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PHILHARMONICA. International Music Journal
Reference:

Folk ballad "Prince Mikhailo" in the context of the Russian musical and epic tradition

Korolkova Inga

PhD in Art History

Associate Professor, Department of Ethnomusicology of Saint Petersburg State Conservatory named after N.A. Rimsky-Korsakov

190000, Russia, Leningradskaya oblast', g. Saint Petersburg, ul. Glinki, 2, aud. 507

inga-korolkova@yandex.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 

DOI:

10.7256/2453-613X.2022.2.37700

Received:

17-03-2022


Published:

23-04-2022


Abstract: The article for the first time carries out a comparative study of variants of the Russian folk ballad "Prince Mikhailo" about the mother-in-law-destroyer. The study summarizes various sources of folk tunes – auditory recordings of the XIX century, publications from folklore archives of collectors of the XX century, previously unpublished folklore materials. Among them are tunes recorded in the Tver, Nizhny Novgorod, Vologda, Murmansk, and Arkhangelsk regions. The author draws attention to a little-known recording of the ballad made in the Novgorod region, and designates the role of this fact as an important evidence of the involvement of Novgorodians in the hit of "Prince Mikhailo" in the Northern Russian territories. The purpose of the study is the need to give a typological and historical assessment of the ballad tunes. A special perspective of the work is aimed at finding related musical forms in other genres of the Russian musical epic. The analysis showed that the ballad tunes recorded in various regions of Russia belong to the same musical type. It is based on a single-verse line of 8-complex composition with a choreographic ending, covering 10 or 12 musical-time units. The melodic features of the tunes testify to their fret unity associated with the narrative orientation of intonation. During the study, it was found that "Prince Mikhailo" is performed only with the melodies of the described structure. Moreover, it is the only proper ballad text assigned to this model. In Russian musical folklore, a structural type with a choreic ending was revealed (in addition to the ballad "Prince Mikhailo") in spiritual poems, tall tales, and some church hymns. The article suggests that it has developed among the Russian professional singers – buffoons and kalik pererozhikh. The role of Ancient Novgorod in the formation of a special cultural environment that contributed to the formation of these social institutions and the musical repertoire of its representatives is indicated.


Keywords:

Novgorod folklore, Russian North, local folk traditions, russian musical epic, folk music, russian folklore, folk ballads, spiritual poems, buffoons, kaliki are transitive

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

MATERIAL AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The folklore text "Prince Mikhailo", which is found in the Russian folk song traditions, belongs to the group of classical ("senior") ballads by philologists. Among other ballad works, he stands out for his epic style of narration. In the traditions of the Russian North, "Prince Mikhailo" was included in the repertoire of many storytellers and was defined by the terms "verse" or "old". Probably, these circumstances contributed to the fact that collectors considered this ballad in the context of epic traditions and included it in collections of epics. Thus, we find variants of the text "Prince Mikhailo" in the collections of P. N. Rybnikov, A.V. Markov, A.D. Grigoriev. A.M. Astakhova, who prepared the two-volume edition of the "Epics of the North", in addition to "Prince Mikhailo", placed there such ballads as "Dmitry and Domna", "Prince, Princess and Old Women", making the following explanation: "In the North, these epic ballads on the themes of severe family conflicts are perceived by the singers themselves as a special type of epic songs, akin to epics, and are opposed to lyrical and ordinary ballad songs. This kind of northern epic creativity, especially characteristic of Pinega and Pomerania, turned out to be quite common in the 20s and 30s in the Prionezhye" {7, p. 6}.

The ballad "Prince Mikhailo" was recorded by collectors in the central part of Russia. One of the earliest samples is represented by a record from the village of Gorodets, Balakhninsky district, Nizhny Novgorod region, made by I. V. Nekrasov and F. I. Pokrovsky in 1901. In the collection "50 Songs of the Russian people", published in 1903, in the section "Songs like epics", I. V. Nekrasov's auditory notation was given with his own treatment for the male choir {26, p. 12}.

