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PHILHARMONICA. International Music Journal

The Chant of Russian Pilgrim Singers and its Role in the Russian Folk Music Tradition

Korolkova Inga

PhD in Art History

Associate Professor, Department of Ethnomusicology of Saint Petersburg State Conservatory named after N.A. Rimsky-Korsakov

190000, Russia, Leningradskaya oblast', g. Saint Petersburg, ul. Glinki, 2, aud. 507

Other publications by this author










Abstract: The article characterizes the musical tradition of Russian singers-wanderers, recorded by collectors in the north-western, northern and central provinces of Russia. For the first time, a comparative study is being carried out of the variants of memorial and zazdravny chants performed by the crossing kaliks and beggars. The study summarizes various sources auditory recordings of the XIX century, publications of the XX century, unpublished folklore materials. The author draws attention to the little-known recordings of memorial and health chants recorded in the Novgorod, Yaroslavl, Tver, Pskov regions. The objectives of the article are to conduct a comparative study of the tunes of the "poor brethren", to identify their typological properties and intonational origins. The author considers the health and memorial chants as a special phenomenon of Russian folk music culture. The core of this tradition was a chant, which served as a musical formula, to which the calics of the transition sang various texts. On the basis of the facts given in the article, it can be concluded that the main version of the tune of the kalik of the transients is characterized by a one-verse composition and a 10-time basis of small-scale construction. In Russian folklore, the existence of this musical-structural type is limited only to the health and memorial songs of Kalik, spiritual poems and the ballad "Prince Mikhailo", and is not found in other genre spheres. However, the close intonation, rhythmic, compositional relationship of the tune with a wide range of folklore genres indicates that it was formed on the basis of compositional and melodic techniques developed in the practice of peasant song culture. The intonational affinity of the chant with church hymns, especially with the forms of liturgical reading, is an indicator of the closeness of the singing culture of the Kalik of the transients and the church musical tradition as a whole, and also reveals those properties that can be attributed to the category of universals of the Old Russian musical language based on speech intonations.


Russian musical folklore, Spiritual Poems, Memorial chants, Russian Pilgrim Singers, Folklore of the Russian North, Russian musical epic, kaliki, Novgorod folklore, zazdravnye chants, folk sons

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

introductionThe Kaliki are Russian pilgrims who have made long journeys to holy places.

Information about pilgrimages to Jerusalem, Constantinople, recorded in written sources since the beginning of the XII century, suggests that representatives of the Old Russian church environment played a significant role in the formation of this social institution. The chronicles and travel notes contain the names of Kiev, Novgorod, Pskov, Smolensk travelers, among whom are Abbot Daniel, Danila Yadreikovich (the future Archbishop of Novgorod Anthony), Gregory the Cripple, monk Stefan Novgorodets, Ignatius Smolyanin and others. For several centuries, the role of the Kaliks was to broadcast and spread Christian values in Russia. It was in their environment that special musical and poetic forms of ancient Russian culture - spiritual poems were formed and developed. Their texts in an accessible form reprinted biblical stories and explained the basics of Christian teaching. With the development of pilgrimage, the Kalik artels were replenished by other wanderers natives of villages, representatives of the poorest strata of the population. Thus, a special social group of wandering singers (often crippled and blind) gradually developed, living on alms and more closely associated with a certain area.The repertoire of the Kalik peredozhikh was diverse and included not only spiritual poems-stories of religious and moral content, but also their own compositions - health and memorial hymns, performed as requests for alms.

A collector of musical folklore, the author of the first special musicological study on the melodies of spiritual poems, A. L. Maslov called these chants a product of the creativity of "the newest kalikas" and drew attention to their melodic similarity {1}.The earliest auditory notations of the spiritual verses of the "poor brethren" were published in song collections of the XIX century.

The few sound recordings of health and memorial chants made in the middle and second half of the next century recorded the voices of the last bearers of the musical tradition of beggar singers-wanderers. They are contained in different sources and need to be generalized and interpreted. A significant part of the available samples of kalik melodies is associated with the north-western territories of Russia. Thus, the objectives of this article are as follows:- to present facts testifying to the preservation of the singing tradition of the Kalik crossing in the North-West of Russia;

- to conduct a comparative study of the texts and melodies of the health and memorial hymns;

- to identify the typological properties of the leading tune of the "beggar brethren", its structural and intonational origins;

- to identify the role of this tune in Russian folk music culture.


According to records made in the XIX century, the chants performed by beggar singers as a request for alms performed the function of commemorating the dead or were addressed to the living.

Their semantic differentiation was reflected in the remarks of collectors ("zazdravny", "memorial", "funeral"). The poetic texts recorded in different (mainly central and north-western) provinces of Russia were quite close variants.Two health verses (with the subtitle "Thanksgiving for Alms") were first published by the Russian folklorist-philologist, collector of folk songs P. V. Kireevsky in 1848 {2, pp. 221-222}.

In 1861, the same texts were included by P. A. Bessonov in the first volume of the collection "The Crossing Kaliki" {3, p. 41}. In it we will also find an example of a memorial verse. In the publications of Kireevsky and Bessonov, there are no indications of the places where these samples were recorded. In addition, it is known that when preparing their publications, the authors could supplement the text on the basis of other options they heard or even "reduce" them into a single narrative. However, by doing so, the first collectors gave us the opportunity to get acquainted as fully as possible with the poetic motifs and images of folk spiritual poems, many of which were not subsequently identified during field work.

