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Modern Education
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Modern Education" > Contents of Issue є 04/2016
Contents of Issue є 04/2016
Education
Levikova S.I. - Philosophy within the Russian system of education pp. 1-10

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8736.2016.4.20911

Abstract: The fate of philosophy as a subject of general education in Russia has been historically inconsistent. Practicing philosophy helps to develop thinking abilities, understand culture of your native country and other countries, collect and unite knowledge about the world, as well as give a holistic idea about the surrounding reality. Such practices should and must be started from childhood, but be different from those with the adults. According to the words of A. F. Losev, such lessons must be oriented towards the development of the “culture of thinking”. The scientific novelty consists in positioning of the question on introduction of the three-level system of philosophical lessons, starting from school and ending with university. The author concludes that philosophy for children as a subject of comprehensive education can be installed into the system of modern Russian education, where it must precede to the “scholarly” level, aimed at study of the philosophy (its history, problematic, etc.) and level of philosophizing as wisdom (according to I. Kant’s classification). However, it would me more efficient to implement the suggested three-level system of philosophical education into the schools-lyceums, which are interested in development of the thinking abilities of their students to the maximal level.
Pedagogy
Levin V.I. - Bibliometric indexes and expert evaluations: how to assess the results of scientific activity pp. 11-28

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8736.2016.4.20046

Abstract: This article examines the currently relevant question: what is the appropriate way for objective assessment of the work of the scholars and academic institutions in the modern conditions, using the information technologies. The traditional assessment of the quality of results of the scientific research is based on the expert evaluations of the members of academic community. The new methods of assessment are based on calculation of the quantitative indexes, as well as associated with the quantitative system of financing of the scholars and academic facilities. Currently, many countries have disputes between the officials, who are the supporters of bibilometrics, and the scholars – its opponents. The work analyzes and compares the quantitative (Bibliometric) and qualitative (expert) methods of assessment of the quality of a scientific work. The article is first to attempt finding the foundations of the possible position of academic community regarding the questions of evaluation of the results of a scientific work, affordable for the state and other sponsoring organizations. The conclusion is made that quantitative indexes must be applied only as the intermediate, which complement the main expert evaluations of the quality of results of the scientific research.
Modern strategies and forms of education
Myasoedova V.A., Lebedeva N.A. - Questions of modification of the work of Russian higher education institutions based on the global practice of development of educational establishments pp. 29-37

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8736.2016.4.20699

Abstract: The subject of this research is the key capabilities and competencies of the higher education institutions that are formed by the modern reform in the system of education within the Russian universities and the leading world educational establishments that achieved significant success. The authors carefully examine such aspects of the topic as the analysis of processes of development of capabilities and key competencies in Russian universities within the framework of the three directions of the work of educational establishment: scientific, educational, and innovational. Special attention is given to the analysis of gaps and realization of benchmarking of the educational processes and results of a university. During the course of this work, the authors determine the key controversies in the process of bencharking within the Russian educational environment: orientation of capabilities and competencies of the Russian higher education institution not towards their advancement or highly competitive market of education services, but rather satisfaction of the interests of central office; lack of strategic orientation of a number of forming competencies and capabilities; orientation towards operating activity, etc. The conclusion is made that at the present stage, the reforms in higher school do not provide the formation of capabilities and “key competencies” of the Russian higher education institutions, which will allow increasing their competitiveness on the global arena, meet the demands of the real sector of the economy, as well as efficiently realize the initiatives on innovation development.  
Structure of pedagogical science
Makhnin V.L., Volkova V.V. - Modern approaches to training in the Russian system of military education pp. 38-55

