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PHILHARMONICA. International Music Journal
Reference:

Musical Theatricalization in the aspect of value communication: on the issue of terminology

Kireyeva Natalia Yurievna

PhD in Art History

Associate Professor at the Department of History and Theory of Performing Arts and Music Pedagogics of Saratov State Conservatoire

410012, Russia, g. Saratov, Petr Stolypin Avenue, 1.

sanata1004@yandex.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 

DOI:

10.7256/2453-613X.2022.3.38054

Received:

12-05-2022


Published:

05-06-2022


Abstract: The object of study is musical theatricalization, which is considered from the perspective of value communication. The novelty of the research lies in the theoretical development and introduction into scientific circulation of the generalizing concept of musical theatricalization, which allows combining genre dominants of various aesthetic activities in its field. The concept of musical theatricalization is appropriate and helps to cover all the available variety of musical and theatrical material without being constrained by historical and specifically professional frameworks. Musical theatricalization is based on musical and theatrical creativity as a conscious synthetic (in art) or unconscious syncretic (in folklore) form of expression of a multidimensional human potential. Musical theatricalization includes various forms of musical and theatrical performances and musical and theatrical genres formed during their evolution. Musical theatricalization acts as a genre class in which there are stable and mobile genre features. The musical and theatrical beginnings become axial, which can manifest themselves in different forms, changing the ratio of musical and theatrical means of expression. There is a movement of the theatrical component: from the minimal manifestation of theatricality in a musical work (the inclusion of kinesthetic means of expression) to the stage production of an opera performance and even a mystery. The study of musical theatricalization is carried out from the position of functional relativity, which allows us to determine the degree of importance of the phenomenon of art for individual subjects who are in a communicative situation. The same work can have different degrees of value depending on the historical and communicative context and, accordingly, on the functions that a particular work acquires. The aesthetic and anthropological value of a piece of music is determined by the functional mood of the addressee at a certain moment. The discrepancy between the functional mood of the participants of the communicative act for various reasons leads to a loss of the quality of communication and, as a consequence, to discrepancies in the evaluation of the artwork, the emergence of functional asymmetry.


Keywords:

spiritual values, musical perception, choral theater, value communication, the system of functional relativity, opera, instrumental theater, genre class, genre, musical theatricalization

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

Musical theater as a complex and multifaceted form of realization of musical theatricalization is one of the highest achievements of culture. In its artistic space, the musical theater combines a large number of different means of expression. Often the works impress with their scale and depth of ideas, multi-component structure. The originality of the musical language and the originality of the embodiment of performances can evoke feelings of admiration and awe. The plots and images presented in the works of musical and theatrical art are a direct or indirect reflection of the facts and events of various areas of people's lives, which indicates the need for this kind of creative expression, as well as the craving for human interaction in the aesthetic space. This is how the problem of value interaction of a person with the world through musical and theatrical creativity is actualized.

The purpose of this article is the introduction and development of the concept of musical theatricalization, as well as the definition of musical theatricalization as a special kind of value communication by means of artistic expression, while the research methodology is complex and lies at once in three planes of scientific knowledge art criticism, axiology and communication theory.

In order to understand what musical theatricalization is, it is necessary to determine the genre parameters and signs of the phenomenon under consideration. To do this, you should refer to the existing scientific works devoted to this problem. Many researchers have been engaged in the systematic development of genre theory and genre differentiation. Among them: T. V. Popova (examines the conditions of the existence of music and the peculiarities of performance; stand out: 1) folk and household music of oral tradition (song and instrumental); 2) light household and pop-entertainment music; 3) chamber music for small halls, for small compositions; 4) symphonic music performed by large orchestras in concert halls; 5) choral music; 6) musical theatrical and dramatic works intended for performance on stage) [25], V. A. Zuckerman (differentiates lyrical genres, narrative and epic genres; motor genres associated with movement; pictorial genres) [36], A. N. Sokhor (identifies cult or ritual genres; mass-everyday genres; concert genres; musical-theatrical genres) [29], O. V. Sokolov (differentiates the following genres: pure music, interacting music, applied music, applied interacting music) [28], etc.

So, it can be noted that the system of genre differentiation is formed based on what becomes the central selection criterion. This can be a classification based on differentiation by specific artistic and applied characteristics, by functions, by structural complexity and form, by the peculiarities of origin and nature of use, performance, etc. The generalizing definition of E. V. Nazaikinsky, based on the definition given by E. M. Tsareva, becomes important in the development of genre theory. these are historically established relatively stable types, classes, genera and types of musical works, delimited by a number of criteria, the main of which are: a) a specific life purpose (social, household, artistic functions), b) conditions and means of performance, c) the nature of the content and forms of its embodiment" [22, c. 94],[35, p. 383].

From the last definition it follows that the central object of art criticism, as a rule, are musical works. However, at the same time, the classification of musical creations is carried out by studying and differentiating attributive features that allow differentiating genres relative to each other. From the given genre typologies of various scientists, it can be seen that musical works are a reflection of life situations, the specifics of performance, etc. This means that the conditions of existence also fall into the research field of the theory and history of art.