Soon, variants of health and memorial poems with melodies began to appear in collections of folk songs. Among the earliest auditory notations of spiritual chants, it should be noted the samples recorded by the famous statesman, expert of Russian folklore T.I. Filippov from the singers of the city of Rzhev, Tver province. They were given by the author to N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov, and the composer included them in the collection of treatments "40 folk songs" of 1882 {4, pp. 17-18}.

In 1890, in the Borovichi district of the Novgorod province, A. K. Lyadov heard the songs of the kalik pererozhikh (including the tune of the zazdravny verse). In the collection of Russian folk songs published in 1898 (op. 43), the author gave his notation, accompanying it only with a fragment of a poetic text, leaving a comment "the end is unknown" {5, p. 7}.

Another record that requires attention was made in 1901 in the Yaroslavl province during the expedition of the Song Commission of the Russian Geographical Society by composer I. V. Nekrasov, philologists F. I. Pokrovsky and F. M. Istomin. The memorial verse published in the collection "50 songs of the Russian people" is presented in the treatment of A. K. Lyadov for voice and piano {6, pp. 4-5}.

Comparing the zazdravnye, we can conclude about the stability of the initial sections of their texts: they contain appeals to listeners on behalf of the "poor brethren", poetic motives of a prayerful nature (invoking God and holy helpers), imperative formulas referring to the poetics of Russian conspiracies. Some versions of the texts include an additional plot block prayers for the "military man".

The texts of memorial poems presented in the records of the XIX century are also similar in content. They are based on appeals to God with requests for the commemoration of the dead. Then follow the enumerative series of those who should be remembered (parents, children, brothers, sisters, etc.). The general principle of completing the texts of both memorial and health verses is a prayer request for many years to live or for the creation of eternal memory to the deceased.

Variants of texts of health poemsVariants of the texts of memorial poems

The changes that came in the life of the Russian village at the beginning of the twentieth century entailed a significant restructuring of the traditional peasant way of life and, as a result, the destruction of many public institutions and types of folk music.

The "poor brethren", as a socio-cultural phenomenon of pre-revolutionary Russia, practically ceased to exist after the events of 1917. Nevertheless, her spiritual heritage, embodied in musical and poetic forms, was preserved for many years. Thus, in the folklore traditions of the North-West of Russia, collectors have identified separate pockets of the existence of the songs of the kalik of the crossing. One of these foci is the northern part of the Pskov region.

Several poetic texts close to the above variants were recorded in 1927 by I. D. Friedrich, a collector of Russian folklore in Latgale (Yaunlatgalsky Uyezd of the Latvian SSR). In d . In Poyarkovo, Purvmala parish, he managed to meet a "professional" beggar Mikhail Ivanovich Pesyatsky, his wife Elena and daughter Evdokia. According to the story of Pesyatsky, who was 51 years old at the time of the meeting with the collector, he joined the poor brethren in his youth. As Friedrich points out, the brethren moved from one monastery to another on the territory of the Pechora and Pskov counties of the Pskov province, striving to be in time for one or another church holiday. The brotherhood broke up, probably after the formation of the new Soviet state. Once in Latvia, Pesyatsky kept his occupation he did not have a permanent place of residence and moved within the Purvmala parish, performing spiritual verses for alms in villages and at rural temples. According to his information, only a few people remained from the brotherhood "Vasily Vasiliev and his wife Pelageya", who live in the village of the Choice of the Koreshevskaya parish of Ostrovsky County, and "Alexey and his sister Evdokia" from the Spas-Great Desert of Pskov county {7}.

In addition to the texts, Friedrich wrote down a story from Pesyatsky about the life of the members of the poor brotherhood. Here are some fragments from this source: "... It was quite difficult to become an equal member of the beggar brotherhood. Anyone wishing to become a member of the brotherhood was put to the test, was obliged to please the golovar, and only after a decent treat to the whole brotherhood was he finally accepted. In order not to be understood by others, a special jargon has developed among the poor brethren: [...] ruble bumpy, dime vintage, penny sarina, two kopecks zdyuga, egg lamb, meat kreso, stingy skurdaya, broom shlochter, ask decai, bottle I joke Hereditary members of this the brethren treated with contempt those members who gave their children to the artisans to study: 2The podporozhniks2, they said in such cases" {7, p. 113}.

The earliest sound recording of the Pskov beggars' chants was made by Elsa Mahler, a philologist-Slavist, professor at the University of Basel during her expeditions to the Pechora district of the Pskov region in 1937-1939. Two samples were included by the collector in the publication "Altrussische Volkslieder aus dem Pecoryland", where they were called thanksgiving songs ("Bettlerdankeslied") {8}. The first example she gave was recorded in d . Dekshino from T. I. Kanoshina, a famous folk singer, who showed the collector how the "howlers" sing wandering singers begging at the church gates. E. Mahler recorded the second sample (gratitude for alms) from peasants from the village of Lisieux. In the comments, Mahler characterizes these chants as very ancient and draws attention to the metrical features of the first chant associated with caesurs, notes the tetrachord basis of both examples. The poetic texts published by E. Mahler are fragmentary, but even on the basis of these fragments it is possible to judge the independence of each of them:Variants of texts published by E. Mahler

After the end of the Great Patriotic War, in 1946 A. G. Kudyshkina and N. L. Kotikova recorded another version of the verse from T. I. Kanoshina.