The very plot of the ballad (the story of the mother-in-law-destroyer) has an international character. According to D. M. Balashov, it was widespread among the Eastern Slavs already in the XIVXV centuries. Since one of the features of the Russian version of the ballad is the motive for the murder of the daughter-in-law in the bath, which is not present in other nations, the scientist believes that it arose "not as a borrowing, but as an original composition on a typical everyday theme for the whole Middle Ages" {4, p. 24}.

According to the observations of D. M. Balashov, we can talk about two versions of the plot of the ballad. The first version existed in the central, northern and Siberian parts of Russia. Its peculiarity is the completion of the text: Prince Mikhailo discovers the coffin with the body of his murdered wife in the church and dies by throwing himself on his own saber. According to the second version, Prince Mikhailo catches a deck with his dead wife and then throws himself into the sea. According to Balashov, it developed later in the Northern Russian territories (Pinega, Mezen, the White Sea, Onega), where the existence of epic genres was closely connected with fishing artels {5, p. 381}.

According to D. M. Balashov, ancient ballads make it possible to trace the ways of their geographical distribution based on a comparison of variants. In particular, he writes: "The ballads are arranged in the order of colonization of the North or Novgorod colonization of the XIIIXV centuries (through the Prionezhye to the White Sea), or later, "Nizovskaya", Moscow XVIXVII centuries (through the Pridvinye). Ballad variants seem to mark the movement of the population" {4, p. 23}. According to Balashov, the ballad about "Prince Mikhail" came to the Russian North with the lower colonization, since it was not known in Novgorod {4, p. 33}.

A decade after the publication of the work of D. M. Balashov, a version of the ballad "Prince Mikhailo", recorded in 1976 by the expedition of the Novgorod Pedagogical Institute in the village of Chertitsko in the Starorussky district, was published in a collection prepared by the staff of the Institute of Russian Literature (Pushkin House), {21, pp. 14-15, 213}. Let us pay attention to the fact that the Novgorod sample turns out to be quite close to the text given by Balashov from the Arzamas district of the Nizhny Novgorod province, although the final motive (the suicide of the prince) is absent in it.

In the preface to the collection, the presence of the ballad in its composition was not commented on in any way. In the future, as far as we know, the researchers did not refer to this record. We do not find any mention of it either in works devoted to the ballad genre, or in studies concerning the topic of the spread of the musical epic in the Russian North. However, the fact of fixing the ballad on the southern shore of Lake Ilmen, that is, in the zone of the earliest settlement of the Slovene tribe in the territory of the modern Novgorod region, allows us to indicate the possibility of a "Novgorod" way of this folklore text to the Russian North. In order to pose the problem in this way, it is necessary to consider in more detail the tunes of the ballad "Prince Michalo" and answer the following questions:

What are the musical features of the Novgorod ballad?

How does her tune correlate with the variants recorded in the Northern Russian provinces?

THE NOVGOROD MELODY OF THE BALLAD IN COMPARISON WITH ITS OTHER VARIANTS

Judging by the published notification, the Novgorod ballad has a one-verse organization. A strict narrative chant consistently reproduces the same melodic pattern in a quart ambitus.

Example 1. Ballad. Novgorod region, Starorussky district, Chertitsko village. Spanish: A. A. Tetyushina, 72 years old. Note: 12/21/1976 {21, p. 213}.

The poetic text of the ballad is based on 8 complex tonic-type lines, the distinctive feature of which is the choreic ending (2.3.1). The chant is based on an 11-time syllogorhythmic model. As features of this model, we note the uniform principle of syllabification in the intercental zone, the longitude allocation of the first syllable and the last two syllables.

As can be seen from the diagram, the syllabic and rhythmic embodiment of the poetic text has some variability. In three of the eight melostroks, a dactylic clause can be observed with a line extension of up to 9 syllables (2.3.2), and its rhythmization has two variants with a longitude on the accent or the last syllable. The further presentation of the poetic text contains separate lines that clearly indicate a dactylic ending, for example:

In the green garden is not walking,

Red cherry is not plucked there ...

