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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Sociodynamics" > Contents of Issue № 09/2018
Contents of Issue № 09/2018
Social studies and monitoring
Zhalsanova V.G. - Private farming of rural residents: means of survival or advancement? (Based on the materials of sociological research in the Republic Buryatia) pp. 1-7


Abstract: This article examines the role and functional importance of the private subsidiary farming in the life of Russian rural residents. Collectivization of agriculture conducted in 1930’s had significant in its scale consequences; first and foremost – the alienation of peasant population from land. Just a small private farmstead simply helped to survive and provide basic needs. The social and structural reforms of 1990’s in agricultural sector actualized private farming as the means of survival. The article leans on the analysis of sociological surveys carried out in the Republic of Buryatia, using the method of questionnaire. The results confirmed the theses of multiple Russian researchers on the occupation of rural population in private farming as a distinct adaptive strategy in the conditions of economic crisis and escalating unemployment. The article also verifies the conclusions on law marketability of such farmsteads due to the lack of necessary financial and material resources of their owners for achieving the new production capacities. The important sociocultural role of private farming aimed at support of agricultural communities and development of rural territories in modern Russia is underlined. 
Questions of current interest
Sharov K.S. - Social and psychological dimensions of gender power: peculiarities and mutual influence pp. 8-17


Abstract: The object of the study is the system of gender-power relations in the society. The subject of the research is the social and psychological aspects of the process of establishment of thegender power system, their basic characteristics, as well as the degree and limits of mutual influence. Methodology includes research methods of power introduced by M. Foucault, L. Althusser, and J. Butler; psychoanalytic approaches of S. Freud and J. Lacan; structuralist method of analysis of communicative practices of M. Castells. The novelty of the study consists in the theory of passionate attachment introduced by the author, in which it is argued that the system of gender power in society is based on the psychological mechanism of interpellation and subjection of male psychics by women. The following conclusions were made: 1) gender self-identification and socialization are associated with the Oedipus complex and Lacanian mirror stage; 2) since the time of ancient matriarchy, the female symbolic power has become an archetype of consciousness; 3) the gender power is being built on a subject-subjective basis, as well as form a blurry and often unclear system of decentralized relations in the society; 4) structuring of the system of gender power relations and gender roles by women is realized with broad involvement of the sphere of the symbolic.
Social studies and monitoring
Biltrikova A.V., Breslavskii A.S., Zhalsanova V.G. - The factor of interethnic relations: some results of expert survey in the Republic of Buryatia pp. 18-26


Abstract: The object of this research is the interethnic relations in the Republic of Buryatia. The subject is such factors of interethnic relations as the social distance between ethnoses of the republic, impact of ethnicity upon social progression, and ethnic inequality. Attention is turned to the fact that the level of tension in ethnic relations depends on the scale of social distance. An attempt is made to determine to what extent social inequality relates to ethnicity; does the ethnic affiliation affect the social status, progression, and access to power. The research was conducted by the group of sociologists from the Institute for Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2017 requested by the Committee on Nationality Affairs and Youth Initiatives under the Government of the Republic of Buryatia, and was aimed at creation of the expert board on assessment of the interethnic and Interconfessional relations in the Republic of Buryatia. The expert community of the republic demonstrates the high level of mutual transparency, which speaks of a small social distance between the major ethnic groups of Buryatia. Noting that nationality affects the social progression, the expert overall do not think that social inequality in the republic has ethnic dimension.
Questions of current interest
Tumskiy S.V. - Positive provocation in sociocultural sphere. The difference between positive and negative provocation. pp. 27-39


Abstract: The subject of this research is the positive provocation, its essence, types, structure, causes, riskiness, as well as the models of positive provocation in sociocultural environment. The object of this research is the provocations, the subject of which desires to achieve positive result for itself and the object of provocation. The author examines the various cases of application of provocation in the areas of philosophy, art, literature, education and social advertising; as well as the diverse models of the use of positive provocation in postmodern society. A conclusion is made that it is caused by the desire of provocateur to motivate the object of provocation for actions, beneficial to both, the subject and the object. The scientific novelty lies in systemic consideration of the forms of positive provocation at the various social levels; as well as in substantiation of conclusion that the positive provocation can be of altruistic nature and carry social importance, is not a method of causing distress, and requires a high level of reflexivity form the provocateur. The relevance of this article is justified by the broad distribution of prevocational practices in modern world and the need for their examination in the negative and positive aspect. The author formulates the definition of positive provocation, and concludes that the instruments of positive provocation at the microsocial level are trust, dishonesty, concealment of true intentions; while at the macrosocial level – the emotional pressure. The positive and negative provocation are ambivalent: negative can become positive, or the other way around, depending on the circumstances.  
Illarionov G.A., Mosienko M.K. - Philosophical analysis of the causes of popularity of computer games in the context of habitual approach pp. 40-51


