica O., Carla D., Gabriele P., Salvatore G. The Italian Version of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-32): Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure in Clinical and Non-clinical Groups // Front. Psychol. Ц Vol. 9. Ц 2018. Ц 1-12 p.
Brewin. C. R. A review of current evidence regarding the ICD-11 proposals for diagnosing PTSD and complex PTSD // Clinical Psychological Review. Ц Vol. 58. Ц 2017. P. 1Ц15.
Woudenberg C. Effectiveness of an intensive treatmentprogramme combining prolonged exposure andeye movement desensitization and reprocessingfor severe post-traumatic stress disorder// European Journal of Psychotraumatology. Ц 9 (1). Ц 2018. Ц 1-10 p.
Knipe J. EMDR Toolbox: Theory and Treatment of Complex PTSD and Dissociation. Ц New-York: Springer Publishing Company, 2014. Ц 272 p.
Gonzalez A. The Progressive Approach to EMDR Group Therapy for Complex Trauma and Dissociation: A Case-Control Study // Front. Psychol. Ц Vol. 8:2377. Ц 2018. Ц 1-8 p.
Whalley, M. G., Lee, D. A. Integrating compassion into EMDR for PTSD and CPTSD // The Society for the Improvement of Psychological Science. Ц 2019. Ц 40 p.
MacIntosh H. Review of Treating of complex trauma: A sequenced relationship-based approach // Canadian Psychology. Ц 4 (3): 2000. Ц 2013. Ц 200 p.
Hart O. Dissociation of the Personality and EMDR Therapy in Complex Trauma-Related Disorders: Applications in Phases 2 and 3 Treatment // Journal of EMDR Practice and Research. Ц 8 (1). Ц 2014. Ц 33-48 p.
Cathey A. Third wave enhanced treatment of severe complex PTSD // Conference: Association for Contextual Behavioral Sciences. Ц 2015. Ц 1 p.
Link to this article

You can simply select and copy link from below text field.

Other our sites:
Official Website of NOTA BENE / Aurora Group s.r.o.
"History Illustrated" Website