The syllabic composition of a string can increase to 10 or 11 syllables by splitting the main syllables. In two lines, the musical time is reduced by 1 unit in the anacruz zone, thus the rhythmic period becomes even more aligned.

. Scheme 1. Syllogorhythmic structure of the Novgorod ballad

If we compare the Novgorod recording of the ballad "Prince Mikhailo" with variants from other traditions, an interesting circumstance turns out: they all have a stable connection with the tonic verse having a choreic ending.

Syllogorhythmic and compositional features of the melodies of the ballad "Prince Mikhailo", recorded in the Northern Russian provinces, may be different. For example, some variants from the collections of A.V. Markov and A. L. Maslov (the White Sea), A.D. Grigoriev (Pinega), have a movable syllabic and musical-temporal composition {2, p. 661; 6, p. 953}. However, many samples have stable characteristics and are reduced to an 8-complex syllabic structure, which is embodied in various rhythmic ways. The most common is 10(11)-the time type described above in the Novgorod example (RT 1). He characterizes the Nizhny Novgorod sample from Nekrasov's collection and many Pinezh variants.

Other rhythmic models include a structure with progressive longitude (RT 2); a formula with a period framed by two long syllables (RT 3); a rhythmic type with mixed pulsation (RT 4).

_2_01

Scheme 2. Rhythmic types of ballads with 8-complex string structure

Local versions of the ballad differ in the tempo of performance, musical structure and the nature of the chant. Among them there are chants of the declamatory type, close in style to the Novgorod, but there are also sung, melodized samples.

Example 2. Ballad. Arkhangelsk region, Karpogorsky district, village of Maryina Gora. Spanish: E. M. Churkina, 88 years old. Zap.: Astakhova A.M. (text), Gippius E. V., Ewald Z. V. (tune), July 1927 {2, p. 701}.

Example 3. Ballad. Arkhangelsk region, Pinezhsky district, Vaimusha village. Spanish: Nemirova A. H., 1912. Zap.: Zakharov A. N., Golovkina E. V., February 1990. FA IRLI, K. 543F. MF 4460.03.

Despite the melodic differences, the ballad tunes from different local traditions have an intonational kinship due to the general narrative orientation of the musical utterance. Let us pay attention to the similarity of the principles of lad formation, which are manifested in the high-pitch differentiation of the reference tones corresponding to the accent syllables of the verse line and its last syllable.

__

Scheme 3. Variants of the lado-intonation structure of tunes

So, a comparative analysis of the variants of the ballad "Prince Mikhailo" shows that its Novgorod version was performed with a tune typologically related to many Northern Russian samples. Moreover, in the Russian North, the ballad had the meaning of an independent musical and poetic form, in which the melody and the text were fixed to each other. This feature of the ballad was noted by Yu. I. Kovyrshina on the example of the Pomor folklore culture {8, p. 154}. According to the conclusions of her research, all variants of the ballad "Prince Mikhailo", common in Western Pomerania (Kandalaksha, Pomeranian and Karelian shores of the White Sea), are sung in one rhythmic type: it is distinguished by a choreic ending, decorated with two long tenses. According to Y. I. Kovyrshina, this type goes back to a fairly ancient rhythmic model that developed during the Novgorod colonization of the Russian North. The mapping carried out by the researcher shows that the rhythmic type extends "from the Obonezhye through the Pomeranian and Karelian shores of the White Sea to the Tersky, and outlines one of the first ways of penetration of Novgorodians to the north" {8, p. 153}. This assumption is made without taking into account the Novgorod version, apparently not known to the author, but the ballad recorded in Ilmen can serve as a good reason for it.

