PHILHARMONICA. International Music Journal - rubric History and Theory of Musical Performance
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History and Theory of Musical Performance
Norbu L.O., Kholodova M.V. - The personality and the creative work of A. Pasculli in the context of the West European music art of the 19th century pp. 1-10

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2021.5.36727

Abstract: The authors of the research focus on Antonio Pasculli, a famous Italian virtuoso oboe player and composer of the late 19th - the early 20th century, whose name had long and undeservingly been in the wilderness. In the last two-three decades, his legacy has been getting a new lease on life. Pasculli’s compositions are on the concert list of oboe players all over the world. Despite the performance popularity, the personality and creative work of the outstanding Italian musician are still on the periphery of the research focus of Russian musicologists. All valuable information is contained in rare foreign researches. Therefore, the purpose of the article is to reconstruct the artistic portrait of Antonio Pasculli in the context of time. This research is the first in Russian musicology to introduce into Russian scientific discourse the data from foreign sources revealing the peculiarities of Pasculli’s creative life. Based on the analysis of the collected data, the authors conclude about the necessity to revise the role of Pasculli’s work and legacy in the context of European music culture of the 19th century. It is believed that familiarization with the information about the Italian musician, unknown to the Russian audience, will help to not only dive deeper into the specificity of Pasculli’s compositions, but also to reinterpret his place and role in the evolution of playing woodwind instruments.
Bezmenov V. - Digital Cybernarrative: "The Brain Opera" by Todd Mahover pp. 10-26

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2022.4.38622

EDN: VKYPVZ

Abstract: The article is devoted to the application of new technologies of the digital era in modern opera. The phenomenon of cybernarrative is analyzed, which creates special forms of representation of a conditional plot in an opera theater, or representation of the main idea. As a special form of cybernarrative, an analysis of the instrumentation and fundamental ideas of the Brain Opera by American composer and inventor Tod Mahover is proposed. This experimental composition combines both conceptual ideas of comprehending the basics of human thinking and attempts to present brain impulses as musical material that makes up the stochastic variable composition of the opera. Special attention is paid to interactivity, in which the listener precommunicates with various interfaces - electronic toys that allow him to develop his creative energy and see it as an element of composition in the Opera of the Brain. The conclusion from the conducted research is that the idea of a cybernarrative has become fundamental for the project, which has received a cybernarrative representation. The treatise of the famous cognitive scientist Marvin Minsky "Community of the Mind" and the element of creative energy of the recipient visitor of the sound installation serve as the basis of the narrative, while the plot of the libretto itself is conditional and it is hardly read through the journey through the socalled "wilds of the mind". Modern opera uses cybernarrative as a communication system, in the field of which all the latest technologies are included. At the same time, the content of the opera is blurred, which turns out to be variable. There are both positive and negative sides to this: the involvement of the public in the creative process, which Tod Mahover strongly encourages in his concept of the Brain Opera, helps to overcome passive perception, however, the composition ceases to be a complete form and turns into an open work work in progress.
Lygina E.V. - The Principle of Modeling as a Means of Classifying Instrumental Ensembles With the Domra pp. 11-19

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2021.2.35117

Abstract: This article develops a comprehensive approach to classifying instrumental ensembles featuring the domra. It aims to discern the underlying principles that can be used to create various models of such ensembles. The author recommends analyzing the various aspects of the phenomenon being studied from different perspectives: as music groups and from the viewpoint of music compositions composed for these groups. This article examines and compares different models of concert groups based on the number of members and instrumental components, as well as the unique genre and style characteristics of instrumental ensembles featuring the domra and their collaborations with composers. This classification method helps comprehensively cover the work of a large number of musicians, both members of ensembles and composers. Constructing various systems for classifying instrumental ensembles can aid in the examination of the existence of such groups in contemporary music culture. The author concludes that, at present, Russia's spectrum of music performance contains a vast range of ensembles made up of various instruments and different numbers of members. The diversity of these groups genres and styles is reflected in their repertoires, from folk to classical music and modern composing schools to jazz, rock, pop, and performance.
Kruglova E. - On Ornamentation and Improvisation in Baroque Vocal Performance pp. 13-23

