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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Sociodynamics" > Rubric "Heritage and transformations"
Heritage and transformations
Barkov S.A., Zubkov V.I. - Postmodernism and gnoseological pessimism: social and scientific controversies pp. 1-21

DOI:
10.7256/2409-7144.2016.11.2094

Abstract: The subject of this research is agnosticism as the methodological principle of postmodernism, and gnoseological pessimism as its social reflection. The goal of the research is the determination of the social role of science during the postmodern era. The authors present the pros and cons arguments, for the first time appealing to various philosophical and sociological concepts, as well as phenomena in socio-political and socio-economic spheres, as well as people’s everyday life. The work uses the method of complex (interdisciplinary, retrospective, and behavioral) comparative analysis, which allows revealing the direct and indirect connections between the theory of cognition and social perception of science. The conclusion is made that in the era of postmodernism, science and its place in society undergo the changes similar to those that happened in religion centuries ago. The conducted complex analysis is capable of initiating a broad discussion about the role and place of science in the modern world.
Martianov V.S. - The creative city: urban neoliberal theory and its alternatives pp. 38-48

DOI:
10.7256/2409-7144.2016.7.18678

Abstract: The article describes the potential and prospects for implementation of the popular concepts of creative city, creative class, and creative economy in the modern cities. The author argues that these concepts are applicable only in certain loci and social groups of the urban community, and do not create the cumulative effect of development for the entire city. Promises, addressed to the city and the citizens by the creative concepts cannot be fulfilled for the majority, which is not employed in the post-industrial economy. These promises form high expectations, distorting the agenda of the city in favor of different kinds of privileged minorities. As a result, creative industries and technologies merely become limited urban utopias of the XXI century. The article reveals a number of alternative long-term conditions for the successful urban development which are not connected with creative communities, whose interests should be viewed as complementarity to solutions focused on the interests of the wider urban groups. These are factors of urban progress, associated with the broadening of municipal autonomy; support of the competition between different strategies of urban development; restriction of commodification of urban resources; support of the vulnerable social groups, designated as precariat; promotion for egalitarian models of suburbanization.
Leontyev G.D., Leontieva L.S. - The dialectics of freedom and property in society of real utopianism pp. 56-64

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7144.2018.4.25198

Abstract:  This article analyzes the peculiarities of implementation of the ideas of socialism in practice. Transformation of the philosophical-political and socioeconomic foundations of the state is revealed through the interdependent phenomena of economic “assumption” and freedom. Such subject angle of research is explained by the fact that any political regime strives for self-preservation, and any society assesses the efficiency of its functionality in accordance with the parameters of the quality of life, primarily the level of welfare and civic freedoms. Thus, the goal of the article is to examine the key directions of practical implementation of the fundamental ideas of freedom and property during the period of the establishment of socialism and after it. The peculiarities of civic self-fulfillment and economic “assumption” are analyzed with the help of dialectical method, systemic and comparative-historical approaches, using the statistical and sociological data. A conclusion is made on the differences in interpreting the concept of social property and individual freedom in the theory of Karl Marx, as well as practice of real socialism. The author determines a common feature in the processes of redistribution of property of the early and late XX century, which is the confluence of government and property, and thus the alienation of citizens not only from the results of their work, but also the sphere of public policy. The author concludes on prolongation of the period of “real utopianism” in development of the Russian society as a result of presence of the relevant dystopic tendencies. In political-administrative sphere – this is the fluctuations between the bureaucratic authoritarianism and authoritarian bureaucracy; while in economic sphere – the consolidation of the government-monopolistic, bureaucratic-speculative (pseudo) capitalism.  
Leushkin R.V. - Virtual social capital in the system of consumer society pp. 85-95

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7144.2017.7.20565

Abstract: This article reviews such phenomenon of modern social space as the virtual social capital. This social existential entity plays a significant role in the structuration of the social communication systems. Consumer society is presented as a social communicative system, a particular role in the organization of which is played by various social existential institutions, namely the virtual social capital. The purpose of this study consists in determination of the place and role of virtual social capital within the system of consumer society. Methodology is based on the socio-constructivist approach towards understanding society along with the theory of social communication systems. The research is based on the principle of evolution, systematicity, and multiplicity of existential horizons. This study claims that hyper-consumerism can be a result of the unconscious desire of an individual to compensate for the incompleteness of the actual existence in the conditions of virtualization of the social and cultural space. Social capital that is based on the resource of trust between the individuals within virtual communication, is capable of converting into the simulative consumer constructs ensuring their value. Such mechanism plays a crucial role in the emergence of the phenomenon of hyper-consumerism, however, it undermines the trust between the actors of social communication, reducing the resilience to external influence and rate of development of virtual social communication system.
Rozanova L.I. - Hitting the Bull's Eye: 'Centrifugal' and 'Cintripetal' Forces of Regions pp. 93-106