Observing the nature of the correlation of poetic texts and melodies in the conditions of local epic traditions, one can discover an important detail. Despite the fact that the ballad was repeatedly recorded from storytellers who own a voluminous repertoire of epic works, it was never sung to epic tunes, as happened with some texts of other ballads, historical songs and spiritual poems. Accordingly, the chant "Prince Mikhailo" has never been used to intonate the texts of epics.To find out the reasons for the special status of this ballad in the folklore traditions of the Russian North, it is necessary to find answers to the following questions:

Are there any tunes in Russian traditions related to the ballad "Prince Mikhailo"?

With what plots are they performed?

What is the sphere of their existence?

THE CHANT OF THE KALIK OF THE CROSSING

The search for variants for the melody of the Novgorod "Prince Mikhail" turned out to be limited to an extremely small circle of musical and epic samples ever recorded on the territory of the modern Novgorod region. However, it was among them that the closest "relative" of our ballad was found the chant of the verse "We are poor brothers", heard by A. K. Lyadov from the kalik crossing in Borovichi County in 1890 {13, p. 7}. When comparing the composer's auditory recording with the notation of the Novgorod samples, it turned out that the tunes are variants of a single type. They are united by the 10-time basis of melostrok and 8-9 by the complex structure of the poetic text, in which dactylic and choreic endings freely alternate. The difference of the tune recorded by A. K. Lyadov lies in the composition: two small lines of different ambitus follow each other, creating a semblance of a question-and-answer structure. At the same time, the first small line in this pair turns out to be very close to the melody of the ballad:

Example 4. The song of the kalik crossing. Novgorod province, Borovichi district. Auditory recording by A. K. Lyadov {1 3, p. 7}.

The proximity of the two Novgorod melodies is not an unambiguous evidence of their local specificity. The tune given by A. K. Lyadov is a variant of a verse that had a wide existence in the XIX century among the Kalik peredozhikh Russian itinerant singers. Let us pay attention to two musical recordings made in the city of Rzhev, Tver province by the famous statesman, expert in Russian folklore T.I. Filippov. Both of them were used by N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov in the collection of treatments "40 Russian folk songs". The text of one of the chants has a common beginning with the Novgorod version, which indicates the stability of the poetic component of the verse recorded in different localities. It is based on prayer formulas-appeals of the poor brethren to the living, and includes prayers addressed to the Lord for their preservation "for many years." The second chant, recorded by T. I. Filippov, is characterized by a memorial orientation. The semantic differentiation of the chants was reflected in the collector's remarks ("zazdravnaya", "memorial").

Both variants are based on the repetition of one musical phrase of the fifth volume, and in this phrase we recognize the second small-scale Lyadov's tune!

.Example 5. Zazdravnaya. Tver province, Rzhev. Auditory recording by T. I. Filippov {19, p. 18}

The structural connection with the Novgorod and Tver variants is the melody of the memorial verse recorded in the Yaroslavl province in 1901 in the expedition of the Song Commission of the Russian Geographical Society with the participation of I. V. Nekrasov, F. M. Istomin, F. I. Pokrovsky {25, p. 4}. The melodies discovered by collectors at a later time in other territories of the North-West of Russia confirm the stability of the described structural type as the basis of a verse performed as a begging request. So, in the northern part of the Pskov region, variants of the text and the chant were recorded with the beginnings "You'll go, li, let's go, Aksyutka" or "You come, come, Aksyutka". Probably the earliest sound fixation of "Aksyutka" was made by Elsa Mahler, a philologist-Slavist, professor at the University of Basel during expeditions to the Pechora district of the Pskov region in 1937-1939. In 1946 in d . This verse was recorded by A. G. Kudyshkina and N. L. Kotikova from the famous folk singer T. I. Kanoshina in Dekshino, Pechora district. According to her comments, "Aksyutka" was sung by blind wandering singers ("howlers") under the windows of houses during the First World War for the health of the military {14, p. 500}. In the expedition of the St. Petersburg Conservatory, the verse about "Aksyutka" was revealed in the village of Sosno, Gdovsky district, where it had a calendar timing and sounded on Easter during a tour of the courtyards. The single-verse chant of "Aksyutka" also has a stable 10-dimensional structure and an 8-complex syllabic basis with a stable choreic ending. Melodically, the Pskov samples are close and directly adjacent to the Novgorod melody.