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2022.6.39508

EDN: QURDWI

Abstract: The rapid revival of baroque music in Russia places ever higher demands on singers regarding a historically grounded style of performance. This is manifested not only in the content of vocal and technical equipment (implying the presence of flexibility of the vocal apparatus, possession of a wide cantilena and light coloratura fluency), but also in the need to form your own creative approach in creating an original version, including ornamentation and improvisation in cadence, repeating parts of da capo arias. The proposed article is aimed at solving topical problems in the field of baroque performance related to vocal ornamentation and improvisation. The methodology of the research is based on a historical approach, which includes both a diachronic aspect aimed at identifying the dynamics in the evolution of the phenomenon under study from the XVI to the XVIII century, and a synchronic one, thanks to which various types of jewelry, features of improvisation in baroque performance are considered as the most important elements of style. The author draws conclusions about the significance of ornaments in the baroque music. The material of the article and the conclusions will be useful to musicians, singers performing old music, for its stylistically correct interpretation, as well as in training courses on the history of vocal performance at performing departments of music colleges and faculties of universities.
Lavrova S.V., Li M. - Ondes Martenot: repertoire and performers pp. 15-32

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2023.2.40717

EDN: QGIPTW

Abstract: The article is devoted to the history of performance on a rare instrument of the Waves of Martenot. Its history of creation, repertoire and performance capabilities have not yet become the subject of a separate study, while at the Paris Conservatory there is still a class of Waves of Martenot, and the repertoire is periodically replenished. In connection with these facts, the coverage of the features of a musical instrument seems to be a very relevant topic. For the analysis, the main material was the works specially written for the Waves of Martenot, which can be used to determine the specifics of a particular version of the instrument that determined its technical capabilities, as well as various interviews of performers on the Waves of Martenot. The conclusion of the study is the discovery of new opportunities for enriching the timbre due to the established repertoire and the circle of performers on the instrument, as well as a special stylistic pluralism and sound imaging capabilities that determined the specifics of the instrument and at the same time its concert and cinematic fate, where it is widely used both in academic, film music, and in rock bands. The object of the study is the electromusical instrument Martino Waves, which became widespread in performing practice and composer's work of the 20th century. The subject of the research is the existing performing repertoire of Waves Martenot and performing practice. The novelty of the study lies in the fact that this is the first study in Russian about this music instrument. The applied methodology is based on a comparative analysis of various versions of the Martenot Waves instrument, the material for which are works created by composers in different years when its creator, Maurice Martenot, modified the instrument's design.
Barabash O.S. - Poetic Historiosophy ("The Alps") by F.I. Tyutchev in choral works a cappella pp. 19-29

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2022.1.37538

Abstract: The author of the article attempts to take an innovative look at the problem of the interaction of poetry and music in a synthetic whole: choral composition a cappella. The object of the study is the historiosophical poetry of F.I. Tyutchev: the poetic text of the poem "Alps", embodied in choral compositions a cappella. The subject of the study is the peculiarities of the interaction of poetic and musical texts in the creation of a figurative system of a cappella choirs created by composers of the XIX – XXI century on the historiosophical poem by F.Tyutchev. The purpose of the study is to study the ways of analyzing the logos and melos of texts, to identify the specifics of their interaction in choral compositions a cappella on the poem "The Alps" by F.Tyutchev. The article considers in this way the question of interpretation of the historiosophical poetry of F.I. Tyutchev (on the example of the poem "Alps") in choral compositions created by composers of different schools: P.G. Chesnokov, S.I. Taneev, M.V. Koval.      The path of analytical thought is shown: from penetration into the poetic primary source, which is only at first glance a landscape lyric, but representing a separate layer of the poet's historiosophical poems; to the nature of the interaction of logos and melos in choral compositions a cappella by composers of different schools at the level of perception by the composer of figurative matter, at the level of perception of metrics and rhythmics of verse, at the level of transformation of figurative matter (theme, idea), at the highest level (meditative thought). The analysis of the interaction of musical and poetic texts allows the conductor to take into account the peculiarities of the composer's reading of the poem when interpreting choral works. To date, such a way of analyzing choral compositions has not been used
Makhan V.V. - On conception of the solo performance on the three-stringed domra in the pre-revolutionary period pp. 21-31

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2016.3.21213

Abstract: Pages of the Russian music culture, associated with the prerequisite of the solo performance on domras, by the first performers and their repertoire remain unknown. There is little understanding of the biographies of the first prominent domra players P. P. Karkin, V. V. Katzan, and others, whose work requires more understanding and assessment. This is primarily due to the fact that throughout the first years after the reconstruction, domra was mostly used as an orchestral instrument, but rarely allowed to lead. The author examined various archive materials and publications, as well as used art-studying approach, comparative-historical methods, and the work with the archives. The article presents the first attempts of solo performance on domras, dates of the domra players first performances, and the main artistic trends different arrangements of popular classical music and clear intention towards the cantilena style. The author underlines the prevalence of the ensemble forms of domra performance duets, trios, and quartets. The author determines and clarifies the years of life and work of the first domra-alto player P. P. Karkin, certain details from the biographies of the first domra players P. I. Alekseyev and V. V. Katzan, as well as their repertoires and dates of the first solo performances.
Petrova Y.S. - Studying the Literary Heritage of Sergey Rachmaninov. The Composer about Interpretation of His Own Compositions pp. 22-25