It is also worth noting another significant point. Despite the fact that E. V. Nazaikinsky writes only about "musical works" that are the result of a specific human activity artistic creativity, his arguments about the existence of various genres, as in the theories of other scientists, cover not only a purely professional field, but also applied, which also includes ritual music, because "genres are the real connection of music with life" [22, p. 80]. This idea is a kind of continuation of the idea once expressed by the great Russian composer M. I. Glinka, emphasizing the close connection between folk art, firmly woven into everyday life, and academic art: "The people create music, and we, artists, only record and arrange" [cit. according to: 27, p. 581]. Despite the existing doubts about the authenticity of this statement, its essence is the credo of most creators, because in many ways the folk principle, which is peculiarly refracted in the music of academic composers, becomes the foundation of their compositions, and also acquires its own unique image, which allows further distinguishing one national school from another. And indeed, the separation of these two spheres of activity makes it even more clear that musical creativity is a "real laboratory", in which rituals, life situations and phenomena are intertwined with everyday life, work and collective creativity, which reflects the patterns of volitional and emotional processes, the peculiarities of thinking and linguistic logic of people. All this finds its refraction in specific musical means of expression and sometimes acquires the most complex and sophisticated forms of embodiment that exist in artistic musical culture.

Returning to the term itself, it should be emphasized that in translation into Russian the word "genre" means "genus". But at the same time, in art history and musical practice, a genre can also be called a group. So, for example, a suite, which is a cyclic form and at the same time represents a separate genre, includes plays that have an independent genre status: allemande, sarabande, minuet, gigue, etc.; the same applies to the genre of opera, which also includes independent genre units: overture, arias, cavatins, quartets , etc . Continuing this tradition, it is possible to add musical theatricalization to this series, which becomes a generalizing genre class and includes many other specifically artistic and applied genres that combine musical and theatrical components in different proportions (syncretic action, operetta, opera, instrumental theater, choral theater and other genres).

The synthesis of musical and theatrical principles becomes centralizing, axial. On the one hand, the presence of such musical and theatrical creativity, which arose literally with the birth of a person and with the formation of his ability to reflect, - creativity that has existed for many subsequent centuries and has remained relevant to this day, allows us to fix the fact of the repeatability and demand for a phenomenon that has a "specific life purpose". On the other hand, the disclosure of the specifics of the transformations of the "nature of the content" and "forms of embodiment" of musical and theatrical creativity, as well as "means of performance" at different stages of the evolution of society allows us to define musical theatricalization as a genre class.

The key point for this study is the interpretation of the musical genre in the context of social communication. The modern musicologist V. O. Petrov draws attention to the fact that the genre is an integral part of musical culture and becomes "a product of the social life of the society contemporary to it" [24, p. 19]. And indeed, the social environment and the peculiarities of the life of a particular people have a significant impact on the formation of a particular genre. Moreover, this gives rise to some researchers to speak quite confidently about the ontological basis of the genre, based on the fact of the manifestation in the works of musical creativity of the "cosmo-psycho-logos of the ethnos", expressing its identity and identity: "clarification of the essential foundations of the ontology of the genre, which is the certainty of its folklore origin, initially encourages reasoning about it, as about the ethnocultural evidence of the quality of being of the ethnos that gave birth to it," N. B. Bondarenko writes [5, p. 21]. A. Z. Vasiliev adheres to a similar point of view. Arguing about the genological foundations of artistic culture, he notes that the genre is "a materialized consequence of processes occurring initially in the depths of the artistic consciousness of society" [8, p. 129].

In musical and theatrical practice, the manifestation of "physical energies" (A. F. Losev) is carried out in a number of being similar and at the same time different forms of human creative activity. At the same time, the participation of various communicative groups that are the creators of works plays an important role in the phenomenological process. And if at the genological level we are dealing with nonlinear spaces, then the manifestation of being to consciousness in creations at the phenomenological level is closely related to physical parameters. V. O. Petrov also writes about the importance of the communicative factor: "the identification of the social status and social institutionalization of the genre, naturally, requires the inclusion of its communicative functions as an object of research, since the consideration of the genre is the consideration of its sociocommunicative system reflecting the genre being in society" [24, p. 19]. This approach makes it possible to identify in the best way both the evolution of modifications of specific musical and theatrical elements, and the peculiarities of changing the social status of a particular genre in a certain historical period. Social events and processes of public organization directly affect the formation and subsequent existence of the genre. This is especially true of the existence of works of art. The author emphasizes that earlier one of the leading Russian researchers A. N. Sokhor argued that the genre is an integral system in which "the practice of not only composing creativity is crystallized and consolidated, but also the social existence of music and its perception" [30, p. 180].