Example 6. The song "for the health of a military man". Pskov region, Pechora district, Dekshino village. Spanish: T. I. Kanoshina, born in 1883. Notes: Kudyshkina A. G., Kotikova N. L., 25.08.1946{14, p. 354}.

Echoes of the tradition of performing memorial and health poems under the windows were discovered by expeditions of the St. Petersburg Conservatory in one of the local traditions of the Bezhetsky district of the Tver Region in 1990 and 1991. The author of this article has previously published some of these verses and established their proximity to the variants once performed by wandering singers{9}.

This review has shown that the melodies of the health and memorial chants of the kalik of the crossing reveal kinship over a fairly large territory and cover several northwestern and central provinces of Russia. The texts with which the variants of the chant were recorded form a very important semantic part of the poetic heritage of the itinerant singers, since they were created directly in their environment and reflected the function of ritual communication with those to whom the verse was performed (commemoration of "parents" or the glorification of the living in exchange for alms).

The similarity of the musical repertoire of singing artels from different places is probably explained by their territorial movements. F. M. Istomin, who observed "huge gatherings" of wandering singers during the expedition of 1893 (together with S. M. Lyapunov), drew attention to this circumstance: "Vyatka beggars often leave the borders of the Vyatka diocese in separate parties, singing their chants in more or less well-known monasteries and deserts, attracting numerous worshippers." {18, p. 132}.

Thus, we can say that the 10-time 8-complex structural type that characterizes the main part of the ballad recordings "Prince Mikhailo", characterizes the main tune of the Russian kalik of the transients, as well as their successors beggar singers, to the same extent. Moreover, the melodies of the ballad are close to the song of kalik in intonation.

How to explain this similarity? Does it mean that the ballad "Prince Mikhailo" was included in the repertoire of the Kalik peredozhikh?

Are there any tunes of a similar structure with other poetic texts in Russian epic folklore?

12-TIME STRUCTURAL TYPE WITH CHOREIC ENDING

IN THE RUSSIAN MUSICAL-EPIC TRADITION

If we continue to search for variants of the singing of the ballad "Prince Mikhailo" with other poetic texts in the publications of the Northern Russian musical-epic folklore, then we can find individual examples of the polytextuality of the musical form we are interested in. All of them are associated with the genre of spiritual verse. Thus, in the recordings of the expedition of the Leningrad Conservatory in 1983, made in the village of Virino, Babaevsky district, Vologda region, the ballad "Prince Mikhailo" and the spiritual verse "The Dream of the Virgin" are performed for one tune {12}. In the materials recorded by A.V. Markov and A. L. Maslov, the unity of the melody of poems with these two plots and with the plot "The Siege of the Solovetsky Monastery", characteristic of the White Sea traditions, is also revealed. Information confirming the polytextuality of the ballad's singing on the Pinega is contained in the publication "Epics of the North". For example, describing the repertoire of the peasant V. S. Popova D. Pogants of the Karpogorsky district, A.M. Astakhova reports the following: "she knew only about Prince Mikhail from the epics and sang it to the same tune as the verse about Alexei" {1, p. 542}.

Expanding the range of tunes in the sphere of spiritual poems, one can find a group of variants forming a musical type akin to our ballad. He is united with the latter by a one-line composition, a verse with a choreographic ending highlighted by two long tenses. However, according to the syllabic and musical-temporal composition of the string, this type differs: it has a 10-complex basis of small-scale construction and a stable 12-time melody. The closest to the spiritual verses of this group is the version of "Prince Mikhail", which belongs to the third rhythmic type, since their musical and temporal parameters coincide.