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2018.3.27543

Abstract: The object of this research is the literary (epistolary) heritage of the great Russian composer Sergey Rakhmaninov. A number of his literary works are considered in order to interpret the interpretation by the composer of his own musical compositions, since it is known that Rachmaninov was famous for his authorial performance. The composer's and pianist's articles were chosen as material for the study: "Composer as Interpreter", "Sergey Rakhmaninov, one of the outstanding contemporary composers, speaks of Russia and America", "Interpretation depends on talent and individuality", "New Pianism". In her research Petrova uses an analytical approach to the material under study, which contributes to a greater understanding and a more complete immersion in the literary heritage of Rachmaninov. The novelty of the presented work lies in the fact that this problem did not arise in musicology as a separate object of study. Indeed, much of Rakhmaninov is connected with his own musical experience, with works, performing aspects, which allows to more fully reveal the creative principles of the composer. 
Gabrielyan N.Z. - A.Arenskys A minor violin concerto: performance analysis of the solo section pp. 22-31

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2021.3.34646

Abstract: The author studies A.Arensky’s violin concerto which is a chamber lyrical model of one-part structure. The purpose of the article is to search for the performance features of the violin section which are necessary for a successful interpretation of the composition. The object of the research is the violin concerto genre. The subject of the research is the performance peculiarities of the solo section of A.Arensky’s violin concerto. The author uses theoretical and empirical research methods including analysis, generalization, and systematization of scientific sources, as well as a comprehensive performance analysis of Arensky’s violin concerto. The author analyzes the functions of the soloist in various themes and episodes of the composition, formulates the methodic guidelines for the bow change and allocation and its movement speed, defines the technical and intonation difficulties of the violin section. Special attention is given to dash performance. The author is the first to find out that the performance values of the solo section are one of the keys to the successful performance. They create the melodic, smooth and plastic sound achieved by means of appropriate allocation of the bow, its smooth change, a good command of legato, and the creation of wide breath phrases. The performer has to take into account the performing ideals of the epoch when the composition was created, which to a large extent consist in pedagogical guidelines of L. Auer about the appropriate pressure of the forearm and the shoulder on the bow. Based on the performance analysis of the violin section, the author finds out that to create an artistic image of the composition, the performer needs to find an individual color palette of the violin section based on the performance ideals of the creation time of the composition.   
Chen Y. - Theoretical and methodological basis of music education: structure and contents pp. 23-33

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2021.5.36819

Abstract: The research subject of the article is the theoretical and methodological basis of music education represented in a traditional four-level structure (developed by A. Yudin within the system approach), consisting of: 1) a philosophical, 2) a general scientific, 3) a specific scientific, 4) a methodological level. Based on the thesis about the connection between theory and practice in music education, the second part of the article briefly describes the contents of the first three levels of the structure of the theoretical and methodological basis which are believed to be the most academical. The author focuses on two aspects: 1. The goals and potentials of the level under consideration; 2. The problems arising at each level. The author arrives at the following conclusions: 1) the philosophical level of the theoretical and methodological basis of music education, being the most general and therefore the leading one, is necessary for training prospective musicians for the formation of the value, moral and spiritual, and esthetic components of education; 2) the general scientific level helps systematize the philosophic provisions and concepts into certain approaches and principles which can be introduced into the pedagogical practice as models of integral formation of education processes; 3) the level of socio-scientific disciplines, which is the most thoroughly developed due to the close connection with practical aspects and problems, consists in the aspects of the contents of education (musicology), the methodology of teaching (pedagogics), and the study subject/instrument (performance art).   
Reshetnikova S.V. - Was there a Manuel Garcia's Mistake? An Attempt to Dispel the Myth about the Main Secret of the Garcia School pp. 27-31

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2017.4.25177

Abstract: This article explores the pedagogical activity of Manuel Patricio Rodríguez García, analyses and substantiates the difference between the versions of edition of the work "The Complete Treatise on the Art of Singing" of 1840-1847 and 1856, which has raised questions among singers and vocal pedagogues over a long period of time. Despite the fact that the work "The Complete Treatise on the Art of Singing" has been repeatedly published in Russian, the disputes about its principles continue unabated up to now even in the media. The theoretical and methodological basis of this study is as follows:  analysis of musical and pedagogical problems, cultural and historical analysis, comparative analysis. This article clarifies the author's recommendation on the use of various types of breathing stated in the treatise of 1840-1847 and 1856. In the middle of the XIX century vocal pedagogy developed in accordance with the performance practice of the era of Romanticism and new aesthetic intentions, that's why Manuel Garcia Junior, the author of the treatise, improved his treatise and recommended singers to use chest-diaphragmatic breathing instead of small (clavicular) one.
Zhang F., Gumerova A.T. - Du Mingxin. Piano Suite based on the ballet "Rusalka": the experience of stylistic and performance analysis pp. 27-38

