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Modern Education
Reference:

Organization of tasks for self-training in order to form regulatory UMS for younger schoolchildren

Enzhevskaya Marina Vladimirovna

ORCID: 0000-0002-1395-5231

PhD in Pedagogy

Docent, the department of Pedagogical Psychology named after Professor Guruzhapov, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

127051, Russia, Moskva oblast', g. Moscow, ul. Sretenka, 29, of. 213

enzhevskaya@mail.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 

DOI:

10.25136/2409-8736.2022.3.38368

EDN:

IYCFYF

Received:

01-07-2022


Published:

08-10-2022


Abstract: Regulatory universal learning activities occupy a central place in the organization of the ability to learn. They contribute to regulation, organization and correction in practical pedagogical activity. The development of regulatory universal educational actions is directly related to the formation of personal qualities: purposefulness, organization, independence, diligence, activity. They influence the formation of arbitrariness of thinking, behavior, communication of students, and together form the ability of students to learn independently. In the article, the conditions of formation of regulatory universal educational actions in primary school for students are considered, the features of the organization of tasks for self-preparation in order to form regulatory universal educational actions for younger schoolchildren are investigated.    The experimental study proves the effectiveness of using a special self-training organization, in which students learn to independently identify problem points in their skills, independently choose tasks to eliminate the detected gaps, plan their implementation, monitor, evaluate and correct the results of their educational activities. The present study has allowed us to conclude that regulatory universal educational actions are the basis for the formation of students' core competencies. It has been empirically proved that the introduction of such forms of work as independent training into the educational process contributes to the full development of components of regulatory universal educational actions in younger schoolchildren.


Keywords:

universal learning activities, junior schoolchildren, self-development, self-training, independent work, teacher, problem points, planning action, correction of results, monitoring and evaluation

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

Universal educational actions, in a broad sense, are understood as "the ability of a subject to self-development and self-improvement through conscious and active appropriation of new social experience" [1], and also in the literature this term is interpreted as "a set of ways of student's actions ... providing independent assimilation of new knowledge, the formation of skills, including the organization of this process" [1]. Regulatory universal educational actions are included in the structure of educational activity, therefore, they ensure its organization, regulation and arbitrariness, turn educational work into a controlled, controlled by the subject, conscious process. In simple words, universal learning actions are understood as the ability to learn. Now in the scientific literature, the concept of "universal educational actions" (UUD) is more often used.  In a narrower sense, R. L. Rozhdestvenskaya and other authors define this term as a set of ways of student's actions that ensure the independent assimilation of new knowledge, the formation of skills, including the organization of this process [4]. As A.G. Asmolov notes, regulatory universal educational actions contribute to regulation, organization and correction in practical pedagogical activity.  

The analysis of scientific literature makes it possible to determine that the formation of regulatory UDS in younger schoolchildren has an important influence on the formation of behavior and communication with the outside world.

Let's define the composition of regulatory universal educational actions in order to understand the order of formation of regulatory universal educational actions. The composition of the concept is considered in Figure 1.

 

2022-06-26_22-03-37.png

Fig. 1. - The composition of the concept of UUD

 

It should be noted that in the field of regulatory universal educational actions, schoolchildren should master all types of educational actions, including the ability to accept and maintain an educational goal, plan its implementation, monitor and evaluate their actions, make appropriate adjustments to their implementation. It is important to say that at the initial stage of education, for younger schoolchildren, individual successes acquire a special social meaning, thus, as one of the main tasks of primary education is to create optimal conditions for the formation of communicative competencies, motivation for achievement, initiative, and student independence. According to this, the teacher faces the problem of selecting tasks for the formation of regulatory universal educational actions.

The teacher needs to create such conditions under which, in the process of learning, the child becomes its subject, namely, begins to learn for the sake of self-development. The purpose of organizing tasks for self-preparation is to prove that independent work effectively influences the formation of regulatory universal educational actions of younger schoolchildren. But to do this, independent work must be independent, that is, carried out without the direct guidance of a teacher or parents.

Let's consider and comment on common pedagogical situations related to this part of the educational process.

Pedagogical situation No. 1. Vanya received a "3" for dictation.