This sample was included in the collection "Songs of Pskov Region", prepared by S. D. Magid in 1948, but published only in 2019 thanks to the efforts of E. I. Yakubovskaya {9}. The text of this chant is close to the prayer verses "for a military man" recorded in the XIX century. Some poetic features of the Pskov variant attract attention a specifically local initial motif of the appeal to "Aksyutka", as well as a line mentioning the Danube River, which was not identified in earlier records. According to the comments given in the publication "Songs of Pskov region", "Aksyutka" was sung by blind wandering singers ("howlers") under the windows of houses during the First World War "for the health of the military" {9, p. 500}.

In 1992, during an expedition of the St. Petersburg Conservatory to the village of Sosno, Gdovsky district, Pskov region, I. S. Popova and A.M. Mehnetsov recorded an unusual poetic text, according to the initial fragment (an appeal to "Aksyutka") similar to the Pechora sample. Gdovsky "Aksyutka" was published in the first part of the fundamental publication "Folk Traditional Culture of the Pskov region", prepared by a team of scientists (project manager and scientific editor A.M. Mehnetsov, author of the part I. S. Popova) {10, p. 79}. In the local tradition, this verse had a calendar timing and sounded on Easter during the circumambulation of courtyards, which determined its publication in the section of calendar folklore. The poetic text of the Gdov variant differs from the examples given earlier. Its function (a request for a gift) is directly reflected in the ending pronounced by the speaker "Auntie, testicle!". However, the content itself indicates that before us is a text of a laughable nature, referring to the figurative sphere of buffoons. The "typesetting" nature of the articulation of poetic motifs brings Gdovsky's "Aksyutka" closer to comic tall tales.

As for the title poetic motif (an appeal to Aksyutka), it directly reflects the local specifics of the poems that existed on the Pechora-Gdovsk lands. It is possible that Aksyutka is a memory recorded in the text about one of the beggars who were part of the Pskov brotherhood, but it is impossible to say for sure.

Variants of the poetic text "Aksyutki"During the expeditions of the Leningrad (St. Petersburg) Conservatory in the Novgorod (1988-1989) and Tver (1990-1991) regions, collectors identified echoes of the tradition of singing the kalik of the crossing and recorded individual musical samples.

All variants were associated by the performers with the commemoration of the dead.

M. V. Zakharova from Ramenye, Moshovsky district, remembering the singing of beggars, associated this custom with various holidays. "So many beggars will go don't leave the table! As soon as they hear where a holiday is, they go and go. Beggars come, [they are] asked to remember their parents, [they are sentenced]: "Remember, Lord, your cattle, children, family"" (Archive of the Folklore and Ethnographic Center of the St. Petersburg Conservatory. The main audio fund. No. 2764-36 Further The Archive of the FEC SPbGC. OAF.). She also told about the walking of the blind with a guide. It is interesting that in the story of M. V. Zakharova there are terms referring to the tradition of church prayers ("praise", "deacon"). "The blind walk. [Their] vodaka drives, the boy walked. They knock under the window. They sing. They ask: Can parents be glorified? The blind man came up [they give him something], and they give him eggs, they pay. That's what they go for. Then they Father [they sing] they also go through the window" (ibid.).According to comments received from residents of the village of Borovskoye, Khvoyninsky district, Novgorod region, the custom of singing memorial poems was not associated with the ideas of poor singers walking.

The chants were included in the winter rounds of the courtyards and were performed during the Yule period. The obligatory elements of such an action were mummery and gifting those who came with ritual food. "It was already at Yuletide [it was]. Some women went and remembered their parents. I dressed up as a roll-up myself. The sundress is long, [they dressed] worse, as funnier.... < > When you come to the house, they give you something. We are not hungry, but we still gave something: either kolobushki, or rybnik, or something there. Duck, you have to earn it!" (Archive of the FEC SPbGC. OAF. 2545-31,32). The basis of the poetic text of the hymns, according to the recollections of the narrator, was the enumeration of the names of deceased relatives, combined with poetic phrases from memorial prayers. "Well, I'm starting to remember my parents. You will ask: May I, hostess, host, remember your parents, relatives? Please! "Tell me their names. They call names... Here she comes to the icon, crosses herself. She will also start crying, kneel down, and cross herself. Everyone in this house remembers their parents, they call them: "Remember, Lord, so-and-so, so-and-so"" (ibid.).Similar to the descriptions of the customs of commemoration of the dead by beggars were recorded in the Bezhetsky and Rameshkovsky districts of the Tver region. K. V. Pavlova, a resident of the village of Tebleshi, recalled how she herself went home singing.

"I'm taking the basket. I take a stick crawling, or how I'm going to beg. I'm going to knock. They open the door and I'll ask. I sing them a song" (Archive of the Federal State Educational Institution SPbGC. OAF. 3071-06).The poetic texts of poems recorded in Tver villages are small in volume and unstable in structure.

However, the verbal formulas used in the chants turn out to be quite recognizable and comparable with the above samples:Variants of poetic texts of memorial poems from the Bezhetsky district of the Tver region

Thus, taking into account the Pskov, Tver, Novgorod records, we can say that the memorial and health poems, once performed by the kalikas and beggars, became part of the peasant folklore tradition in the first half of the twentieth century. On the one hand, the relevance of these genres increased in difficult times associated with the consequences of the revolution and wars, and therefore the custom of begging became one of the possible ways of subsistence in the hungry years. On the other hand, some chants have become so ingrained in the village environment that they have entered the Easter and Yuletide rounds of the courtyards. And there were sufficient reasons for this. Firstly, the "poor brethren" often appeared in villages precisely during the festive periods associated with various dates of the church calendar. Secondly, village ritual rounds of courtyards with the singing of festive and congratulatory songs performed a similar function of well-wishing to the living. In addition, church hymns could also be included in the structure of calendar rounds for example, the troparion and the kontakion of Christmas, the troparion and the stichera of Easter. Folk chants of these chants have become part of the peasant song culture in many local traditions of the northwestern region of Russia. The most significant examples of the interpenetration of church singing culture and calendar folklore were the Easter chants "Christ is Risen" recorded in the Novgorod and Tver regions, performed during ritual rounds of courtyards, villages, fields, cemeteries {11}.

