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Modern Education
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Formation of anthropological consciousness of future teachers as a factor of humanization in the postmodern era

Kozlova Tatyana Aleksandrovna

Lecturer, Department of Philosophy and Theology, Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University named after K. Minin

603005, Russia, Nizhegorodskaya oblast', g. Nizhnii Novgorod, ul. Ul'yanova, 1, of. 218

kozlova-ta@inbox.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 
Ryzhakova Elena Vladimirovna

PhD in Cultural Studies

Associate Professor, Department of Humanities and Legal Disciplines, Dzerzhinsk Branch of the Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education "N.I. Lobachevsky National Research Nizhny Novgorod State University"

606000, Russia, Nizhegorodskaya oblast', g. Dzerzhinsk, per. Zhukovskogo, 2

r_and_l@mail.ru

DOI:

10.25136/2409-8736.2022.2.34507

EDN:

YIYXSA

Received:

03-12-2020


Published:

05-07-2022


Abstract: The subject of this article is the conditions for the formation of the anthropological consciousness of the future teacher. By anthropological consciousness we mean a form of reflection of the surrounding world, aimed at preserving human nature in the conditions of transhumanism. The relevance of this topic is due to the trends inherent in the modern socio-cultural situation. Modern education is developing in conflict with the trends of transhumanism and postmodernity. Therefore, it is education that pushes a person to try to realize the extent of using the fruits of scientific and technological progress, to anticipate the possible consequences of the desire to transform and improve their genotype. Education should now be understood and mastered as a special philosophical and anthropological category, fixing the formation of the human in man.The mission of a teacher in the modern multicultural world is to help the younger generation to coexist harmoniously in the processes of integration, migration and globalization. The culture of interethnic communication implies a humanistic orientation, education, tolerance. The core that ensures harmonious intercultural communication is universal values. It is extremely important for future teachers to work both with their own axiological attitudes and with the attitudes of their students. Orientation to the hermeneutical-phenomenological tradition, understanding approaches in education, expansion of philosophical training of future teachers contributes to the formation of anthropological consciousness. Thus, the task of modern education is to help a person to understand and adequately interpret their own being in the context of modern socio-cultural phenomena. Therefore, the formation of the anthropological consciousness of future teachers, aimed at preserving the human in man, opposing the negative trends of transhumanism and the era of blurred meanings, is necessary.


Keywords:

education, human, anthropological consciousness, philosophical anthropology, hermeneutics, understanding approaches, philosophy of education, multicultural education, continuing education, phenomenology

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

Introduction. The existence of modern man is changing qualitatively: virtual reality, the separation of reality from its interpretation, transhumanistic impulses. In search of ways to solve the problem of adaptation, adjustment to constant changes, to a new paradigm of reality, hopes are pinned on improving the system of education and upbringing of the individual. A new reality requires a new way of thinking. But before looking for ways to reform the education system, it is necessary to realize what the image of a modern person is, what ideal of a person of the future we are going to strive for. It depends on the ideas about a person, about his changes in modern conditions, in which direction the education system needs to move, what forms and methods of teaching and upbringing to undertake.

The ideals of man and education have changed with each historical epoch. However, the task of education for the formation of a harmoniously developed personality continues to be relevant. The modern socio-cultural situation blurs the ideals of both man and education, leaving only a set of traits that would be worth looking up to.

The purpose of this article is to consider the conditions for the formation of the anthropological consciousness of future teachers. The hopes placed on the education system in shaping the image of a person of the future primarily affect pedagogical education. In the modern socio-cultural environment, a person immersed in the world of technology is in dire need of preserving himself, the human in man. The answer to the dominance of virtual reality, to the aspirations of science and technology to improve the human genotype, human cognitive abilities is the study and formation of anthropological consciousness. By anthropological consciousness we mean a form of reflection of the surrounding world, aimed at preserving human nature in the conditions of transhumanism. And since the quality of education of graduates of pedagogical universities will largely determine the quality of life in the next 10-15 years, this article analyzes the ways of formation of anthropological consciousness among students of pedagogical universities [1-3]. The scientific novelty of the work lies in the fact that the formation of anthropological consciousness effectively contributes to the development of humanistic ideas and humanization as a practice of human life, this problem should be solved by the joint efforts of the philosophy of education, philosophical anthropology, pedagogy, theory and methodology of education.