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0158.2014.5.12155

Abstract: The author of the article analyzes the position of regions that have been included in the top ten and the last ten regions based on the produced gross regional product. This is a very topical issue to study because the gap between the aforesaid groups of regions is quite significant: for a long period of time the leading regions have been superseding regions outsiders by 50 times or even more. This gap isn't  closing at all. The author of the article considers particular factors that have an impact on the position of regions in the first and the last groups of Russian regions where the main emphasis is placed on the GRP structure. Industrial capacity of leading regions, as the most significant factor of successful development of economy is estimated. In regions outsiders the factors interfering effective use of resources, breaking optimum proportions of structure of a value added are also allocated. In research of regional development the comparative method, the vertical and horizontal analysis is used. On their basis the main proportions of analyzed indicators, absolute and relative values of compared indicators are defined. The main result of the conducted research is revealed by the author of disproportions in structure of VRP of polar groups of the regions, causing gap depth between leading and lagging behind regions. The author considers that at this conjuncture the main emphasis of distributive policy of the state has to be placed on stimulation of economic activity in regions outsiders. The policy of redistribution operating for today, is inefficient. At its invariance in a situation of the deepest differentiation of regional development increase of the centrifugal forces conducting to disintegration of communications, in lagging behind regions will be prompter, and the capacity of leading regions as powerful centripetal force will constantly support these centers of growth.
Napso M.D. - Marginality as a form of social alienation pp. 147-153

DOI:
10.7256/2409-7144.2016.3.17950

Abstract: The object of this article is the phenomenon of marginality, while the subject is the analysis of categories “marginality” and “social alienation” as congruent. In the center of the scientific search are the following topics: the phenomenon of marginality as a border and peripheral social position; the processes of marginalization; the notions “marginal individual” and marginal conscience; psycho-emotional components of marginalization. Special attention is given to the role of economic factors in expansion of the space of marginality. The author analyzes poverty as a socioeconomic and psychological category, as well as its impact upon the establishment of marginal structures. Scientific novelty consists in the justification of the thesis about the ambivalent essence of the nature of marginality. The problematics of the article allows making the following conclusions: 1) the notion of “marginality” is used to signify not only the transitional social position of an individual, but a position of social alienation as well; 2) marginal conscience is the general feature of marginality and social alienation.
Vasnetsova A.S. - Wahhabism in Russia: Description, Relation with Terrorism and Extremism and Prospects of State Regulation pp. 154-201

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0158.2013.11.1018

Abstract: The article is devoted to the history of formation of Wahhabism in the system 'Hanabilah - Salafi - Wahhabism'. The author of the article studies the development, expansion and formation of Wahhabism in Russia and abroad. The author carries out a critical analysis of such terms as 'Islamism', 'Traditional Islam',  and 'Nontraditional Islam'. By using examples from law enforcement pratice, the author carries out a research to approve or disapprove the thesis about terrorism, extremism and Wahhabism being interconnected. This article is the first one in Russian science to reveal the main theoretical (philosophical, politological, historical and judicial) approaches to the problem of Wahhabism. The author also describes the main approaches to the legal regulation of Wahhabism and related religious movements in foreign states. The author analyzes the political and legal environment with reference to Wahhabism and its legal regulation in Russia. Special attention is paid to the following: directions of reformation of relations between religious associations and the government, managerial problems and legal issues. The author also makes certain suggestions on how to improve and increase efficiency of state and civil society in the sphere of religious relations, suppression of extremism and terrorism. 
Balakleets N.A., Faritov V.T. - The war in the horizon of the absolute transgression: socio-ontological and historical-philosophical aspect pp. 154-166