VARIANTS OF THE TUNEIn order to present the tunes of health and memorial poems, let's compare their auditory notations published in collections of the second half of the XIX century, and transcripts made on the basis of expedition sound recordings.

The following options are involved in the comparison:- Tver province, the city of Rzhev: zazdravny verse (entry by T.I. Filippov) {4, p. 18};

- Tver province, the city of Rzhev: "memorial", entry by T.I. Filippov {4, p. 17};

- Novgorod province, Borovichi uyezd: zazdravny verse, recording by A. K. Lyadov {5, p. 7};

- Yaroslavl province: memorial verse, recorded by I. V. Nekrasov {6, p. 4-5};

- Pskov region, Pechorsky district, Lisye village: zazdravny verse, entry by E. Mahler {8};

- Pskov region, Pechorsky district, D. Dekshino: zazdravny verse, entry by E. Mahler {8};

- Pskov region, Pechora district, Dekshino village: a zazdravny verse, recorded by N. L. Kotikova and A. G. Kudyshkina {9, p. 354};

- Pskov region, Gdovsky district, Sosno village: "Easter" verse, recorded by I. S. Popova, A. A. Mehnetsov {10, p. 79};

- Tver region, Rameshkovsky district, Korino village: a memorial verse, recorded by E. A. Valevskaya, K. A. Mehnetsova (Archive of the FEC. OAF. 3050-17);

- Tver region, Bezhetsky district, Tebleshi village: memorial verse, recorded by G. V. Lobkova, N. P. Karamysheva (Archive of the FEC. OAF. 3076-06.).

All the considered chants have a one-verse structure. A common property of their syllabic structure is the mobility of the quantitative syllabic composition and the free alternation of dactylic and choreic endings. Two musical-time models are involved in the organization of the tunes under consideration eight- and ten-time.

The eight-time period is the basis of the Rzhev memorial verse and the Pechora version from the village of Lisieux. The recording by T. I. Filippov reflects the variability of the distribution of the poetic text in a stable time frame. The chant given by E. Mahler, on the contrary, demonstrates the stability of the ratio of the octosyllabic and the octosyllabic. The variants also differ in the rhythmic design of the clause.

Scheme 1. Syllabic structure of eight-time melodiesBased on the tentime model, four variants are organized - Borovichi, recorded by A. K. Lyadov, Gdovsky and Pechora samples from D.

Dekshino.Scheme 2. Syllabic structure of ten-time melodies

A. K. Lyadov's notation, which includes 4 small lines, shows different variants of the syllabic composition of the text and various ways of its rhythmization. Pskov poems are distinguished by a stable choreographic ending. A variant from D. Dekshino, recorded by A. G. Kudyshkina and N. L. Kotikova, demonstrates the possibilities of expanding the 8-complex model due to additional syllables, which leads to the fragmentation of the main tenses and a change in the rhythmic pattern. The Gdov sample has the most stable appearance. Its main feature, unlike other variants, is the mobile tempo of performance (according to the metronome designation twice as fast as other Pskov tunes). If we take into account the nature of the poetic text of the Gdovsky "Aksyutka", then it can be attributed to a special genre variety, in which the functions of a calendar chorus for bypassing courtyards, a dance song and a fairy tale-buffoonery are combined.In a number of variants, both music-time models can be combined.

So, for example, in the notation of the zazdravny verse made by T. I. Filippov, only the first small line is based on the 8-time model. Next, the tune is presented in a 10-time structure, in a rhythmic version similar to the Novgorod example from the collection of A. K. Lyadov (see Examples 1, 2).

I. V. Nekrasov's notation is very voluminous in terms of the number of recorded melostroks. According to her, the memorial verse recorded in the Yaroslavl province is built on a free alternation of 8- and 10-time melostroks with a syllabic composition of 6 to 10 syllables.

Scheme 3. Syllogorhythmic structure of the chant recorded by I. V. NekrasovThe samples from the Tver Region recorded during the expeditions of the Leningrad (St. Petersburg) Conservatory are less stable in terms of music and time, but they also have a noticeable attraction to the designated structures and their free alternation.

Scheme 4. Syllogorhythmic structure of the chant from the village of Korino, Rameshkovsky district

Melodically, the tunes reveal some differences related to the difference in the sound scales in volume and interval composition.

For example, in the notation of A. K. Lyadov, a combination of two melostroks of different ambitus is reflected, which creates a semblance of a question-and-answer structure. The tunes given by T. I. Filippov demonstrate direct similarity with each other, as well as with the verse recorded by Lyadov:Example 1. Novgorod region, Borovichi county {5, 7}

Example 2.

Tver province, Rzhev {4, 18}The variants of Bezhetsky melodies differ at the sound level.

For example, the verse recorded in the village of Tebleshi is based on the Phrygian tetrachord:Example 3. Memorial hymn.