Considering the problem of the realization of works of academic musical and theatrical art, we can say with confidence that along with the composer's contribution to the work, the link that is designed to "revive" the musical text and present it in the form of a stage interpretation also plays an important role. The interpreter (for example, the authors of a stage production) becomes practically a co-author of the work, because often almost half of the success or failure of the performance is associated with the stage form of presentation of musical and theatrical material. At the same time, it is also important to emphasize that the public is not the least important. Since it is she who "completes" the artistic image of the performance and becomes the distributor of value judgment, thereby influencing the preferences of large segments of the population the potential public. It is also worth adding that the development of genres, which are the basis of the musical repertoire, is associated not only with the level of professional skill of performers, but also with the willingness of the public. Thus, D. B. Gudimov is convinced that "a repertoire appears when at least three trends "coincide" over a sufficiently long time period: the readiness of the instruments, the public and the artists" [10, p. 163]. Reflecting on the readiness of the audience, the once great German composer and conductor Richard Wagner, with his characteristic fervor, asked: "But who is this "public" to whom bad things can be offered under the guise of mediocre? How can she have the judgment to understand this and, what seems especially difficult, to recognize the mediocre..." [6, p. 625]. Wagner believes that the contemporary socio-cultural situation surrounds a person with mediocre art, as a result of which the public becomes unable to perceive highly artistic works. At the same time, the author, willingly or unwittingly, accuses the public of unwillingness to strive for the knowledge of high-quality art, to which it is necessary to "grow up". The fact is stated that "in the end, the long habit of inertia imposes its seal and turns into a conviction" [6, p. 626], Wagner notes that this has an extremely negative effect on those who create and present art: in order to ensure their existence, they are forced to focus on the public, which for the most part has very dubious and mediocre tastes.

Consequently, the presence of diverse components of the deployment of the musical and theatrical process develops into a communicative system that has a rather complex organization, accompanied by multilevel interaction and mutual influence of its elements. Confirmation of this can be found in the following statement of the Russian art critic A. N. Yakupov: in musical art, "heterogeneous layers permanently interact, causing both specific acts of generating artistic values by the author (collective or individual), their interpretation by the performer, creative perception by the listener ... and broad socio-historical, aesthetic, psychological, activity layers of culture and social consciousness in their development" [37, p. 11].

The above elements of the communication system are essential for this study. Thus, A. N. Yakupov writes that layers are involved in musical art, determining factors and conditions for the creation and functioning of musical works (author, performer, listener), but the scientist also presents a musical work as a translator of "artistic values". That is, a piece of music becomes part of the value system of society. Therefore, the significance of a work is determined not only by its properties in themselves, but also by the degree of its involvement in the sphere of human activity, needs and interests. The researcher also considers the metalevel of communication - the psychological layer and social consciousness. It is possible to pay attention to the fact that the modern researcher D. I. Varlamov also includes metaphysical space in the field of research of artistic works. By artistic phenomena, he means "not only the results of artistic activity, but also its processes occurring both in being and consciousness" [7, p. 129]. All this leads us directly to the study of the relationship between a musical work and a personality, or rather, the influence of a musical work on the structure of personality and the reflection of the structure of personality in an aesthetic creation.

Recall that A. N. Yakupov also identifies an "activity layer". Active activity is an integral part of any process, but it acquires special significance during the transfer of experience. For example, in the understanding of L. N. Berezovchuk, the musical genre is "a system of functions that provides musical communication and the transfer of social experience" [3, p. 101]. The researcher believes that "the sociological approach to the study of musical genres suggests opportunities for modeling the communicative stereotypes of the genre, such as the performance situation, the social status of the audience, its value orientations, the level of education, the target attitude of music, etc." [3, p. 12].

All of the above is important for the ongoing research. But at the moment it is necessary to focus attention on understanding the role of a musical work in gaining aesthetic and professional experience (the existence of the work in the educational space). It is the degree of activity-based approach to works of musical art that determines the amount of experience transmitted and received, as well as value attitudes that affect the perception of the world and the structure of a person's personality. According to E. V. Nazaikinsky, "genre as an artistic phenomenon is extremely important for musical practice composing, performing, pedagogical, as well as for the theory and history of music and, of course, for research work" [22, p. 81].

Returning to the words of A. N. Yakupov, it is important to emphasize that the art historian goes to a more general context and involves "broad socio-historical layers" in the communicative system. Indeed, "many researchers emphasize the dependence of genre on the social context, giving the concept of genre a social status," writes V. O. Petrov [24, p. 20]. This also becomes fundamentally significant for the present study. The study of musical theatricalization, for example, in a socio-historical retrospective allows us to correlate the phenomena with each other, due to which the peculiarities of the development of the forms of representations of the genre class are revealed. Such a broad approach also makes it possible to characterize the communicative connections between the public representatives who are very far from professional musical activity and the attitude to the musical art of society as a whole.