_4_

Scheme 4. Syllabic structure of a ballad and a spiritual verse

Poetic texts performed with this tune can be divided into two groups. The first includes those that are traditionally associated with the genre of spiritual verse ("The Dream of the Virgin", "Christ and the Poor Brethren", "The Merciful Wife of Mercy", "The Elder and Friday", "The Laborer", "Alexey the man of God", "Michael the Archangel", some "Yegoriy and the Serpent") and they form a thematic corpus of ancient Russian apocrypha. The central place in these plots is occupied by the images of "heroes" and their relationships, the absence of pronounced moralization, which brings the texts closer to the forms of ballad narration. On the basis of these signs, D. M. Balashov suggested calling plots of this kind spiritual poems, and ballads of Christian-religious content.

The second group is formed by the plots characteristic of the buffoons. Such are the tall tales and narrative texts of comic content "Vavilo and buffoons", "Kaliki rode through the ditches" and others. We should also note the plot of "Birds at Sea", which is interpreted in different ways in terms of genre - as a bylina (A.M. Astakhova), a social ballad (D. M. Balashov), a skomoroshina (V. Ya. Propp, B. N. Putilov, B. M. Dobrovolsky, V. V. Korguzalov). Another version of the origin of the fiction connects it with an old Russian literary monument known as "Tales of Birds" from the end of the XIV century.

The mentioned texts were written mainly from peasants and included in the ritual practice of the villagers. Most of the spiritual verses and tall tales were performed during conversations during Lent. In the female environment, singing was often associated with needlework. Poems could be written at home, at work. In addition to poems, ballads were also heard there, fairy tales were told. According to the information given in the publication by A.M. Astakhova and articles by A. Y. Kastrov, there was both a solo and an ensemble tradition of singing poems, ballads, tall tales in Obonezhye and Pinega. Among the comments published by collectors, there are mentions of singing or reading poetry from books.

Judging by the stories of the performers, poems and ballads were learned by them in the conditions of a living village tradition. However, the very content of these plots indicates their formation among professional singers buffoons and kalik. Despite the fact that at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries, buffoonery was already in the distant past, and the institute of kalik peredozhikh had almost completed its existence, the repertoire of wandering musicians was preserved. Beggars became the successors of the musical and poetic tradition of the Kalik of the crossing. Moving through the villages, they sang poems at fairs, at temples, under the windows of houses, and thereby created opportunities for their assimilation in the peasant tradition. Beggars' begging became most intense on major religious holidays. Perhaps this was one of the reasons that part of the song heritage of the Kalik was included in the ritual rounds of courtyards performed in villages at Christmas and Easter. In addition to the begging songs themselves, spiritual poems could also be heard during the Yuletide and Easter rounds. In the expedition of the Leningrad Conservatory, which took place in the Babaevsky district, T. F. Lukicheva's memoirs were recorded that during the Yuletide tour of the courtyards, mummers sang not only the verse "The Dream of the Virgin", but also the ballad "Prince Mikhailo". The singing ended with a request for a treat: "Tea yes, sugar yes... A piece of bread" (D. Virino, FEC Archive. OAF. No. 1434-37) {12, p. 157}.

A. Y. Kastrov, who turned to this tune in connection with the characteristics of the spiritual verses of the Olfactory region, made a selection of its variants and showed the stability of the 12-time structure that creates the basis for the ensemble form of existence {23}. If we supplement his selection, then, in addition to the northern verses, their variants from the Western Russian and central provinces of Russia, having a similar structure, can be connected to the comparison.

The independence of the melody of the verse "The Poor Brethren and Christ", the absence of its similarity to the epics was noticed by V. V. Korguzalov {7, p. 585}. Commenting on the versions performed by T. G. Ryabinin (N. A. Yanchuk's auditory recording) and M. D. Krivopolenova (V. G. Karatygin's auditory recording), he noted in them a peculiar (abbreviated) rhythmic ending. Based on O. E. Ozarovskaya's report that M. D. Krivopolenova learned the verse from her mother, the researcher suggested that "this interpretation of the melody and text probably existed for quite a long time" {7, p. 585}. Using the example of this tune, V. V. Korguzalov also outlined the performing differences between epics and poems. Describing the phonographic recording of the verse "The Poor Brethren and Christ" made by S. I. Bernstein from P. G. Ryabinin-Andreev (1921), Korguzalov drew attention to the smooth, almost "instrumental" sound, not characteristic of the telling of epics. "With the tenor, somewhat dull timbre of his voice, it gave the impression of singing a prayer" {7, p. 585}.