Tver region, Bezhetsky district, Tebleshi village. Spanish: K. V. Pavlova, born in 1936. Notes: Lobkova G. V., Karamysheva N. P., 07/19/1990. Archive of the FEC SPbGC. OAF. 3076-06.A sample of the memorial chant recorded by I. V. Nekrasov reveals some independence it is the most developed in melodic terms and is saturated with intrasyllabic chants.

Its peculiarity is also the variability of the height position of the cadence tone.Example 4.

Yaroslavl province {6, p. 4-5}Among the Pskov examples, there are variants of the zazdravny verse, recorded in d.

Dekshino by T. I. Kanoshina. Her unhurried, "drawling" performance, saturated with chants, caesurs and word breaks, reflected the singing style of local "howlers" (from the verb "roar", cry), who practically turned the tune into a crying song.Example 5.

Pskov region, Dekshino village {8}

Nevertheless, the melodies that existed in different provinces have a significant intonational kinship, due to the general narrative orientation of the song utterance. The logic of musical movement based on a combination of two cells-motifs is also similar. Their succession forms a melodic relief of two intonation waves large and small. The initial cell (large wave) is formed by an upward movement to the quart tone and subsequent downward compensation. This chant is the most variable: its appearance is determined by the volume and type of scale, as well as the degree of development of the chant as a whole. Some tunes start from the source vertex and realize only a descending vector of melody development. The second melodic cell (small wave) completes the chant with a low-frequency descending stroke, and it is stable in all variants.The unity of the principles of lad formation is manifested in the nature of the high-pitch differentiation of the reference tones corresponding to the accent syllables of the verse line and its last syllable. Thus, a common fret basis for most melodic variants is revealed, outlining the tones of the quart trichord:Table 1. Variants of the chant (the most indicative melostroki)

The conducted review showed that the variants of the tunes of the health and memorial hymns performed by the crossing kaliks and their successors beggars-wanderers, can be attributed to one musical type.

The properties of the latter are:- single - verse composition;

- mobility of the syllabic composition of the line and free alternation of dactylic and choreic endings;

- the possibility of implementation in two music-time versions (8 and 10 units);

- a fret model based on a quart trichord with the main support on the lower tone of this cell;

- a melodic type formed as a result of a sequential ratio of two cells-motifs.

As it turned out, the kinship of the tunes of health and memorial chants is found on a fairly large territory. Probably, the similarity of the musical repertoire of singing artels from different places can be explained by their territorial movements. F.M. Istomin, who observed "huge gatherings" of wandering singers during the expedition of 1893 (together with S. M. Lyapunov), drew attention to this circumstance: "Vyatka beggars often leave the borders of the Vyatka diocese in separate parties, singing their chants in more or less well-known monasteries and deserts, attracting numerous worshippers" {12, p. 132}.However, the questions of the origin of the tune and its historical and typological assessment remain unresolved. Of course, an unambiguous interpretation is hardly possible here, if only because any fact of folklore is the result of a dynamic process of musical language development recorded at a structural level, taking place at a certain time, on a certain territory, taking into account various accompanying circumstances. Nevertheless, we will try to at least outline the main directions in which further study of the song heritage of the Kalik peredozhikh is possible.THE CHANT OF THE KALIK OF THE TRANSIENTS IN THE CONTEXT OF FOLKLORE AND CHURCH-SINGING TRADITIONS

An appeal to the expedition materials and publications of folklore of the north-western, North-Russian, central regions of Russia allowed us to establish that variants of tunes with a 10-time structure existed in folklore traditions and with other poetic texts.

We find them among the spiritual poems, the plots of which are widely known in the Russian North "Christ and the poor brethren", "The Dream of the Virgin", "Alexey the Man of God", "The Siege of the Solovetsky Monastery" {13; 14; 15}. The context of the performance of these texts, of course, was more multifaceted and covered the main calendar periods of the performance of spiritual verses in general fasting time (usually the first week of Lent) and winter gatherings ("conversations"). However, this structure of the chant is not the only one possible for these plots. The most typical is the 12-time version of the chants, which covers a number of spiritual poems and some other epic works (for example, the so-called epic about birds). Some Northern Russian samples of narrative folklore, related in tune to the zazdravny and memorial chants, have mobile composition parameters, but at the same time retain the features of syllogorhythmic organization typical of zazdravny and memorial chants.The text of the ballad "Prince Mikhailo" with the plot about the mother-in-law-the destroyer was also recorded with the variants of the melody of the kalik of the crossing.

This ballad is the only example of a poetic text that has developed in the Russian musical-epic tradition, but is not directly related to religious themes. One of the recordings of the ballad was made in the Starorussky district of the Novgorod region in 1976 by an expedition of the Novgorod Pedagogical Institute, and its melody is very close to the melody of the zazdravny chant given by A. K. Lyadov:Example 6. Novgorod region, Starorussky district, Chertitsko village {16, p.21}

Another interesting fact is that all the variants of the ballad "Prince Mikhailo" known to us, as well as the above-mentioned plots of spiritual poems (with rare exceptions), are sung only to variants of this tune.

In the works of famous Russian storytellers M. D. Krivopolenova, T. G. Ryabinin, A.M. and M. S. Kryukova, who performed poems, this musical form was assigned only to them and never served as the basis for the intonation of epics. Moreover, the 10-time compositional-rhythmic type is not typical for other genres of Russian folklore. This is a serious argument in favor of the hypothesis that the model itself was formed precisely in the sphere of folk songs of spiritual content.