The role of each link in the communicative system of musical and theatrical creativity is similar, since all links are significant and are an obligatory attribute of the social life of the genre, but at the same time it is different, since the axiological orientation and the volume of translation of spiritual values directly depends on the function of each link. As V. O. Petrov rightly emphasizes, "studying a musical text without involving the specific features of composition (composers), interpretation (performers) and perception (listeners) will entail a misunderstanding of the purpose of the text itself, its social functions" [24, p. 21]. Let us recall that the importance of the perception factor of a musical work in determining the specific criteria of a musical genre is also emphasized by E. M. Tsareva [35].

Summation and development of the considered ideas necessarily leads to the development of the theory of functional relativity. Its meaning is as follows. The same work may have different degrees of value depending on the historical and communicative context and, accordingly, on the functions that a particular work acquires or is "endowed with". The aesthetic and anthropological value of a piece of music is determined by the functional mood of the addressee and addressee at a certain moment.

The discrepancy, for various reasons, of the functional mood of the participants in the communicative act leads to a change in the qualities of communication and, as a consequence, to the appearance of misconceptions during the evaluation of a work of art, the emergence of functional asymmetry or functional discrepancy in the evaluation of the result obtained. As one example, we can cite the situation of staging an opera performance in a theater. The listener sitting in the hall becomes a participant in artistic communication, and he accepts the external conditions that determine the process of the "stage hall" dialogue, his behavior corresponds to the established rules of the socio-theatrical institute. At the same time, the motivation for the arrival of each representative of the public to the performance may vary. Some listeners strive to get purely aesthetic pleasure, others are tempted by scenic and directorial solutions, others evaluate the vocal skills of performers. Among the representatives of the public may be the creators of the work: composer, director, set designer, etc. The evaluation of the performance from their position necessarily includes other parameters, such as the integrity of the production, the elaboration and correlation of theatrical components. The recipients of musical and theatrical art are also the direct participants of the performance - actors, instrumentalists, performers and a conductor. Accordingly, their assessment of what is happening is markedly different from other recipients. The functional attitude will be absolutely dissimilar and the value attitude of another class of recipients will be different: representatives of the administrative and organizational corps, producers, people who carry out audio and video recording. For the most part, they are aimed at promoting a musical and theatrical product and maximizing profit. And a situation may become natural when a high-quality and elite performance can be appreciated by art connoisseurs, but not accepted by a mass audience. In this case, there is a functional asymmetry. On the one hand, the creators of the production are confident in the quality of the performance, which is distinguished by a high professional level and a significant degree of return of each participant of the action. At the same time, on the other hand, the opinion of the administration representatives may differ from the position of professionals, since along with achieving quality, they are also interested in mass resonance, which becomes decisive for them in evaluating the resulting performance.

In the situation of perception of an opera text, the functional mood will also differ, for example, a musicologist-theorist, in the center of his attention will be a musical text that will be evaluated according to purely musical criteria determined by the construction of a literary primary source (if available), libretto and verbal-musical material. For a recipient who includes an opera composition as the background of his main activity, it will only matter how the composition affects the emotional mood, and the degree of its influence on productivity or, conversely, on the state of relaxation.

Thus, the anthropological communicative-axiological perspective becomes the main one in the study, in which musical creativity exists thanks to a person and for a person. The main range of problematic issues is as follows: what does musical theatricalization give to a person and society? how do people and society influence the development of musical theatricalization?

The scientist Z. V. Fomina rightly writes that art has always occupied an important place in a person's life, was existentially significant for him. Turning to creative activity, to works of art as a carrier of "ideal (spiritual) content and sensually perceived form" (V. O. Petrov), a person strives to fill himself with the experience that he needs to improve the structure of his own personality. So, a person "consciously or unconsciously, looking for answers to questions: how does this relate to me? why do I need this knowledge? what conclusions can I draw from this for my own life, for self-determination, self-orientation in the world?" [34, p. 96]. The search for answers to these questions allows a person to develop value orientations, with the help of which he will be able to achieve the fullness of personal being, as well as to comprehend the nature of his attitude to other people and, accordingly, successfully self-actualize in society. Consequently, these issues "cannot be completely taken out of the brackets of art history research," Z. V. Fomina is convinced [34, p. 96]. It can also be supplemented and said that the search for answers to the questions posed becomes one of the main conceptual tasks of the study.

In general, the main ideological perspectives also take place in the developments of the theory of axiology and are reflected in its postulates, which definitely brings art criticism closer to axiology. Thus, the Russian researcher L. N. Stolovich identifies several trends in axiology: naturalistic, psychological, sociological, phenomenological, existentialist, theological, etc. [31]. The same aspects become important for researchers of the genre: A. N. Sokhor, E. V. Nazaikinsky, V. O. Petrov, etc. In his work , R. Ingarden clearly identifies a range of issues that remain relevant to this day and require discussion. On what basis do the types of values differ, as well as values within each type? What is the formal structure of values? How is the value related to the carrier? In what way do values exist, if at all? What is the criterion for differentiating values by rank? Is a hierarchy of values possible? Are there "autonomous" values? What does "objectivity" of value mean? [41]. This range of questions echoes the range of previously cited questions asked by Z. V. Fomina regarding works of musical art. The same range of issues is actualized in our study of musical theatricalization.