I came home upset: "Mom will be upset, she won't let me walk today. It will make you write dictation all evening or do 10 additional exercises."Mother:

- Why are there three again? We repeated all the rules and vocabulary words yesterday! Vanya:

- I do not know, something did not work out. When planning the organization of self-training in primary school, it is necessary to determine its purpose.

"Homework helps to consolidate the material studied in the lesson," is how most of the fellow teachers will answer. And this will be exactly the case (at best) if the homework is formulated as follows: Learn the rule on page 10, upr. 48 perform in writing in a notebook. At the same time, homework should and can solve more global tasks and contribute to the formation of students' ability to learn: plan the correction of their learning outcomes, make an informed choice of tasks, make a request to the right source of information, skillfully use this source, evaluate their capabilities, etc.

The health-saving factor is also important in order to avoid overloads. After all, a junior high student often waits for tired parents to come home from work and help him fulfill the ill-fated "Upr. No. 48" instead of spending a quiet evening with his family at his favorite activities.

Another problem is the unqualified "help" of parents in this important component of the educational process.

Pedagogical situation No. 2.

An error was found in the student's homework. The teacher corrected her. To which the student objects: "My grandmother told me to do this. I was saying..."What to answer?

How to say that the grandmother is wrong, and allow the child to doubt the knowledge of an important person for the child? - But Grandma wasn't in our class.

You could explain to her and show her the scheme-an assistant for solving this task - that's the best thing the teacher could say in this situation. It is even more difficult to convince a grandmother to help a child become independent.In this context, it is advisable to rename the homework to self-preparation with an emphasis on self-.

  The student must certainly perform these tasks himself and be responsible for them himself. To do this, it is necessary to rebuild the traditional approach to the organization of homework, to turn homework into self-preparation.

In order to teach the child to plan the correction of educational results, we will use a special tool – an assessment sheet. It highlights the problem points identified during the thematic verification work. Each student has their own (problem points) and in different quantities. Next, let's turn to the task bank, which can be created in the information field of any educational platform (for example, a MESH where a teacher places materials for lessons).

The bank has a large number of exercises aimed at practicing all kinds of subject skills. Here comes the moment of applying a conscious choice of tasks, their number, as well as the necessary reference materials that will help a particular student to cope with a specific problem. At the request of the students and /or the recommendation of the teacher, classes-consultations and workshops are held.

The evaluation action in this work is related to the student's decision on how successfully he coped with the problem and whether he is ready to present the results for evaluation.

Obviously, this approach to self-training entails an individual approach to the time frame. One child needs 15 minutes to determine the causes of errors and eliminate them, another will need several approaches to practice the skill. We recommend setting a common date for the presentation of the results of self-training on this topic (for example, a week from the date of its receipt). Thus, each student will learn, among other things, to plan his time (initially with the help of an adult, then independently), determining the number of tasks for daily performance, coordinating the time allotted for self-preparation with the schedule of visiting circles, sections and other important things.

We recommend that the presentation lessons of home independent work be conducted brightly, energetically, in order to give every student the opportunity to demonstrate and feel their success. Then the children prepare for it with even greater pleasure and look forward to the cherished date.

For clarity, the children kept a special calendar in which the students planned self-preparation and monitored its implementation.

If the student has mastered the topic under study without gaps and has not made mistakes in the test work, he is free either not to perform self-preparation (but then he will have nothing to present at the presentation lesson), or choose from the bank tasks of a higher level or creative nature, and also, if desired, perform the role of a consultant.

It is very important that parents become allies of the teacher in this work, and understand how self-training is organized. Therefore, at a parent-teacher meeting, the teacher should conduct an explanatory conversation with them or post a memo on the information environment.

Speaking about the independence of younger schoolchildren, we do not urge them to go solo swimming. Both parents and the teacher should help children, but not directly (hints, reminders, performance for the child), but indirectly (creating conditions that stimulate the child to action, praise, etc.). Figure 2 shows the structure of the organization of self-training.

 

Fig. 2. - Organization of self-training in primary school

As for the content of tasks for self-training, it is worth noting here that the following types of tasks are possible for the formation of regulatory universal educational actions:

- deliberate mistakes;

-search for information in the suggested sources;

-mutual control;

-mutual dictation;

- dispute;

-memorizing the material by heart in the classroom;

-looking for errors;

-a control survey on a specific problem. 