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8736.2016.4.19148

Abstract: The subject of study is the essence and content of the competence-based approach, its implementation in the context of problematic issues regarding the quality of education and training in military high school, communication vigornosti various psychological qualities: intelligent, communicative and organizational skills, ability to change and intellectual creativity. It is shown that the use of a reflective approach and a model of professional development to the intensification of the educational activities of the university will enable the graduate to implement the ability to mentally change and creativity, to go beyond the continuous flow of daily activities, see their activity as a whole and turn it into an object of practical transformation. The research methodology combines the techniques of professional pedagogy, military pedagogy, education of quality control, military sociology, military psychology, engineering psychology and historiography. The main conclusion of the study is that the use of the reflexive approach and model of professional development to the intensification of the educational activities of the university gives the opportunity to create their own (creative) tactical and operational constructs to solve problems and tasks of military art. In this creative technology will play an imperative of modern military education.
Didactics
Mayer R.V. - On evaluation of difficulty of educational text in natural scientific disciplines pp. 56-64

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8736.2016.4.19501

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the question of evaluation of didactical difficulty of the educational text. The author introduces the notion of didactical difficulty as the characteristic proportional to time that is required for digestion of information presented in the text. The universal criteria of evaluation of difficulty of the notions on various natural scientific disciplines are being proposed. It is substantiated that didactical difficulty of the studied in school questions is defined by the diversity and abstractness of the qualitative and mathematical models. The author analyzes the modern textbooks on environmental studies, geography, biology, physics, and chemistry, as well as performs their pairwise comparison with each other. The article examines the two methods of determination of the didactical difficulty of educational texts: 1) through calculation of the number of scientific terms and consideration of their difficulty using the computer; 2) by means of pairwise comparison of various texts with each other. The scientific novelty consists in proposition of the criteria of assessment of the didactical difficulty of scientific notions, as well as analysis of the results of expert evaluation of the textbooks from the perspective of difficulty of the qualitative and quantitative models.
Innovative methodology and technology
Evseenko E.A., Kirko V.I., Malakhova E.V., Shadrin A.I. - Methods of determination of the vector of professional preparation of the senior high school students pp. 65-74

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8736.2016.4.21478

Abstract: The subject of this research is the theoretical foundations of the initial stage of formation of professional competencies of the senior high schoolers. The object of this research is the educational trajectory of the senior high schoolers. The article reveals the essence of methodology on identification of correlation between the students’ choice of future profession, the desire of their parents, and teachers’ opinion. Gradual training of the teenagers regarding the ability to self-determination in the professional sphere, formation of the image of their future career are equivalent to teaching the youth to structure their life goal. The authors substantiate the importance of the early establishment of professional competencies among the high school seniors. The provided methodology in combination with the analysis of individual portfolio of a student can be used for the purpose of establishment of the further individual educational trajectory for attaining the necessary knowledge, competencies, and skills that may be required in future professional activity. The work presents the results of the formulated and tested methodology on determination of correlation between the selection of future profession by the students, opinion of their parents and teachers, as well as the methodology of identification of the leadership qualities of the students and level of socioeconomic activity. The proposed methodology allows forming the platform for the further structuring of educational trajectory of high school seniors considering their individual portfolio. The methodology has been tested in the villages of Arctic zone of Sakha Republic, where due to the socioeconomic conditions, the vector of preferences of the students can radically differ from the desires of the parents and teachers’ opinions.
Knowledge and understanding
Galimullina N.M. - General cultural competencies within the system of preparation of the Bachelors in technical sciences pp. 75-86

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8736.2016.4.21068

Abstract: The author examines the substantive foundations of the competence approach in education, its role in increasing the quality of education in Russia, as well as interconnection with the practice-oriented approach. Special attention is given to the history of implementation within the methodological practice and determination of essence of the notion of “competence”. The article analyzes the typology of competencies based on the project “Tuning Educational Structures in Europe” and federal state educational standards in higher education. The author studies the target designation of the general cultural competencies and their place in preparation of the Bachelors in technical sciences. The research is based on the comparative analysis of the content of federal state educational standards of higher education of the Bachelor’s degree in technical sciences. The article contains the result of students’ survey on the demand of general cultural competencies in the process of preparation of the Bachelors. The author explored the general cultural competencies of the new educational standards of the Bachelor’s program, as well as gave characteristics to the key pedagogical methods and mechanisms of establishment and assessment of the quality of preparation program for the Bachelors in technical sciences with consideration of the competence approach requirements. The conclusion is made that it is necessary to formulate the general cultural competencies of the students as an important component of development of the communicative, legal, and economic preparation of a specialist for becoming an efficient member of a labor union and society as a whole.
Individual approach in education
Pustovoitov V. - Ideas of constructivist didactics as basis conditions of the efficiency of individualization of education of the school students pp. 87-96