Abstract: The object of this research is the computer game as a phenomenon of social life. The subject is the subjective and social substantiation of the growth of popularity of computer games. The author raises the following problematic questions: what is the cause of the rapid growth of popularity of computer games, what role do they play in social practices of modernity, what are the risks and prospects of the existence of computer game in the society? The question regarding the status of computer games concerns the more general social contexts, which justified the need for the analysis within the framework of social philosophy and allied disciplines. In methodological aspects, the research leans on the structural-functional approach, which views the computer games from the standpoint of theirs social functions and mechanism that force people to play. Structural position of the games in society is viewed through the prism of habitual approach to society, based on Pierre Bourdieu‘s understanding of the concept of “habitus”. A conclusion can be mane that the growth of popularity of computer games is explained by the manifestation of the inner intentions of a subject, which cannot be expressed in the real world. The technical improvement, when the growing capabilities of virtual environment open new opportunities for self-actualization enhance the popularity of computer games. The attractiveness of a computer game is explained by the identity of the real and possible within it. The actions do not carry an irreparable character; the flow of time is nonlinear and reversible. Moreover, the games possess a destructive and pragmatic potential; they are capable of gamifying the social existence, relieve the sufferings from the unrealized intentions of a person. However, the can turn into addiction and submerge the social life.
Prokhoda V. - Russians and residents of other European countries on the financial situation of pensioners pp. 52-60


Abstract: This article analyzes the results of the comparative sociological research– “European Social Survey”. The goal is to determine the representations of Russians and residents of other European countries on the financial situation of pensioners. Particular attention is given to consideration of assessments of the pensioners themselves. Financial situation of the retirees is viewed as one[WU1]  of the criterion of assessment of pension system by the population. The representations of population are considered in correlation with indexes of the national pension systems – the coefficient of pension substitution and government expenditure with pension payments as percentage of GDP. The survey was conducted in European countries among the population ages 15 and above in accordance with representative selection. It is determined that the European countries are differentiated based on the population assessment of the financial situation of retirees. On the pan-European background, the residents of Russian assess the financial situation of retirees as extremely low. It is stated that the pensioners, in comparison with other Russians, demonstrate a more pessimistic assessment. The assessment of financial situation of pensioners of the country by the respondents-pensioners statistically significant relates to self-esteem of their financial situation. It is noted that in perception of the Russians, the national pension system does not successfully perform the function of providing decent standard of living to the dependent members of society. The author substantiates the need for consideration of the results of sociological surveys in assessing the effectiveness of pension system.  [WU1]
Ryumshina L.I. - Trust in information sources translating unverified information: personal and age aspect pp. 61-68


Abstract: Unverified information holds an important place in life of any person. Being not only an elemental communication phenomenon, but also the means of manipulative impact on human consciousness, such information can be disseminated in terms of interpersonal communication and mass media. The goal of this work lies in examination of trusts of the adult respondents and students, who are prone to manipulations, in various information sources translating unverified information. The choice of student youth as an empirical object of research is caused by the escalated interest of scholars to this age group. The scientific novelty consists in creation of the original methodology that allows assessing the level of subjective trust in sources that translate unverified information about the country’s political and economic events, as well as examination of trust in such sources of the persons with the evident manipulative trends. The results demonstrate that television has most credibility among the respondents. Unlike students, the adult respondents do not trust Internet and would not believe the unverified messages from random people. The great majority of adults and students with high level of manipulative trends have confidence in federal TV channels. Escalation of trust in federal channels among the adult respondents is accompanied by the decline of such in local television, and among the student – in Internet; it concerns both, the political and economic events.
Atlaskirov A.R. - Land conflicts in Kabardino-Balkar Republic: causes and peculiarities pp. 69-76