Recordings of spiritual poems made in some areas of the Russian North made it possible to judge two ways of their existence in the peasant environment solo and collective {17}. This circumstance is important, because it allows us to identify the typological similarity of the ways of functioning of spiritual verses in the folklore tradition and in the environment of the Kalik transitory. The need for joint performance of poems contributed to the stabilization of the musical and poetic form. The stability of the chants performed and their musical conciseness allowed new members of the artel of singers-wanderers to integrate into it more easily and master the necessary repertoire. With further movements of pilgrims, this repertoire could "settle" in the territories where they found themselves. As for the 8-time variants of the melody of poems, here you can find a large genre spectrum of folklore forms that have a similar principle of organization.

Folk songs, the tunes of which are organized on the basis of a period of eight counting units, somehow reveal a motor-motor basis. First of all, let's pay attention to folklore genres directly related to the choreographic movement (dance and round dance songs, ditties, instrumental tunes), as well as calendar and wedding songs accompanying the ritual movements of the participants of the ceremonies (processions, yard rounds, etc.). In addition, this type of organization appears in such phenomena of folklore, which include kinetic elements associated with the song form indirectly (for example, the rocking of a child when singing lullabies, tossing rings when performing folk songs, etc.). In this context, such a structural basis of chants, one of the functions of which is to accompany the movements of the artel of wanderers, seems more than organic. In continuation of this thought, we will express one more: is this trait inherited from the tunes that developed in the practice of wandering musicians of Ancient Russia buffoons? Despite the fact that the social institutions of the Kalik and the buffoons were independent and solved different tasks in the structure of ancient Russian society, there was a lot in common between these groups of the nonPeasant population - both of them constantly traveled and earned money by singing.The peculiarities of the fret structure of the melodies of the Kalik crossing give no less important material for reflection.

The above-mentioned fret model goes back to speech intonations-formulas that perform the function of appeal, appeal. Its variants were revealed in such specific "pre-musical" phenomena as intonated shouts of peddlers and similar forms of calendar and ritual cries, ritual exclamations of priests and other forms of church psalmody. It can be said that this model belongs to the category of musical-linguistic universals, which manifest themselves in the intonation behavior of a person in connection with the implementation of similar functions. Representing the most convenient and most natural form of melodically expressed narrative-petition, it perfectly coincided with the requirements of the genre and was able to realize its communicative tasks.Table 2.

Exclamations that implement a single fret modelIf we talk about the intonation connections of the melody of the kalik of the passing and other folklore genres, then we can find them in the melodies of Pskov, Novgorod, Onega lamentations, in some farewell wedding songs of the North and North-West of Russia, lyrical songs-complaints.

The very principle of combining large and small melodic waves (implemented in various sound scales) is typical for many genres of a lamentable narrative orientation. In particular, it acts as one of the leading constructive principles of the formation of epic and lamentable tunes in the Russian North.Example 7. Novgorod region, Poddorsky district, Maslovskoye village {22, p. 163}

Let's pay attention to one more feature of health and memorial chants, reflected both in auditory notations and in transcripts of sound recordings the completion of the performance with an independent musical phrase of a generalizing nature.

This feature of the composition of memorial and health hymns was first noticed by A. L. Maslov, who called the final melostroki "cadences". Some variants of such "cadences" are solved in a narrative way and have a downward direction of the melody. The final musical phrases differ in structure from the main tune they expand (a variant of the "memorial" verse by T. I. Filippov) or, on the contrary, reduce (the Teblesh variant) its limits.Cadences of this kind evoke associations with the principles of the organization of colloquial speech, which is characteristic of the genres of narrative folklore epics, lamentations.

Phrases uttered by a "talker" often complete the performance of carols, village versions of the Christmas troparion, folk prayers and incantations. The principle of completing the performance with similar "cadences" can also be found in church voice chants for example, in stichera and troparia. Their lyrics are sung on the basis of a certain repeatedly repeated melodic formula. The final line of the text performs the function of cadence it is different in structure and often differs melodically. As a rule, it is solved in a narrative way and has a descending melodic contour (see Example 4).

More interesting are the "cadences" based on an ascending melodic turn. We find their examples in the Pechora chant of "Aksyutka" and a version of the Rzhev "zazdravny" verse recorded by T. I. Filippov. Both samples end on the quart tone of the scale. The intonations of the exclamation underlying these "cadences" evoke associations with ritual calendar tunes. Probably, these connections are not accidental the chants had a pronounced communicative orientation, combining the functions of a prayer appeal to God and requests for alms sent to people listening to them.

Table 3. Variants of cadence melostroks

Likewise arranged form of liturgical reading of the chorus. They end with a special intonation speed that is different from the "main pagesize". One of the most typical methods to indicate the end of raspevnye read ascending trichotomy motif with a stop at kvantovom tone:

Example 8. A fragment of the gospel reading {18, c. 313}

Finally, the interpretation requires and a sign of spiritual songs, as trochaic ending that is detected in all detected samples. Sometimes, as already noted, it's free alternating with dactylic verse clause, but quite often dominant throughout the whole musical and poetic text. The presence of so-called "feminine" endings, the attraction of Renaissance texts and funeral poems to ravesloot, periodic presence of the rhymes all of which can be a reflection of the influence of wireway poetry of spiritual content, formed in Poland and is widely spread in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia since the seventeenth century{23}. The appearance verchenova verse of the Russian folk-song art, likely due, in particular, with the Institute of pilgrims, as among them were educated people included in the book culture. In addition, the constant movement of cooperatives singers, the pilgrims created the conditions for the penetration of new forms of poetry and contributed to the further adaptation in the Russian literary tradition.