Y. V. Kushnarenko reveals contradictions between two concepts of axiology classical and non-classical. It is important for our research that in the process of defining the concept of value, the author identifies both the ontological and epistemological basis of axiology, where it appears as an act of transcendence, having a value aspect, which is the ontological basis for the conceptualization of value, which then appears in the form of theoretical propositions. At the same time, the value itself is "a conscious experience of transcendence through a symbol created personally" [16, p. 13]. The work of M. M. Bakhtin is of significant importance for the study, where, among others, he discusses the problem of connecting "life" and "culture", where the main thing is the need for an internal connection between theory and any work of art with the living state accompanying the creation and perception of a work of culture. This is a necessary condition for the realization of the existence of values [1]. These ideas closely overlap with the range of criteria that determine the specifics of the existence of a genre or genre class, which was written by A. N. Sokhor, E. V. Nazaikinsky, V. O. Petrov and other art historians.

Another important field is the comprehension of the problem of the hierarchy of cultural values. Yu. M. Lotman wrote that "the hierarchy of cultural significance of various spaces is complemented by a hierarchy of degrees of their value (depending on the internal structure of this type of culture); this is how spaces intended for state-political activity, private life, etc. are allocated. Aesthetic experiences are also by no means evenly distributed within the cultural space" [20, p. 49].

A comprehensive study of musical theatricalization in the socio-cultural space actualizes the principles of determinism, assuming a natural relationship and interdependence of the phenomena of reality; generalization of individual historical and scientific concepts allows you to analyze objects with new system-structural characteristics. The central idea is that every state of the universe is a consequence of previous and the cause of subsequent states.

This is an indicator of the impossibility of existence outside the system. But this is a system of a new order, in other words, neodeterminism, with its nonlinearity. The paradigm of nonlinear determinism is based on the following principles, which are important for our research: 1) non-linearity does not allow us to interpret the various states of the system as progressive or regressive; 2) the transforming object is considered as an open system, not isolated by rigid causal relationships. The ideas of nonlinear determinism or indeterminism formed the basis of the synergetic approach.

The model proposed by the Belgian scientist of Russian origin I. R. Prigozhin, the Free University of Brussels and the American Synergetic School becomes valuable for our research. Synergetics allows for the possibility of sections of linear processes within the general nonlinearity of what is happening. That is, the processes of self-organization in non-equilibrium conditions occur due to the interaction of chance and necessity. In the periods between bifurcations (the possibilities of the system's exit from their state of chaos, changes in steady-state operating modes or states of the system), deterministic factors dominate, ensuring relative stability and stability. The bifurcation points contain various variants of the dynamics of the evolution of the system. The movement moves to another level when a fluctuation appears a heterogeneity that violates the established order of functioning of the system. That is, the processuality of the studied subjectivity is organized by "order out of chaos". The synergetic approach to the study of the art space has been tested in the fundamental works of I. A. Evin [11]. The work of art and deep creative processes are analyzed through the principles of self-organization, including based on the characteristics of the brain that creates and perceives the composition of the subject.

Developing the above ideas, we can add that determinism is complemented by metadeterminism (my term is N. K.), according to which the subject is not determined by external influence, but the external actions of the subject are carried out according to the conditionality of the internal task. The formation of this task takes place in the coordinate system of nonlinear determinism or according to the conditions of functioning of self-developing systems.

The world is understood as a "hierarchy of environments with various nonlinearities" (I. R. Prigozhin). These ideas are a kind of continuation of E. Husserl's phenomenological theory describing the intentional nature of consciousness. His concept of the phenomenon is distinguished by a non-classical approach of interpretation, as emphasized by M. K. Mamardashvili: "Unlike the classical "phenomenon", a "phenomenon" is something that has an ontological existence or significance" [21, p. 29]. Here the "I" becomes the source of the constitution of the centers of the fulfillment of acts of consciousness. Also important are the ideas of one of Husserl's followers J.-P. Sartre, who clearly contrasts being-for-oneself (consciousness) and being-in-oneself (being), which manifest a dualistic ontological essence in reality [26]. Of great importance here is the "inner perception", which defines what it is dealing with. "Cognition is considered as a stream of consciousness, internally organized and integral, but relatively independent of specific mental acts, from the subject of cognition and its activities" [23, p. 688]. This resonates with the ideas of transcendental phenomenology, the author of the original concept of which is M. K. Mamardashvili. In the context of these teachings, value acts as an aspect of the transcendental subject.