Within the framework of the bachelor's degree, the discipline "philosophy" has been greatly reduced, in this regard, it is necessary to include additional philosophical courses in the curricula, for example, "philosophical anthropology", "philosophy of education" and others. The philosophical worldview allows us to change the educational environment in a qualitative way, which will help a modern person to adapt to the permanent situation of changes, while preserving their ideals and values.

Methods and methodology

The methodology of this research is based on the analysis and generalization of research works of foreign and domestic scientists in the field of philosophy of education, theory of learning, philosophical anthropology, pedagogical anthropology. The research methodology includes hermeneutical and systemic methods. The hermeneutic method has become the basis for understanding the thoughts of philosophers, educators, researchers in the field of pedagogy and philosophy. The systematic method helped to analyze the importance of a comprehensive analysis of the problem of man and education.

Research results

Postmodern is an era in which different cultures merge, but there is no unity, integrity, system. A collision with the "Other" is always a communication involving exchange, transformation [4]. The education system is an environment capable of teaching a person to build relationships with the "Other", a niche for a wide variety of contacts. Anthropological consciousness characterizes specifically human existence, smoothes conflicts in a globalizing world, or gives them certainty. The importance of anthropological and educational ideas is realized, but the translation of these ideas is difficult due to the high speeds of the postmodern era [4]. Consideration of the issues of the peculiarities of human existence and education in the postmodern era, the need to resist the trends of dehumanization are raised in the works of G.N. Travnikov, I.V. Vladlenova, F.I. Girenka, G.-G. Zeynalov, L.E. Motorina and others [5-12].

Anthropological consciousness includes universal values, fundamental principles of the study of the essence and nature of man, focused on the formation of understanding and acceptance of the personality of Another (another culture, another nation). The study of human, anthropological consciousness in the context of pedagogical education is extremely relevant in the age of modern technologies and blurred meanings. Philosophical concepts, views on man become the starting point for the formation of educational strategies [1].

Updating the education system is impossible without including the results of the study of the essence and nature of man. It is the actualization of philosophical and anthropological knowledge that is the way to form anthropological consciousness. Man and education are two integral, inseparable components, therefore education should be considered primarily as an anthropological phenomenon.

Unfortunately, modern education is still characterized by subject-centrism, narrow-profile division of scientific knowledge, fragmentation of the picture of the world into separate fragments [13]. And in the crisis era that we are experiencing now, the eyes of researchers and educators turn to philosophy. Philosophical understanding of the world contributes to a holistic perception of reality, helps to overcome the methodological vacuum.

Regular practices of virtual communication qualitatively change the relationship "man-man", asserting an intermediary between people in the person of technology [14]. In this case, the person is reduced to abstract categories, the "human, too human" disappears. This trend confidently penetrates into the education system (distance learning is being introduced everywhere), erasing the relationship between the teacher and the student, replacing the teacher with faceless information.

A modern teacher should create situations that give birth to a deep research interest in the surrounding world, infect with a desire for constant striving for knowledge [4]. The quality of a teacher's education presupposes not only deep subject preparation, but also anthropological reflection in the context of pedagogical activity. The anthropological consciousness of the teacher acts as a factor in the humanization of society in the postmodern era. Anthropological consciousness is aimed at solving a range of problems in the system "man-man", "teacher-teaching". What are the ways of formation of anthropological consciousness?

One of the elements of anthropological consciousness is a system of values. The world surrounding a person in the modern socio-cultural situation is characterized by permanent changes. The consumer society imprisons a person in a vicious circle [15]. Many of the things that man created for his convenience took possession of his consciousness. Negative tendencies of possession, appropriation, unrestrained accumulation can be stopped only by reasonable criticism of value orientations, competent interpretation of the desires imposed by society.