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2022.4.38407

EDN: BXQNBJ

Abstract: The object of the study is the piano work of the famous Chinese composer, teacher Du Minxin (born 1928). The genre composition of his piano work is diverse it includes miniatures, suite cycles, concerts, fantasies, toccatas. A separate place is occupied by piano transcriptions created by the composer on the material of his own ballets "Red Women's Squad", "Mermaid". The subject of the study is a piano suite based on the ballet "Rusalka", which is a repertoire composition in concert and pedagogical practice in China. The purpose of the work is to identify the stylistic and performing features of the work necessary for the successful interpretation of the work. In the process of preparing the material, theoretical and empirical research methods were involved, including analysis, generalization and systematization of scientific sources, stylistic and performance analysis of the suite "Mermaid" by Du Mingxin. As a result of a detailed examination of a number of plays, the features of the figurative structure, form formation, intonation, harmonic language, texture are revealed. Special attention is paid to the performing tasks that a pianist needs to solve when referring to this composition. In particular, the author deals with the issues of stroke technique, pedalization, tempo and dynamic dramaturgy, disclosure and use of the timbre-coloristic possibilities of the piano. Of particular importance in the performance of the composition is the orchestrality of the piano sound. The conclusion is made about the importance of preliminary analysis of the orchestral score when performing piano transcription of ballet music. In the Russian research literature, the suite on Du Minxin's ballet "The Mermaid" is considered in detail for the first time.
Shamov S. - Signals from the past: Sermons of a regimental drummer pp. 32-43

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2019.6.30984

Abstract: The research subject is one of the first published drums playing learning guide, while previously this skill had been transmitted orally from one generation of performers to another. That is why the first published guides are so valuable. The article contains the translation of the tractate “Brief easiest guide to drum along with seven notated plays and marches, with the musician’s annotations” (Ludwig Winter’s widow’s edition, Berlin, 1777) from German into Russian, as well as the comments to it from the viewpoint of a modern performer. The tractate describes technical and stylistical musical techniques typical for Western Europe of the middle of the 18th century. The tractate can be of interest to practicing musicians and “all drums enthusiasts”.  The research method includes the traits of philological, cultural and pedagogical studies. The author searches for analogies in modern traditions of different cultures and brings into accordance the theoretical and practical parts of the research. The key results of the research are the possibility to adapt the teaching fundamentals and techniques of a regimental drummer of the middle of the 18th century to the modern realia. The main contribution of the author is not only the first literary translation of the work into Russian, but also generalization of the acquired knowledge for purposes of a modern performer and music teacher. The scientific novelty of the research consists in the opportunity for a modern musician to learn about the teaching techniques nearly two and a half centuries later. The study fills in the gap in the history of the Russian performing art.   
Wang B. - Musical expression means of a saxophone in the modern chamber-instrumental music
pp. 32-46

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2021.3.35753

Abstract: The research subject is the modern chamber-instrumental music of the late 20th - the early 21st century in the context of the newest performance and expression means and techniques of playing the saxophone as a unique wind instrument which is difficult to interpret. A wide musical expression range of modern music involving saxophone gives an opportunity to practically evaluate the depth of philosophical and figurative concepts embodied by modern composers. In this context, the author considers the peculiarities of the recommended techniques of playing the saxophone which have been detected and studied in the creative work of Yu.L. Povolotsky. The expressive timbre and sound palette attracts a modern composer with the purpose of both to experiment and to attempt to collect the wide range of artistic and philosophical generalizations of the epoch. This mutually determined process  -  a timbre-sound experiment, on the on hand, and a continuous expansion of the performance and expression means of a saxophone within the chamber-instrumental culture, determined by it, on the other - instigated the author to conduct a scientific analysis of the chamber-instrumental works of modern composers. Besides, of a scientific and historical value is the information about the creative process of Yu.L. Povolotsky: the involvement of out-of-the-box solutions, composition structures, and the newest ways and techniques of playing the saxophone.   
Levashova T.A. - The role of Russian pianists in the formation of accompaniment art
pp. 34-40