In order to form regulatory UDS in younger schoolchildren, teachers often use such types of independent training as: posing questions, dividing text, working with the contents of books, checking exercises, solving problems, story-description, reflection/ analysis of the content of the material, conversation-polylogue, practical work, test tasks, group work, messages, mini-essays, etc. It is advisable to distribute all tasks by difficulty levels for students with different abilities, including those with disabilities.

Independent training, therefore, acts as an organizational form of training, during which various types of independent work can be implemented.  In the process of such organization, the specifics of the subject matter should be taken into account: mathematics, Russian, foreign language, etc.

It has been proved experimentally that self-training organized in this way allowed a primary school teacher to observe tangible progress in the formation of regulatory universal educational actions in his students after a while [2].

At the stage of the experiment, the methods were used, "Laying out a pattern of cubes" by P. Ya. Galperin and "Attention test" by P. Ya. Galperin, S. L. Kabylnitskaya. According to these two methods, a generally low level of formation of regulatory universal educational actions among students of experimental and control classes was revealed.

In the process of organizing lessons, the methods of organizing independent work of younger schoolchildren were used: its planning, the choice of a method for solving tasks, the implementation of control operations during their implementation, making adjustments to independent work, analysis of common ways of working [3].

The results of the pedagogical experiment showed that the students of the experimental class revealed a high and average level of formation of regulatory universal educational actions.  This experimental study proves the effectiveness of using the organization of tasks for self-preparation in order to form regulatory UMS in younger schoolchildren.

From all of the above, it can be concluded that regulatory universal educational actions are the basis for the formation of the main competencies of students. It should be emphasized that the process of formation of regulatory universal educational actions is a step-by-step process, all its parts are interconnected, which directly follows from their active nature of the development of psychological neoplasms.

Thus, the introduction of such forms of work as independent training into the educational process contributes to the full development of the components of the UUD in younger schoolchildren.

 

 

References
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The review of the article "Organization of tasks for self-training in order to form regulatory UMS in younger schoolchildren" The relevance of the research topic and its compliance with the specialization of the journal is beyond doubt. The interest in students' independent activities (self-education, self-development, including self-training) increases every year. The subject of the experimental study is self-education in primary school. The reviewed article clearly presents the model of organizing self-training in elementary school, as well as the structure of regulatory universal educational actions of a younger student (goal setting, forecasting, planning, evaluation, control, correction, self-regulation). The methodology of the work is based on traditional research methods. In the first part of the article, methods of analysis, systematization and generalization of literary data are applied, and a review of 4 literary sources is used. It is advisable to present the regulatory framework of the study (FGOS). The empirical part of the work is presented by a description of an experimental study using the techniques of "Laying out a pattern of cubes" by P.Ya. Galperin and "Attention test" by P.Ya.Galperin, S.L.Kabylnitskaya. The article has a practical novelty related to the organization of independent training of primary school students. The structure of the article generally meets the requirements for scientific publications, but it is necessary to more clearly identify the introductory part (justification of the choice of topic), the main part (detailed description of the research results) and the final part (strengthen the conclusions of the study). It is recommended to describe the base of the experimental study, the participants of the experimental work. There is no quantitative assessment of the research results in the article. The author is recommended to clearly describe the quantitative and qualitative results of the ascertaining and control stages of the experiment (graphical representation of the results), as well as the technologies and tools used at the formative stage. It is necessary to clarify the criteria (indicators, indicators) by which the dynamics and effectiveness of experimental work on the formation of regulatory universal educational actions of a younger student were evaluated. The content of the article generally corresponds to its title. The content of the article presents various forms of independent work of a younger student, analyzes common pedagogical situations associated with self-training in elementary school. Various types of tasks for the formation of regulatory universal educational actions of a younger student are analyzed. The style of presentation of the material meets the requirements for scientific publications. The bibliography corresponds to the content of the article and is represented by 4 literary sources (2012-2022). It is desirable to increase the number of sources. It is recommended to refer not to the dissertation, but to the abstract of the dissertation research by M.V. Engevskaya. The results of the study substantiate the importance of the study of the organization of self-training of younger schoolchildren in order to form regulatory educational actions. The article may be recommended for publication. This article contains a description of an up-to-date empirical study and arouses the interest of the readership.
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