The formed anthropological culture should encourage a person to build his hierarchy of values, to choose a life path in accordance with these values, to translate his value orientations into the world around him in the course of his activities. Since changes always carry with them the creation of a new system of values, the task of pedagogical education is to prepare a theoretical framework, knowledge, a harmonious combination of traditions and innovations. Philosophical disciplines help the future teacher to realize the problems associated with himself and with modern society, to strive to solve them by improving himself. The image that a person aspires to when embarking on the path of education depends on personal educational values. Personal educational values introduce personal significance for future teachers of what they study. Because we need not just specialists, but people capable of systematic thinking and making important decisions from humanistic positions [4].

The teacher's mission in the modern multicultural world is to help the younger generation to coexist harmoniously in the processes of integration, migration and globalization. The culture of interethnic communication implies a humanistic orientation, education, tolerance. The core that ensures harmonious intercultural communication is universal values. Universal values are an attempt to understand the ethical grounds that are important for every person, such as kindness, mercy, friendship, love. Awareness and dissemination of universal values is necessary to establish a dialogue of cultures, harmonious coexistence of different peoples.

The desire to educate a humane, spiritual person determines the importance of seeing cultural meanings, the ability to establish a dialogue, accept and understand someone else's individuality with its religious beliefs, cultural customs. A multi-confessional environment requires from a person the ability to make important decisions from a humanistic position, the ability to sympathize, promote, organize co-existence. The principle of intercultural dialogue in the educational system aims to teach awareness of the spiritual unity of cultures, contributes to the formation of anthropological consciousness.

Philosophical anthropology has a huge methodological potential that needs to be extrapolated to the education system. Z. Bauman notes that hermeneutics as a philosophy of understanding is necessary for the philosophical paradigm in the postmodern era, since the main task of philosophy is to clarify meanings and meanings. Understanding is the key to harmonious interaction of people, recognition and acceptance of other traditions, culture, language. As G. - G. Gadamer emphasized, understanding is a process of merging horizons [15].

Orientation to the hermeneutical-phenomenological tradition, to understanding approaches in education contributes to the formation of anthropological consciousness. Human existence is difficult to fit into the coordinate system of strictly scientific methods, it needs to be understood and comprehended. The understanding of personality in modern conditions is drowning in the pool of computer interaction [16]. Superficial interpretations can generate false values that become the starting point of new problems. Teaching to understand and accept the Other, to see the spiritual unity of cultures, to build a dialogue of cultures is the task of educational practice [4].

We have already noted above that in times of crisis, researchers and educators turn to philosophy. Therefore, the preservation of the human in the conditions of the spread of transhumanism naturally requires an increase in philosophical training, especially in the framework of pedagogical education.

Conclusions

Thus, the task of modern education is to help a person to understand and adequately interpret their own being in the context of modern socio-cultural phenomena. Education is the main environment that makes a new person, adapts him to the changes taking place, lays down values and meanings. Education cultivates and forms a human personality, which at the same time is a process of growth of its creative freedom, familiarization with cultural values. Education allows a person to construct himself. There is a potential in a person that is able to set him up for dialogue, for the concept and acceptance of Someone Else, which is often found in an ever-changing world.

In the era of blurred meanings, it is important for a person to understand and adequately interpret his own being and modern socio-cultural phenomena. The personal contribution of the authors is to identify ways to form the anthropological consciousness of future teachers: the expansion of philosophical training and the use of understanding approaches in education. Anthropological consciousness acquires an ontological status for a person, therefore hermeneutics becomes an actual tool for both philosophical anthropology and philosophy of education. The formation of the anthropological consciousness of future teachers, aimed at preserving the human in man, resisting the negative trends of transhumanism and the era of blurred meanings, is necessary. Being in a situation of domination of "virtual doubles", gadgets, robotics, only a fully formed personality will be able to decide on a life development option and act in a positive way for the benefit of all mankind.

 

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