DOI:
10.7256/2409-7144.2016.3.18050

Abstract: This article discusses the philosophical concepts of nuclear war. The socio-ontological foundations of the threat of nuclear war are disclosed in the teachings of Oswald Spengler, Martin Heidegger, Jean Baudrillard, Carl Gustav Jung and Friedrich Nietzsche. By analyzing the ideas presented in the works of these thinkers, the authors examine various possibilities of philosophical understanding of the dangers of nuclear weapons and the threat of the total annihilation of mankind. The research problem is considered by involving into the analysis the theory of historical pseudomorphosis, the concept of simulacra and the concept of the archetypes of the collective unconscious. The authors use the methodological principles of hermeneutical philosophy and the principle of deconstruction, as well as the genealogical method. The most important result of the study is the comprehension of the nuclear war as an absolute transgression. The perspective of the absolute transgression is considered by the authors as the integral component of contemporary socio-cultural reality. It is shown that the threat of the nuclear war has appeared because at certain moment in the history the mankind has chosen its way of life. However, this danger of an absolute transgression contains an opportunity to choose another way of development of mankind.
Shchuplenkov N.O. - Political control of the Communist and Labor Parties over the youth communities of the socialist states of the 1960’s through the early 1980’s pp. 164-181

DOI:
10.7256/2409-7144.2015.12.1697

Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis of development of the Communist ideology of the youth movements in a number of Western European countries, Central and Southeast Asia, and Cuba. Claim is made that the beginning of the establishment of a society based on the Communist ideas coincided with the transformation of consciousness of the young generations towards the socio-political discourse of the development of national identity. The author attempts to determine the link between these two processes. Based on the brief historico-analytical insight that describes the chronological frameworks of the attempts of the governments of the aforementioned countries to build a “developed socialist” society, a conclusion is made that political control over the youth movements in these countries carried a form of mentorship and ideological effect upon the economic, political, social, and spiritual life of the society. The author also formulates a thesis about the correlation between the party leadership of a particular country with the international Communist labor movement. Among thetheoretical results of this research are the following: 1. Clarification of the notion of political control over the youth movements and its effectiveness within the existed forms of government structure; 2. Grand scale character of the ideological doctrines and predominance of the Communist idea over others; 3. A fairly developed organizational and functional apparatus of the political control; 4. Successive character of organizational and practical activity within the youth movements.
Meshcheryakova N.N. - Present and future from the perspective of student youth pp. 167-174

DOI:
10.7256/2409-7144.2016.3.18078

Abstract: The subject of this research is the perceptions of the students of the Russian and foreign higher educational facilities (primarily in the UK and the United States) of the modern world and their place in it, as well as their expectations with regards to the personal future, and the hierarchy of values. The data was acquired as a result of the original research conducted in the autumn of 2015 in the Tomsk Polytechnic University. Special attention is given to the comparative analysis of the system of life perception of the two groups of respondents, as well as to the analysis of the acquired results in light of the theory of generations. The theoretical positions are based on the theory of generations by W. Strauss and N. Howe, basic values of S. Schwartz, and post-materialistic values of R. Inglehart. There is no significant difference in the ideas, values, and life aspirations among the Russian and foreign students; all of them are determined to receive education in presence, and build a career in future. The Russian students are more focused on creating a family that their foreign peers; also, such notions as “prosperity” and “connections” are of great importance among the Russian students, which reflects rather the level of social wellness and the peculiarities of social relations within it. Students themselves are attracted to the post-materialistic values, such as interesting job, appreciations of their own efforts and talents.  
Kodan S.V., . - Legal Nature of the Fundamental Laws of the Russian Empire of the 1832 - 1892 as Evaluated by Russian Legal Experts pp. 218-253

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0158.2013.6.765

Abstract: Legal nature of the Fundamental Laws of the Russian Empire of 1832 - 1892 is presented in their features and legal power. The latter reflect peculiarities of the regulatory content of this document about the main grounds of the political system in the Russian Empire. This issue is of particuar interest in terms of the development of the Russian Constitution at the XVIII - early XX centuries, from the first notes and constitutional projects to the first Constitutional Act, the Fundamental Laws published in 1906. The Fundamental Laws of the Russian Empire published in 1832 - 1892 play a special role in the process of formation of constitutional ideas. Those Laws opened the Code of Laws of the Russian Empire and set forth the legal grounds of organization of governmental authorities and legislation process under the conditions of absolute monarchy. Their legal nature did not receive adequate attention in historical and legal researches and therefore the main purpose of the preset article is to solve this issue. 
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