The musical tradition of the Russian singers of the Wanderers recorded by the collectors of the XIX-XX centuries in North-Western, Northern and Central provinces of Russia, is a special phenomenon of folk music culture. She was in the process of summarizing the different listening experience, lying in the field of Church music and folk melodies. The core of this tradition made up a tune, carrying out a role of the musical formula of the base to which pilgrims sang as a grace-and funerary texts, and other related Christian motifs and images. Surprisingly, in the composition of the stories featured in this verse, included the ballad "Prince Michael", which was common on a fairly large area, while maintaining structural connection with spiritual songs {24}.

Based on the article above facts we can conclude that the main version of the melody pilgrims demonstrate a 10-time grace-samples and funeral hymns. This is evidenced by the fact that in Russian folklore the existence of this musical-structural type is limited only for the living and a funeral songs Kalik, some spiritual poetry and the ballad and other genre spheres not found. However, close intonation, rhythmic, compositional relationship of melody with a wide range of genres of folklore suggests that it was formed on the basis of compositional and melodic techniques established in the practice of peasant folk culture. The shared intonational melody with Church hymns, especially the forms of liturgical reading, is an indication of the proximity of the singing culture of the pilgrims and Church-music traditions in General, and reveals the properties that can be attributed to the category of universals ancient musical language based on the speech inflections.

Forwarding the record of the middle and second half of the twentieth century give the opportunity to see how life goes on the musical repertoire of the pilgrims in folklore traditions, develop local versions of tunes and texts, they are redefining the genre. Attracting additional range of sources can help to detect traces of existence of the tunes of the poor brethren in other genres of folklore. I hope that in the course of further research, there are additional grounds to denote relations between the two historically separate musical traditions that have shaped Russian singers-strangers beggars and buffoons.