Along with the generally accepted subject-object theory of values, where, on the one hand, communication formed between people regarding an object sufficiently determines its value, and on the other hand, the object itself, acting on subjects, generates in them the ability to establish contact, there are other teachings. The described theory is more suitable for relatively self-sufficient objects that do not directly require intermediaries to demonstrate their aesthetic values. But in the context of our topic, an important addition to this theory is the subject-subject paradigm of G. P. Vyzhletsov, where the following becomes key: "The specificity of values, their manifestation and functioning in society is determined not by subject-object, but primarily by intersubjective relations and, in turn, is realized in them. The relation of the subject to the object in terms of its significance determines the specifics of the assessment, not the value" [9, p. 36]. Thus, the axiologist brings to the fore the creative activity of the individual, which does not exclude the understanding of a person not only as the creator of culture, but also its creation.

One of the most important components in the communicative-axiological direction of research is the artistic-specific aspect. It is associated with the development of means of expression of musical theatricalization, which includes music and theatrical action.

The first axis is music. The problem of thinking about the ontology of music, its phenomenological manifestations and functions has always interested people. Attention to the understanding of this problem is not fading today. It can be argued with a high degree of probability that musical creativity is a kind of ontological core of a person, while, as musicologist L. P. Kazantseva writes, music becomes a manifestation of an extrahuman or superhuman principle. Systematizing the statements of creative figures, Kazantseva gives a number of essential characteristics: music is an expression of the existential, the Absolute, the Divine; music is an expression of the essence of Being; music carries Feeling, Sensation, the Soul of this world; music is movement. The other side of the ideas about music is determined by a direct connection with a person: music is an expression of feelings and emotions of a person; music is an expression of sensations; music is an expression of intelligence; music is an expression of the inner world of a person; music is an expression of the mysterious depths of the human soul; music is an expression of the inexpressible, subconscious.

There are also transitional representations between the two large areas. Some unite two large groups (superhuman and human): music is an expression of a person and the world; music is a reflection of reality in human emotions and ideas; others, without denying a person's contribution to art, consider music somewhat detached as a selfsufficient phenomenon: music is a specific valuable world; music is aestheticized sounds; music is a combination sounds [13, p. 7-10]. For this study, all of these characteristics are indicative and are of great importance. At the same time, the following generalizing definition given by the scientist A.V. Toropova becomes valuable: music is "a musical intonated meaning fixed in a genre- and style-specific form, a collapsed actual or "absent" experience that occurred outside the time frame of the current moment and outside the framework of one life (listener, composer, interpreter)" accordingly, the musical meaning is "a vital experience intoned in sounds (for one or many subjects of mental experience)" [32, p. 13]. This definition emphasizes the continuum side of the existence of music, flowing in time and enclosed in space, that is, inscribed in the familiar world of representations of our dimension, at the same time being founded through the intonating consciousness of "personality, race, ethnicity, humanity and all beings. The essence of the phenomenon is an archive of valuesemantic and affective-evaluative meanings of certain events, phenomena, things, experiences and their designations" [32, p.13].

The second axis is the theater. Considering the second component, it can be noted that its origins go back to ancient times. In the old days, the Greeks had syncretic actions as part of a religious cult and a system of education. But even then Plutarch gives a peculiar etymology of the words "theater" and "theoraine" ("to be present at the celebration") from the word "theos" ("god"). The same can be found in Philodemus. "He says that at first legitimate and zealous music was established for the worship of the gods, and then for the education of the free. And what exactly is for divine purposes is indicated by the very name "theory", "theater" ("spectator"), "theater"" [17, p. 313]. That is, initially the theater was conceived as a communicative system in which the educational function was laid.

The modern scientist N. V. Korolevskaya emphasizes the importance of effectiveness in theatrical performance. Despite the fact that the author explores mainly artistic phenomena, her conclusions can be projected onto earlier forms of musical and theatrical creativity. Thus, effectiveness becomes a generative structure, and word and music become forms of objectification and comprehension of action in aestheticized activities. Thus, "in the integral act of action, a cycle of relations between man and the universe takes place: what comes from the outside (knowledge, ideas, experience of universal significance), after passing through the labyrinth of individual consciousness, returns to the outside in the form of an action-act, either changing the picture of the world (after which the world can no longer return to its previous state), or on the contrary, asserting the world order, the laws and regulations of which are guided by the acting subject" [15, p. 95]. Effectiveness is an integral part of theatricalization.

Theatricalization is one of the specific features inherent in the social space of life at different stages of its development. The theatrical potential in each epoch manifests itself in different ways. Theatricalization is one of the possible ways of selfexpression aimed, ultimately, at establishing contact with Another (with an individual, with society). In general, it is possible to characterize theatricalization as a conscious expression, playing with an easily perceived (mainly external) image of the addressee's intentions, designed for a certain reaction of the addressee. Today we can say that theatricalization is a synthetic multi-channel type of communication, the form of which is determined by the context of its implementation. For example, it can be an element of social communication (theatricalization as a way of creating an image), aesthetic (involving professional theatrical activities in the sphere of other mass events, for example sports, political), artistic (concerts, performances).