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2021.5.35666

Abstract: The Russian tradition of piano performance has been winning international recognition for several centuries. The names of S.V. Rachmaninoff, S.T. Richter, K.N. Igumnov, A.B. Goldenweiser and others, are inscribed in the history of the piano music and pedagogics. At the same time, such a sphere as accompaniment remains unheralded. The author of the research attempts to estimate the role of the above mentioned pianists in the formation of accompaniment art. Based on the analysis of the experience of performance and pedagogical work of the pianists, the author reveals their importance for the development of the Russian accompaniment tradition. This topic hasn’t been critically considered and analyzed. However, the history of piano music is rich in examples when concert pianists take on the role of accompanists. Their contribution to the practice of ensemble performance has influenced the development of accompaniment art. The work of S.V. Rachmaninoff, S.T. Richter, K.N. Igumnov, and A.B. Goldenweiser has influenced various aspects of accompaniment art: the extension of functions of an accompanist; the importance of the role of an accompanist in the interpretation of music pieces; the extension of the pedagogical function of an accompanist in the ensemble; the formation of a methodological background based on the accompaniment experience.   
Zhang Y. - The specificity of opera-vocal performance by Antonio Tamburini pp. 48-53

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2023.3.43730

EDN: UHDBHZ

Abstract: The 19th century gave the world many talented opera performers, each of whom had his own artistic charisma and unique style of vocal performance. One of these singers was the bass-baritone Antonio Tamburini, a master of interpretation of the roles of Gioacchino Rossini, Vincenzo Bellini, Gaetano Donizetti, Saverio Mercadante, Giovanni Paccini, Carlo Coccia and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The subject of the research is the work of the early 19th century operatic baritone Antonio Tamburini. The object of the study is the opera parts performed by Tamburini over the years of work in theaters. The relevance of the study is due to the role of Antonio Tamburini in the formation and development of the baritone art at the beginning of the 19th century, as well as the lack of knowledge of the processes that took place in opera art in the era of early romanticism. This period is covered in the musicological works of O.V. Zhestkovoy, L.A. Sadykova, I.P. Drach, G. Potter, A. Jacobshagen, J. Stark, A.E. Hoffmann, S.V. Reshetnikova, however, the mentioned works are mainly devoted to the study of the operatic performance of tenors and sopranos. The period of the birth of baritone performance was not considered in the above works, and the work of Antonio Tamburini remained unexplored, which indicates the undoubted novelty of the work. The article focuses on primary sources: the singer's creative biography, described by the 19th century music critic Castile-Blaz, contemporaries' reviews of Antonio Tamburini's stage performances. The work is dominated by historical and theoretical research methods. The main conclusion of the work is to identify the main aspects of the performing style of Antonio Tamburini, revealing the secret of the uniqueness of his art.
Shevtsova A.V. - The Specifics of the Timbral Embodiment of the Figurative & Emotional Sphere in Dmitri Shostakovich's 'Viola Sonata' pp. 49-60

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2023.1.39731

EDN: CHZYUD

Abstract: The object of the study is the Sonata for Viola and Piano Op. 147 by Dmitri Shostakovicha work rightfully considered autobiographical and as a farewell. The subject of the study was the specificity of the timbral embodiment of the compositions figurative and emotional sphere. In the proposed reading, the first part of the sonata is an image of the world to which the composer sends a farewell glance, the second is a sarcastic sketch of bright collective images of the vices of humanity, and the finale is a penetration beyond reality. The author of the article, in detail, referring to specific musical examples given in the text, examines the specific instrumental techniques used by the composer, which made it possible to embody the mystical concept of the sonata. The novelty of the research lies in the identification of three main figurative lines of the composition: eternity, the voice of the soul, and the world, which correspond to different timbral characteristics of the viola, which received their definitions through the use of specific expressive techniques. Eternity is the dispassionate sound of the viola, which is characterized by some programming, inexorability (an allusion to the "knock of fate), monotonous figuration, and long double notes in the lower part of the range. The voice of the soul is detached, with the dark, gloomy coloring of the sound: melodica, devoid of "beautiful" intonations, sentimental singing, "Beethoven" trio in new refraction, acting as the personification of the otherworldly. The world is a tearing and sharp sound and sarcastic caricature of colors: glissando with access to the flageolet, short caustic foreshocks, exaggeratedly sharp staccato, ascending parallel quarts in sixteenth, illustrating a hysterical burst of laughter. The main figurative spaces coexist throughout the composition, presenting in the sonata genre a new specific characteristic of the viola for the first time, which interprets the world of unreal images in many ways. Shostakovich's sonata is defined as the starting point of the formation of the leading figurative direction of the viola repertoire of the last third of the twentieth century, which secured the viola the role of a guide to the world of the beyonda kind of Virgil.
Irkhen I., Ursolenko E. - Motion Capture Technology as a Way to Preserve Cyprian Folk Dance pp. 50-56