1. Maslov A. L. (1905). The Kaliki who pass over to Russia and their melodies: Historical background and melodic-technical analysis. St. Petersburg: Type. glav. upr. udelov, 1905. 12 p.
2. Kireevsky P. V. (1848). Russian folk poems // Readings in the Imperial Society of Russian History and Antiquities at Moscow University. M., 1848. Issue 9. pp. 145-228.
3. Bessonov P. A. (1861). Kaliki are transitive. Collection of poems and research. Volume 1. M., 1861. 268 p.
4. Rimsky-Korsakov N. A. (1882). 40 Russian folk songs recorded by T. I. Filippov and harmonized by N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov. Moscow: P. I. Jurgenson Publishing House, 1882. 62 p.
5. Lyadov A. K. (1898). Collection of Russian folk songs (Op. 43) / A. K. Lyadov. Leipzig: edition of M. P. Belyaev, 1898. 40 p.
6. songs of the Russian people for one voice with piano accompaniment from collected in 1894-1899 and 1901 by I. V. Nekrasov, F. M. Istomin and F. I. Pokrovsky (1903). Arranged by Anatoly Lyadov. St. Petersburg: ed. Song Commission IRGO, 1903. 84 p.
7. Folklore of the Russian peasants of the Yaunlatgalsky district / Collected by I. D. Friedrich, edited by Prof. P. Schmit. Book 1: Songs: children's, round dance, conversation, ritual, conspiracies and spiritual poems, etc. (1936). Riga: publishing house Ya. Friedrich, 1936.-527 p.
8. Mahler Elsa. (1951). The Russian People's Leader in Wonderland: Fur Gesang a cappella. Basel: Barenreiter, 1951. 180 p.
9. Magid S. D. (2019). Songs of Pskov region: Unpublished materials of expeditions of the Pushkin House Phonogram Archive / ed. by Goth. E. I. Yakubovskaya. St. Petersburg : Publishing House "Pushkin House", 2019. 560 p.
10. Folk traditional culture of the Pskov region: an overview of expedition materials. Vol. 1. / Author of the project A.M. Mehnetsov (2002). St. Petersburg, Pskov: Publishing House of the Pskov Regional Center of the nar. creativity, 2002. 686 p.
11. Korolkova I. V. (2014). Folk songs and games of the Novgorod region. (A textbook on musical folklore from the expedition collections of the Folklore and Ethnographic Center named after A.M. Mehnetsov of the St. Petersburg State Conservatory named after N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov. Issue 1). St. Petersburg: Publishing house "Multigraphic", 2014. 48 p.
12. Songs of the Russian people: collected in the provinces of Vologda, Vyatka and Kostroma in 1893. They recorded the words of F.M. Istomin; the melodies of S.M. Lyapunov (1899). St. Petersburg: Publishing House of IRGO, 1899. 279 p.
13. Astakhova A.M. (1951) Epics of the North. Volume two. Prionezhye, Pinega and Pomorie. Moscow, L.: Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1951. 849 p .
14. White Sea stariny and spiritual poems: Collection of A.V. Markov (2002) / RAS. In-t rus. lit. (Pushkin. House). St. Petersburg: Dmitry Bulanin, 2002. 1080 p.
15. Lobkova G. V. Features of the epic tunes of the Vologda region // In the footsteps of E. E. Lineva: collection of Scientific articles / ed.-comp. A.V. Kulev (2002). Vologda : Regional scientific method. Center of Culture and Advanced Training, 2002. pp. 150-185.
16. Traditional folklore of the Novgorod region (according to records of 1963-1976): Songs. Lamentations // Edited by V. I. Zhekulina, V. V. Korguzalov, M.A. Lobanov, V.V. Mitrofanova (1979). L.: Nauka, 1979. 349 p.
17. Kastrov A. Yu. (1998). Epic ballads and spiritual poems of the Obonezhye in the records of 1926-1934 // From the History of Russian Folklore / Ed. by A. A. Gorelov. SPb., 1998. pp. 403-438.
18. Vladyshevskaya T. F. (2006). Musical culture of Ancient Russia. Moscow: Znak, 2006. 472 p.
19. The Deacon's Companion / Comp. Archpriest Alexander Sorokin (2003). St. Petersburg: Satis, 2003. 64 p.
20. The cries of peddlers in the records of A. T. Grechaninov, A.M. Listopadov, N. A. Nevstruev, N. A. Yanchuk and D. I. Arakchiev (1906). With an introduction. note by N. A. Yanchuk and with adj. // Proceedings of the IEC. Vol.1. M., 1906.
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To the journal "PHILHARMONICA. International Music Journal" the author presented his article "The chant of the Kalik peredozhikh and its role in the Russian folk music tradition", in which a study of the features of the musical and poetic forms of ancient Russian culture and its influence on the development of the folk music genre was conducted. The author proceeds in studying this issue from the fact that the musical tradition of Russian singer-wanderers, recorded by collectors of the XIX-XX centuries in the northwestern, northern and central provinces of Russia, is a special phenomenon of folk musical culture. It was formed in the process of generalizing various auditory impressions that lie both in the field of church music and in folklore melos. The core of this tradition was a chant, which served as a musical formula in it the basis on which the kaliki of the transition sang both health and memorial texts, as well as others related to Christian motifs and images. Unfortunately, the author does not specify the relevance and scientific novelty of the study. The theoretical basis of the research was the works of such musicologists as A.L. Maslov, A.K. Lyadov, P.A. Bessonov and others. The empirical basis of the research was various collections of epic folk songs and materials from ethnographic and folklore expeditions. The methodological basis of the work is an integrated approach, including comparative, cultural-historical, compositional and musicological analysis. The purpose of the study is to determine the expressive musical means and compositional features characteristic of the melodies and chants of a special social group of wandering singers. The author sets the following tasks: to present facts testifying to the preservation of the singing tradition of the kalikas in the North-West of Russia; to conduct a comparative study of the texts and melodies of the health and memorial chants; to identify the typological properties of the leading tune of the "beggar brethren", its structural and intonation origins; to identify the role of this tune in Russian folk musical culture. To achieve this goal, the author divided the text of the study into logical parts, each of which is devoted to the illumination and solution of the corresponding task. In the section "Health and memorial poems in the folk song traditions of the North-West of Russia" the author analyzes the Pskov, Tver, Novgorod recordings. According to the author, memorial and salutary poems, once performed by the wandering and beggars, in the first half of the twentieth century became part of the peasant folklore tradition. On the one hand, the relevance of these genres increased in difficult times associated with the consequences of the revolution and wars, and therefore the custom of begging became one of the possible ways of subsistence in the hungry years. On the other hand, some chants have become so ingrained in the village environment that they have entered the Easter and Yuletide rounds of the courtyards. In addition, church hymns could also be included in the structure of calendar rounds. Folk chants of these chants have become part of the peasant song culture in many local traditions of the northwestern region of Russia. In the section "Variants of the tune", the author compares auditory notations published in collections of the second half of the XIX century, and transcriptions made on the basis of expeditionary sound recordings of the Novgorod, Yaroslavl, Pskov, Tver regions. Based on the musicological and compositional analysis, the author comes to the conclusion that all the considered chants have a single-verse structure. A common property of their syllabic structure is the mobility of the quantitative-syllabic composition and the free alternation of dactylic and choreic endings. Two musical-temporal models are involved in the organization of the tunes under consideration an eight- and ten-time one. However, the questions of the origin of the tune and its historical and typological assessment remain unresolved for the author. Nevertheless, it indicates the main directions in which further study of the song heritage of the Kalik of the crossing is possible. In the section "The chant of the Kalik passing in the context of folklore and church singing traditions", the author analyzes the ways of forming variations of melodies and their mutual influence with other poetic folklore and spiritual forms of musical folk art. The author notes the structural, compositional, and modal similarities with the ceremonial and epic Pskov, Novgorod, and Onega lamentations, the ballad "Prince Mikhailo", and chant liturgical readings. As the author notes, the constant movements of the pilgrim singers' artels created conditions for the penetration of new forms of poetry and contributed to their further adaptation in the Russian literary tradition. In conclusion, the author presents conclusions on the studied material and outlines the direction of further research: the study of the interrelationships of two historically independent musical traditions formed by Russian singers-wanderers kaliks and buffoons. It seems that the author in his material touched upon relevant and interesting issues for modern socio-humanitarian knowledge, choosing a topic for analysis, consideration of which in scientific research discourse will entail certain changes in the established approaches and directions of analysis of the problem addressed in the presented article. The results obtained allow us to assert that the study of musical, compositional and plot features of folk art samples, the analysis of their similarities and differences depending on the area of distribution and social groups is of undoubted scientific and practical cultural significance. The obtained material can serve as a basis for further research within the framework of this issue. The material presented in the work has a clear, logically structured structure that contributes to a more complete assimilation of the material. This is also facilitated by an adequate choice of an appropriate methodological framework. The bibliographic list of the study consists of 24 sources, which seems sufficient for the generalization and analysis of scientific discourse on the subject under study. The author fulfilled his goal, received certain scientific results that allowed him to summarize the material. It should be noted that the article may be of interest to readers and deserves to be published in a reputable scientific publication.
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