Thus, in the space of musical theatricalization, the interaction of recipients is carried out. The definition of attributive features of the genre class of musical theatricalization necessarily leads us to comprehend the problem in connection with the theory of communication. Synthetic audiovisual communication has a great advantage in influencing the addressee: due to its heterogeneous expressive capabilities, it transmits meaningful information through a holistic musical and theatrical image. As a result, the listener reacts to the multi-channel communication by adjusting the "apparatus" of perception and strengthening the recreational function of his cultural activity. "The formation of a communicative system, especially a synthetic level, is a long process," writes V. P. Konetskaya. In art, this is a controlled process, since it is associated with the constant search for the most effective forms of interaction of heterogeneous communicative means, taking into account the aesthetic, social and ethical norms adopted in this art" [14, p. 146]. Accordingly, due to different circumstances, the ideological attitudes of the author of the work and the listener-viewer cannot be completely the same. There are always differences between the perceived and the assimilated. Yu. M. Lotman also wrote about this, who emphasized that the history and information thesauri of the addressee and the addressee are behind communication; when communicants interact, "overlapping sets" of codes are formed. "The specificity of artistic communications, in particular, is that the code of the perceiver always differs to one degree or another from the code of the transmitter. These may be relatively small differences determined by the cultural experience of the individual, the specifics of the psychological structure, but they may also be deep socio-historical features of culture that either make artistic perception of the text impossible, or deeply rethink it," the scientist writes [19, p. 280]. It is also important to add that under the influence of artistic creations, a person is even in conditions of passive communication the process of fictitious perception, when an unprepared viewer does not want or is not capable of actively perceiving artistic information. Nevertheless, considering the chain by which information enters the human brain ("external environment" ? "unconscious" ? "preconscious" ? "consciousness"), it is safe to say that even the most passive recipient experiences artistic influence, being in the communicative field of art. The trace left in the soul of the listener-spectator by a performance or concert is preserved, the performance seen, words or scenes, experiences and feelings are consciously or unconsciously remembered. Such modern domestic and foreign researchers as I. V. Bazhenova [2], M. S. Zhurkov [12], E. S. Loseva-Demidova [18]; U Liyan [33]; M. Baroni [38], L. Bonnass pay their attention to the communicative specifics of musical, theatrical and musical-theatrical creativity.Gaot [39], D. Miell, R. McDonald, D. Hargreaves [42], E. Schubert [43]. The analytical research of modern scientists does not contradict R. T. Craig's generalizing spatial-dialogical-dialectical theory of communication [40].

Consequently, value communication is based on a receptive dialogic paradigm, according to which, in the process of implementing musical theatricalization, participants perceive the figurative plan of events of a specific situation and simultaneously process and broadcast the already updated content. This is how "effective experience" is carried out (M. M. Bakhtin) and initially subjective meanings penetrate into the intersubjective space, thereby determining the process of formation of value orientations of the individual.

Thus, we can conclude that research trends are bi-directional. On the one hand, art criticism works devoted to the consideration of the genre aim not only to study the direct musical or musical-theatrical material, but also the conditions of existence of musical works and the functions of art. On the other hand, it expands the boundaries of art studies and naturally brings the understanding of the problem to the level of axiological communication, through which the translation and reception of spiritual values is carried out.

Summarizing all of the above and developing the ideas of the predecessors, we can give the following definition of musical theatricalization. Musical theatricalization is based on musical and theatrical creativity as a conscious synthetic (in art) or unconscious syncretic (in folklore) form of expression of a multidimensional human potential. Musical theatricalization includes the most diverse forms of musical and theatrical acts (from folklore rite to modern opera) and musical and theatrical genres formed during their evolution. Musical theatricalization acts as a genre class in which there are stable and mobile genre features. The centralizing elements are musical and theatrical principles, which can manifest themselves in different forms, changing the ratio of musical and theatrical means of expression. There is a movement of the theatrical component: from the minimal manifestation of theatricality in a musical work (the inclusion of kinesthetic means of expression) to the stage production of an opera performance and even a mystery.

The introduction and development of a generalizing concept of musical theatricalization is important, since the existing terminology does not make it possible to cover all forms of interaction between music and theater. Musical theatricalization makes it possible to combine genre dominants of heterogeneous aesthetic activity in its field. The concept of musical theatricalization is appropriate and helps to cover all the available variety of theatrical musical material without being constrained by historical and specifically professional frameworks. This, in turn, freely gives the opportunity to study the communicative and axiological aspects of musical and theatrical creativity in general.

In fact, musical theatricalization as a form of social communication accompanies humanity from the earliest stage of its formation, from the moment of the first evidence of self-reflection, and continues to play an essential, but poorly studied role in the life of modern society. The analysis of the specifics of the interaction of communicants and the formation of value orientations through musical and theatrical creativity is a promising problem area for research.