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2020.1.31758

Abstract: This article studies the issue of preserving Cyprus' choreographic culture as a crucial factor in reviving national pride. UNESCO's involvement in cultural, educational, and scientific initiatives has played a pivotal role in preserving and developing the islands intangible cultural heritage. The authors of the study highlight the governments financial support of folk music groups and dance projects. Special attention is given to motion capture technology and its various forms. The variety of marker technologies is presented as a system in which the groups differ in dance movement delivery. Based on the field research materials over many years, the authors emphasize the possibility of combining digital technologies with folk tradition. This research is the first in the Russian language to cover the results of the work the University of Cyprus' virtual reality laboratory has done over eight years, which is described by the head of the laboratory during an interview. The 3D video game designed at the University of Cyprus is a mediator for studying and practicing Cyprian folk dances and developing an individual performance manner using the feedback from the program. The authors conclude that motion capture technology holds significant potential in capturing choreographic sequences, digitizing traditional folk dances, and popularizing them among diverse Cypriot age groups.
Reshetnikova S.V. - MANUEL GARCÍAS ALLEGED MISTAKE. AN ATTEMPT TO DESTROY THE MYTH OF THE CORPORATE SECRET OF GARCÍAS SCHOOL pp. 52-55

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2018.1.25575

Abstract: The article describes Manuel Patricio Rodríguez García’s pedagogical activity focusing on his theoretical work Traité complet de l’art du chant which evoked continuous debates among singers and vocal teachers. The researcher analyzes and substantiates the difference between the editions of 1840-1847 and 1856. Actually, García recommended different types of respiration in the treatise of 1840-1847 and 1856, and the researcher tries to understand his motives. The research methodology involves the analysis of musical and pedagogical problems, the cultural-historical analysis, the comparative analysis. In the middle of the XIX century vocal pedagogics developed according to the performing practice and new esthetic requirements of the Romanticism epoch, that’s why the author of the treatise Manuel García the Junior developed his previous work in 1856 and recommended singers to use diaphragmal respiration instead of the clavicular one described in 1840-1847. The author concludes that García’s alleged “mistake” can be explained by the necessity to consider new tendencies in the development of vocal art. The study proposes a non-traditional approach to Manuel García’s pedagogical heritage, such an approach may be of interest for musicologists, singers, vocal teachers.
Stepanidina O.D., Demidov V.A. - The influence of French lyrical romances on creativity of P. Tchaikovsky and their significance in the formation of the performing principles of the Russian chamber-vocal culture of the mid-XIX century pp. 52-68

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2022.3.37842

Abstract: The subject of the study is the influence of the French lyrical romance on the chamber-vocal lyrics of P. Tchaikovsky and its significance in the formation of domestic music performance in the middle of the XIX century. In the lyrical romances of P. Tchaikovsky and in the cycle Op.65, their common features and national differences are studied. The significance of P. Tchaikovsky's chamber vocal music on the opera and chamber music is revealed. The article uses methods of complex and comparative analysis, which creates prerequisites for a fairly objective conclusion about the harmonious implementation of French music features in Tchaikovsky's compositional work and music performing. For the first time, the analysis of the prerequisites for P. Tchaikovsky's creation of lyrical romances inspired by France of the era of lyrical opera and the appearance of an opera-chamber singer as a result of the influence of French lyrical romance on the chamber-vocal creativity of P. Tchaikovsky is considered. The scientific novelty of this research lies in a comprehensive approach to studying the problem of the influence of French lyrical romance on the peculiarities and originality of P. Tchaikovsky's chamber lyrics and the domestic chamber vocal culture of the second half of the XIX century. Author concluded that lyrical romances and of Op. 65 reveals influence of French poets on P. Tchaikovsky. The practical significance of this research lies in the fact that professional chamber performers in their concert activities and teachers of music educational institutions in practical work with students are obliged to approach the choice of expressive means with knowledge of style and genesis.
Lebedev A.E., Mikhailova A.A. - Contests organized to mark the work of I.Ya. Panitskii in the context of artistic traditions of Saratov and the Volga region pp. 53-60

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2019.4.30682

Abstract: The research object is the tradition to hold Russian folk instruments players contests in Saratov, to mark the work of one of the first Russian bayan players - I.Ya. Panitskii. The authors analyze the context in which these contests emerged, and their significance for the cultural life of the Volga region and the music life of Saratov. Special attention is given to the music and performance contests as one of the most popular types of modern artistic practices contributing to early professionalization of young musicians and development of creative talents of students at various stages of studying. The authors use the historical and culturological approaches based on systematization of facts and their assessment in the context of the regional music culture development. Contests, organized to mark the work of I.Ya.Panitskii, are a bright and authentic phenomenon of the music culture of Saratov and the Volga region. They are the most important factor of preservation of the Russian national academic art. The analysis demonstrates the presence of deep-rooted traditions of folk instrumental art and their high professional status in Saratov.   
Gordeeva T.V. - Artistic communication in dance performance: the transformation of spectators' comprehension in the works of Andrey Andrianov and Taras Burnashev pp. 55-62