So, musical-poetic forms with a 10- and 12-time basis and a choreic ending are not isolated examples. In Russian folklore, they form an independent typological group that unites various types of musical epic. In the mode and melodic relations, their tunes are diverse, but at the level of the style of presentation they have a commonality. It consists in a narrative manner of intonation, which can be implemented in the range from recitation-chanting to melodious recitation.

Since this structure is not typical for epics the leading and, of course, historically the earliest genre of the Russian musical epic, another number of questions arise.

What are the origins of this structural type?

Is it a "new formation" associated with genres of spiritual content?

Are there any reasons that could contribute to the consolidation of this form in the sphere of Russian musical epic?

:ON THE QUESTION OF THE ORIGIN OF EPIC POEMS WITH A CHOREIC ENDING

One of the ways to explain the nature of the choreic ending in the texts of spiritual poems was proposed by E. V. Gippius. During the description of the verse "The Dream of the Virgin" in the recording by F. M. Istomin and G. O. Dyutsha, the researcher interpreted its ending as a sign of late verse poetry {3, p. 226}. Indeed, taking into account the fact that we are talking about poetic texts related to the church book tradition and ancient Russian literature, such an explanation has a basis.

The opportunity to offer a different interpretation of a kind of rhythmic element arises during the consideration of some versions of poems that reveal the properties of the time period. In such examples, the syllabic composition of the line varies, and the melody is built on the basis of uniform accentuation. According to the last feature, the 12-time musical period approaches the structure of instrumental tunes and dance songs that have similar time and accent indicators (types of "Kamarinsky" or "Timoni"). Such features characterize some texts of tall tales, but they can also be noticeable in spiritual verses.

_5__

Scheme 5. Spiritual verse. Karelian ASSR, Medvezhyegorsky district, Deriguzovo village {17, p. 179}

The structural similarity of the considered epic tunes with dance songs suggests that the formation of both occurred in the early period of the Old Russian musical culture, characterized by the close interaction of the musical epic and the instrumental and choreographic spheres of folklore. Epic poems with a choreic ending provide an opportunity to once again return to the discussion of the debatable question of the possibility of accompanying the forms of epic narration by playing the harp. In this regard, we recall the information given in the book by A. S. Famintsin "Gusli Russian folk musical instrument". In an interview with the researcher, Pskov guslar Trofim Ananyev informed him that on the gusli "you can play "dyak", i.e. spiritual songs." However, guslar failed to play them {22, p. 74}.

The next direction opens up opportunities to identify the structural connections of epic poems with forms of musical epic based on tonic verse with dactylic ending. Examples of a clause typical of epics, we have already noted both in the Novgorod ballad and in the samples of health/memorial chants. Among the spiritual verses, there are also samples with alternation of two types of clauses and variants in which dactylic endings dominate. Thus, the connections between the rhythmic-verse structure of spiritual verses and epic texts are drawn.