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The subject of the study, musical theatricalization in the aspect of value communication, is considered by the author not only in the terminological aspect, but in the context of various theoretical approaches. The general logic of the narrative is based on private art historical observations to philosophical axiological generalizations and reveals the prospects for an interdisciplinary study of musical theatricalization as a special kind (genre, "genre class") of social communication by means of artistic expression. In a generalizing conclusion, the author rightly notes the bi-directionality of research on artistic communication: from the particular to the general (mainly in art criticism) and from the general to the particular (philosophical axiology). According to the reviewer, for the further implementation of the developed theoretical foundations, it is necessary to clearly define a promising area of research. If the author suggests further analysis of empirical material based on some author's model of communication (concept) within the framework of a certain "genre class", then it would be useful to include in the orbit of attention the communicative research of the theater over the past 5 years (for example, Zhurkov M.S. The evolution of the communicative space "stage spectator" in the history of the national theater: diss. ... cand.and cultural studies. M., 2022), as well as to consider the fundamental differences between individual theoretical traditions of the study of communication of recent times (J. Alexander, R.T. Craig, B. Latour, etc.), which do not allow to appeal to the general theory of communication. If, on the contrary, the author assumes to confirm the advantages of existing analytical models of artistic communication on the author's sample of empirical material (for example: A. F. Losev, Yu. M. Lotman, M. M. Bakhtin, L. A. Mazel, V. P. Bobrovsky and/or others), then it is necessary to correlate the chosen model with the theoretical approaches considered in the article. In both the first and second cases, it is necessary to clearly define the limits of relevance of the communication model used (the limits of applicability of the theoretical model) in order to avoid blurring (uncertainty and relativity) of the subject of research musical theatricalization. At this stage of the study, the subject is defined only in general terms. Due to the significant contradictions of the approaches considered by the author, his definition of musical theatricalization is not unambiguous: it can be interpreted in different ways depending on the goals of further research. The author does not focus on the existing theoretical contradictions, which makes the generalizing conclusion look unfinished, and the work as a whole incomplete. Meanwhile, without detracting from the effectiveness of the work done, the reviewer recommends strengthening the final conclusion by problematizing further search, because the very formulation of the problem of researching a new subject ("genre class of musical theatricalization") is a sufficient reason for accepting the article for publication and the interest of the scientific community in it. The research methodology is anchored by the logic of reviewing and comparing the most fundamental theoretical approaches (on the one hand, art criticism, on the other, philosophical) to the typology and classification of acts of communication, which, without a doubt, should include the "genre class of musical theatricalization". The work as a whole is problematic and methodological in nature, but, at the same time, the author does not focus the reader's attention on this either in the introduction or in the conclusion. The author seeks to "understand what musical theatricalization is" and provides sufficient arguments to define this phenomenon as a genre ("genre class"). That is, in addition to reviewing the literature and comparing theoretical approaches, the author implicitly resorts to the typology of musical theatricalization as a "genre class", but this is not reflected in the final conclusion. It is quite obvious that a clear definition of the purpose of the study, as well as a consistent description of the tasks to be solved to achieve this goal, would allow the author to significantly strengthen the final conclusion. The relevance of the communicative aspect of the existence of such a complex phenomenon as musical theatricalization chosen by the author is undeniable. It is due to the general communication reversal of humanitarian knowledge. The author's statement is absolutely true that musical theatricalization as a form of social communication accompanies humanity initially, from the moment of the first evidence of self-reflection, and continues to play an essential, but, unfortunately, poorly studied role in the life of modern society. The article has a sufficient degree of scientific novelty. The author has implicitly identified a poorly studied, but very promising problem area. It seems quite appropriate to focus on this when finalizing the article. The style of the work is generally scientific, although it should be recommended to the author to avoid unjustified abuse of connecting (and meaningless) expressions such as: "really...", "and really ...", the figuratively vivid word "comprehend", which is excluded from the general theoretical thesaurus, falls out of the general style. The structure of the article as a whole reflects the logic of presenting the results of scientific research, although refinement towards conciseness and a clear designation of the research program in the introductory part, which will, in turn, strengthen the final conclusion, will greatly facilitate the perception of the author's thought. There is a technical comment on the content of the text: the role of the unfinished and misused punctuation expression "Despite the fact that" at the end of the article is not clear, the author uses it with the same error in the text. The bibliography generally reflects the problem area of research, but is poorly focused on the work over the past 5 years (3 out of 32), as well as coverage of scientific achievements of foreign colleagues (1 out of 32). Note that this is not enough to problematize the study of a new "genre class". It remains doubtful if any of the scientists have recently raised the issue of studying musical theatricalization as a genre class of social communication? The appeal to the opponents is correct and does not cause complaints. The interest of the readership of the journal "PHILHARMONICA. International Music Journal" is guaranteed, but it may be higher if the article is finalized according to the reviewer's comments. Comments of the editor-in-chief dated 05/26/2022: "The author did not fully take into account the comments of the reviewers, but, nevertheless, the article was recommended by the editor for publication"
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