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2019.2.29630

Abstract: The research subject is dance performance and the peculiarities of its artistic communication. Performance means that performers have no roles, they represent themselves; for dance performance, their gestures and movements have no underlying messages. The performative esthetics means that there exists a transformative range of spectators’ comprehension. The Performative Turn is described by the theatre critic E. Fischer-Lichter as manifestation of an unusual in a recognizable. The study aims to detect performative characteristics, the dichotomy of the real and the imaginative in dance performances of Moscow dance artists. The author focuses on the solo “Tants-Tants-Trants” by A. Andrianov and the “Red Square” by T. Burnashev as the examples of dance performance in which dancers represent themselves. The method of phenomenological reduction helps reveal the potential for spectators’ experience of the reality transformation in the works by Andrey Andrianov and Taras Burmashev (created together with  E. Kalyuzhnaya, D.Volkov, M. Orlova). Artistic communication in dance performance hasn’t been studied sufficiently enough. The author’s conclusions can be used for the formation of criteria in critical analysis of dance performances.
Vinichenko A.A. - Andrew Lloyd Webber. Variations on a theme by Paganini. Analysis of a music theme
pp. 58-65

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2019.3.29392

Abstract: The research subject is the variation cycle (concert) by Andrew Lloyd Webber “Variations on a theme by Paganini” for violoncello and rock band (or orchestra). The author notes the composer’s high professionalism, fine performance of the stylistic dialogue, delicacy of the combinatorial set of the thematic grain, the rich tone aspect of its development. The author speaks about the natural manner of the stylistic realia existence and points at the connection between definite moments of the music actions with the analogous form making points in Rachmaninov’s “Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini”. The article reveals the set of mini-cycles in the piece which is interpreted with the help of comprehensive analysis. In this analytical content, the author includes description necessary for creating an impression about the piece of music rarely heard in concert halls. The scientific novelty of the research consists in the uniqueness of its topic. Thus, all the content of the research is unique. The author comes to the following conclusions: “Variations on a theme by Paganini” for violoncello and rock band (or orchestra are a bright concert piece of music marked with a uniqueness of the composer’s language, high professionalism in performing the style dialogue, delicacy of the combinatorial set of the thematic grain, which sometimes has paradoxical and unpredictable interpretation of the topic; the natural manner of the stylistic dialogue of the academic culture and rock music. In this piece of music, we can hear one of the brightest proofs of the ongoing cultural globalization, which often transforms into a part of style in the music of that epoch.   
Voinova D. -
A.Katzs art of interpretation: theatre and play aspect
pp. 59-69

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2021.2.35455

Abstract: The research object is the performance art of a well-known Saratov musician Anatoly Katz (1936-2017), who was one of the brightest representatives of not only Saratov piano art, but the music culture of the entire region. The research subject is the theatre and play aspect of Katz’s interpretation considered through the example of R. Schumann’s “Coloured Leaves”, op.99. The purpose of the research is to define the techniques of music and play theatricalization in A. Katz’s art of interpretation. The author analyzes the role of a theatre and play component in the performance activity of the Saratov pianist, his attitude to the process of interpretation and play as a special type of creative thinking. The author uses the historical and art review methods, the culturological and comparative methods which help to detect the prerequisites of formation of Katz’s performance style, his views on interpretation and the mechanisms of cooperation of a composer and a performer. For the comparative analysis, the author uses the recordings of Schumann’s “Coloured leaves” made by other well-known pianists: V. Ashkenazy, V. Sofronitsky, S. Richter. The scientific novelty of the research consists in the fact that it is the first attempt to take a scientific approach to A. Katz’s art of interpretation using R. Schumann’s music. The research shows that the theatre and play aspect to a great extent defines the direction of Katz’ s creative process, and differs it from other similar interpretations. The characteristic feature of Katz as an interpreter is his focus on cooperation with a composer, search for an individual interpretation, rethinking of the original composition. It results in a “director’s” approach to composing the cycle, increase of contrast between the parts and within each of them, fantasy and personification of images, active use of agogics and, consequently, focused attention to particular details of the composition.   
Kuprina E.Y., Bayazitova D.I. - The Alkan Code
pp. 63-82