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8736.2016.4.19868

Abstract: Individualization of education is currently one of the key requirements towards the organization of education in school, which is aimed at ensuring quality of general education. At the same time, as demonstrated in practice, the realization of individual approach in the conditions of traditional classwork system of education usually carries a non-systemic and episodic character. It results in the issue of substantiation and development of pedagogical conditions of individualization of education pf the school students, which will allow projecting the educational process that certainly ensures the individualized approach towards the students in the context of the modern system of education. As the conceptual foundation for resolution of the set task, the author chose the pedagogy of constructivism, the positions of which are viewed within the ideas of personal-oriented education. During the course of this research the author establishes that implementation of the individual approach towards education in modern school is  the objectively justified by the regularities of human development along with the level of social relations requirement towards the organization of educational process. Constructivist didactics, clarifying the strategic ideas of the personal-oriented approach, is characterized by the number of positions, the execution of which allows ensuring the individualization of educational process. Among the conditions for the efficient individualization of education of the school student in light of the positions of constructivist didactics, the author determines the following: approach to individualization as the target systematic process and intrinsic component of education; the goal of education is the maximal possible development of personality potential through the subject of study; orientation towards educational tasks that carry personal sense, cultural-historical and practical content, etc. The revealed conditions allow defining the orientation, content, and ways of teacher’s activity regarding the creation of conditions for the individualized education within the framework of modern school.
The communication process
Semilet T.A. - УA First Look at Communication TheoryФ by Em Griffin: methodology of the formation of competencies pp. 97-102

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8736.2016.4.20571

Abstract: The subject of this article is the book “A First Look at Communication Theory” by Em Griffin, which is claimed as a scientific overviews and systematization of the communication theories, and aimed at «helping to see the order in the field of communication theory which may seem chaotic». The conducted expertise, however, demonstrated that in the course of rendition the goal of scientific systematization of the theories, according with the suggested by the author foundations, moves to the background, and the main attention becomes focused on the practical recommendations pertaining to the formation of communicative competencies of the students. Familiarization with the text showed that the author supports the pragmatic approach in rendering the material, which signifies not the description of a theory or comprehensive overview, but rather applicability of one or another theory for the formation of communicative competencies among students. The book gains great importance as the theoretically substantiated methodological guidebook on teaching the ways of structuring the efficient communication and attainment of the corresponding skills.
Earnest discussion
Kapustina V., Kozlova Y.A. - The impact of binary practical training upon educational motivation of the university students and their professionally significant knowledge pp. 103-112

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8736.2016.4.20564

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the discussion of application of the new educational technologies under the conditions of implementation of the new generation federal state educational standards. For determination of efficiency of the use of interactive educational technologies in establishment of the professionally significant competencies, the authors conducted a psychological-pedagogical research, the object of which is the educational motivation of the university students in juridical and psychological disciplines. The subject of this work is the impact of binary technology of interactive practical training upon the educational motivation of students in juridical and psychological disciplines. The faculty of Law and faculty of Humanitarian Education of Novosibirsk State Technical University comprise the experimental foundation of this research; 40 students were subjected to the experiment (experimental group of 30 people, and control group of 10 people). Both groups undergone the psychodiagnostic testing before and after the experiment. The experiment included the three 1.5-hour joint interactive practical training in form of a business game.  In the result, significant changes have been detected, on the motivation scale “acquirement of knowledge”, in other words, the value of theoretical and practical material studied during the course of higher education has increased for these students. The performed content analysis of the students’ opinion in experimental group, demonstrated that the implementation of the new pedagogical technologies in form of the joint binary practical training contributes into the changes in educational motivation, as well as establishment of a more precise understanding about the future profession.
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