Abstract: The subject of this research is the land conflicts in Kabardino-Balkar Republic. The goal of this work lies in examination of the causes and peculiarities of land conflicts in Kabardino-Balkar Republic. The relevance is substantiated by the fact that one of the paramount factors defining the sociopolitical agenda is the conflicts pertinent to allocation of land resources. Various causes can lead to the emergence of land conflicts: limited land resources, low level of socioeconomic development of the region, unarticulated land policy of the regional government, interethnic contradictions. The author determines the four types of land conflict: agrarian, residential. recreational-rental, and ethno-territorial. All of the aforementioned types are interrelated with each other. In certain conflict situation can manifest the elements of both, agrarian and residential types. Due to multinationality of the republic, the ethno-territorial type of conflict, to one or another extent, manifests practically in all cases of land conflicts.
The nationality issue
Tsydypova L.S. - Ethno-economic aspects of the activity of Chinese migrants in Barguzinsky District pp. 77-85


Abstract: This article provides the results of filed research of ethno-economic relations between the local communities of Barguzinsky Districts and Chinese migrants in the early XX century. The study focuses on the integration of Chinese community, sociocultural practices of its interaction with the local population. It is based on the secondary sources, qualitative data, fragments of personal memory, as well statistical indexes of the rural household register from the district archive. Spatial localization of the majority of Chinese migrants is associated with the northeastern part of the territory of research. The author determines the ethno-territorial areal of the community of local level, as well as the factors substantiating its boundaries. The role of the sociocultural factors and natural environment in the maintenance of life and the mechanism of self-structuring of the ethnic group is underlined. A conclusion is made on sustainability of perceptions of the local population about their territorial integrity and ethnical tolerance of the Barguzin community. The inclusion of qualitative methods of cultural geography allowed restoring the facts of cooperation of the communities, record the level of neighborship and closeness of relations, as well as determine the changes in ethnic and territorial identification, economic borrowings and economic practices of the local community.
The heritage of transformation
Polyushkevich O.A., Popova M.V. - The impact of toponymy upon the identity of city residents (on the example of Irkutsk) pp. 86-97


Abstract: The subject of this article is the impact of urban toponymy upon the identity of Irkutsk residents. The goal is to study the specificity of formation and development, impact on peoples’ identity, and the prospects of transformation of street names in the city of Irkutsk. The author also explores the legislative contradictions and mechanisms for their solution with regards to the names of streets and squares, which form the common sociocultural space of the urban landscape. The work considers the symbolic impact of toponymic heritage upon the urban space and atmosphere, as well as the citizens themselves. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that the names of urban toponymies in Irkutsk neither culturally, nor even historically, correspond with its established historical image. The author underlines the disruption of the “urban culture myth” (unity of name and space of the city), which ultimately affects the perception of city by its residents, as well the tourists, who make a material contribution to its development. Therefore, there is a need for toponymic restoration in Irkutsk. The main conclusion lies in the fact that the great majority of Irkutsk toponymies do not have a response from text images in the cultural and historical context of the city. However, as demonstrated by the analysis of historical center of the city, the “Soviet” names are still attenuated with the harmonious symbolic images, which carry positive information about the history of Irkutsk, emphasizing its historical status and forming a distinct sociocultural identity of the residents.
Churkina N.A. - Gender identity in the aspect of transformation of gender mentality pp. 98-104


Abstract: The subject of this research is the gender identity of a human. Special attention is given to the characteristics of such significant basis of human self-determination as its gender. Gender is the first identification criterion, which allows a human grasping his individuality and distinction from others. The author underlines that the successfulness of gender identity directly affects the human ability to cognize himself along with his position in sociocultural space, as well as effectively adapt in society. The article reviews in detail such aspects of the topic as the sociocultural content of masculinity and femininity. Based on reference to the reputable Russian and foreign sources, the author demonstrates the relevance, and simultaneously, the difficulty of acquisition of gender identity by a human in modern society. Methodological foundation leans on the views of the representatives of Annales School. The scientific novelty lies in the attempt to demonstrate that the realization of gender identity in many ways depends on the mental structures – values, stereotypes, and archetypes. As a result, this forms the gender worldview comprised of the masculine and feminine foundations, which determine the human behavior as a gender representative in various situation, in accordance with value system of the gender culture. The author underlines that the masculine and feminine stereotypes, which define the differences between men and women, act as the basis for existence of differences between the genders and establishment of hierarchical structure of modern society grounded on the patriarchal ideology. A conclusion is made that at the present stage takes place the transformation of gender mentality, which leads to the inversion of masculine and feminine behavioral strategies of a human.
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