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2019.2.29648

Abstract: The research subject is the creative work of one of the most mysterious composers of the 19th century Charles-Valentin Alkan. The authors give some facts of the composer’s biography to answer the question about his disappearance from the scene of Romantic music despite the continuing work of the great genies of Romanticism: Chopin, Liszt, Rubinstein, etc. The authors study the example of the set of “12 études dans tous les tons majeurs” Op. 39 to demonstrate the unique style of Alkan crystallized in collaboration with the composers of the previous epochs and his contemporaries. Due to the lack of the Russian studies of the issue, the authors analyze the works of foreign authors to evaluate the artistic legacy of Alkan. The authors attempt to break the Alkan semantic code using the example of the piece 12 Op. 39  Le festin d'Ésope (Aesop's Feast), which the outstanding performers have been trying to crack for more than 50 years, positioning the meaning of their interpretations. The article contains the authors’ conclusions about the urgent necessity to study the work of Alkan in within the Russian musicology.  
Shevtsova A.V. - Genre Evolution of the Russian Viola Repertoire pp. 70-84

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2020.4.32769

Abstract: The subject of this research is Russias repertory heritage, including compositions for viola by twentieth-century composers. The works are considered from the viewpoint of their direct impact by the brightest representatives of the Russian viola school: Vadim Borisovsky, Fyodor Druzhinin, and Yuri Bashmet. The analysis is based on pieces devoted to Borisovsky (Sonata for Viola and Piano by V. Kryukov and S. Vasilenko, Songs of the Dead and Rhapsody for Viola and Piano by A. Veprik, A Suite for Viola and Piano by V. Gaigerova) and Bashmet (A Liturgy for a Large Orchestra and a Solo Viola, Bemoaned by the Wind, and Styx for Viola, Choir, and Orchestra by G. Kancheli), and the works by Druzhinin (Sonata for Solo Viola and Variations for Solo Viola). These pieces are considered from the position of a players influence on the composers interest in the solo manifestation of the viola and its gradual development. The author defines the term character-performer as corresponding with the image of a twentieth-century violist and denotes the new features of solo viola repertory as a result of the work of the above-mentioned violists, including the acknowledgment of the uniqueness of the violas sound, the establishment of the viola as a bright concert instrument, the expansion of a used range for the viola, the revelation of a mystic component of viola timbre, the definition of the unique unifying ability of viola timbre, the full technical liberation of an instrument, and the need for a co-author as a player.
Vartanov S. - The from despair to immortality of soul concept in the interpretation of Beethovens Sonata op.111 pp. 85-104

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2020.4.33070

Abstract: The research subject is Beethoven’s view of life of the late period - the topical issue for a performing musician: without understanding of the fundamental changes in his style, it is impossible to adequately interpret the late piano sonatas. The last of them - Sonata op.111 - has been an object of discussion not only among musicians, but also among writers for almost two centuries. The author detects the following types of dialogue in Sonate op.111: a) a dialogue with Beethoven’s previous compositions; b) a dialogue - within the latest period - with Ninth Symphony op.25 and Missa Solemnis op.123; c) a dialogue with the music of predecessors; d) an imaginary dialogue of Beethoven and Goethe (of the period of “Faust” completion); e) a dialogue op.111 with the world culture. The author arrives at the following conclusions: whilst the formation of the concept of interpretation is usually related to the performance activities of romanticists - Paganini and List, the prerequisites of the phenomenon of interpretation can be found already in the works and ideas of Beethoven - he is a precursor of romanticists of the 19th century. Each of his works is individualized, and doesn’t contain patterns or cliches. To play his compositions outside of the concept means to be not able to adequately convey the spirit of Beethoven’s music. With all their strict architectonics, Beethoven’s works appeal to spontaneity of self-expression - a pianist, as an actor, should experience this music “in the here and now”.   
Safonova T., Fomina Z. - On the issue of the performer's interpretation of Sergei Prokofiev's 'Piano Sonata No. 6' pp. 86-94

DOI:
10.7256/2453-613X.2019.5.30825

Abstract: The research subject of the article is the peculiarities of performing Sergei Prokofiev’s Piano Sonata No.6. This composition is a part of the “war” piano tiad and reflects the essential traits of the late period of the composer’s work. Special attention is given to the question of the character of the performer’s interpretation requiring an active, creative participation of a performer on the recreation of the author’s idea. The authors emphasize the necessity to pierce into the sense layers of the performed composition, which helps to deepen the current interpretations and rethink the life and creative work of Sergei Prokofiev. The authors analyze the performer from the position of the theory of music, phenomenological and hermeneutic approaches developed in the works by L.O.Alopian and Z.V. Fomina. The authors detect the peculiarities of the individual idiom of Prokofiev. The authors demonstrate the ability of a pure artistic genius to go beyond the limits of socio-historic and cultural dependances and to express supratemporal, timeless senses in his work. The analysis of the Piano Sonata No.6  in the context of Prokofiev’s late works reveals significant evolution of his piano style speaking for spiritual and creative search of the composer.   
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