An interesting parallel between epic poems performed to the tunes we are interested in and poems with a caesurated structure of 5+5 syllables is proposed by A. Y. Kastrov {23}. Indeed, both forms have identical musical-temporal and syllabic parameters (10 syllables and 12 tenses), although they differ at the compositional level. This observation of the researcher adds an additional argument, testifying to the close musical-linguistic ties of folklore forms of the epic warehouse. Continuing the researcher's thought, let's compare the syllabic formulas of the variants of the Obonezhsky verse "Egoriy and the Serpent", sung to the tunes of two structural varieties, and clearly see their similarity:

_6

Scheme 6. Syllabic structure of the variants of the verse "Gregory and the Serpent"

A. Y. Kastrov proposed another direction of searching for the origins of the structure of the 12-time chant of spiritual verses, referring to the sphere of church hymns. The reason for this was the rhythmic and structural similarity he discovered of the folk tune with the backdrop of Easter "Angel crying". This hymn is one of the most important in the Easter service. It is well known to all who attend church services, since it is performed within 40 days from Easter to Ascension. The chant has a non-periodic through structure, and the similarity with the melody of the verse has its first 10-a complex melostroka with a choreic ending, organized on the basis of a uniform rhythm of syllabification in a 12-time volume.

The version of the Easter hymn given by Kastrov refers to the Greek chant of the 1st voice, which appeared in the Russian singing tradition at the end of the XVII century.:

Example 7. Angel crying, everyday version, fragment {23, p. 411}

What are the reasons for this convergence, it is difficult to say unequivocally, but it is worth noting that the 12-time formula was one of the structural models suitable for statements of a narrative nature, and existed in both folk and church music systems.

conclusion

The variants of the Prince Mikhailo ballad, recorded by collectors in different local traditions of the north-west, north and center of Russia, have a stable structure: they all have a single-verse composition, based on an 8-complex tonic verse with a choreic ending, decorated with two long sounds. This structure exists in 10- or 12-time versions. At the melodic and rhythmic levels, the melodies reveal local specifics, but they differ in the unity of the fret structure, which is due to the narrative orientation of the intonation of the poetic text.

In Russian musical folklore, the structural type with a choreic ending combines healthful, memorial chants, spiritual poems and tall tales. The range of plots assigned to the tunes of this type, the circumstances of their existence give reason to assume that it has developed among Russian professional singers buffoons and kalik peredozhikh. Judging by the stability of the musical form and the number of poetic texts associated with it, it was one of the leading ones for both social groups. The process of forming their repertoire took place on the basis of various stylistic phenomena. If the musical tradition of the buffoons was formed, first of all, on the basis of song-instrumental-choreographic forms of folklore and epic epic, then the song-making of the Kaliks was largely influenced by the church-singing culture, as well as the verse poetry of spiritual content, which spread in Russia since the beginning of the XVII century.

Despite the fact that the social institutions of the Kalik and the buffoons were independent and solved different tasks in the structure of ancient Russian society, there was a lot in common between these groups of the nonPeasant population - both of them constantly moved and earned money by singing. In the future, forms of musical and epic folklore of spiritual content were preserved and developed in Old Believer communities, monasteries and monasteries. The melodies of the poems were picked up by the "heirs" of the Kalik musical tradition poor wanderers who contributed to their entry into peasant culture. Thus, the root melodies and rhythms of Russian folk music were melted down with new linguistic elements, and then returned to the folklore tradition in an updated form. And now, thanks to the efforts of collectors of the XIX-XX centuries, we have become aware of an independent stylistic layer of folklore of spiritual content, the formation of which has a long history. Diverse in poetic and intonational relations, it has preserved its integrity thanks to a special structural form that organizes song speech.

Let's return to the ballad. Its important role in the traditions of the Kalik of the transients and buffoons is undeniable. This is evidenced by the circumstances of the performance of the ballad and its musical kinship with epic poems and tall tales. The uniqueness of the Russian ballad lies in the fact that "Prince Mikhailo" is the only proper ballad text assigned to the melody of the described structure. The rest of the plots of the "older" ballads are coordinated with other musical forms, and generally have more freedom in relation to the tunes.

Why was this particular ballad plot included in the repertoire of wandering singers? What is the reason for the striking structural stability of the text itself and its compositional and rhythmic embodiment?

Maybe the text of the ballad itself was formed and consolidated in the Russian folklore tradition in that historical period when the musical repertoire of buffoons and kalik was just being formed? In this case, the special structure of the ballad preserved the form of narrative utterance that was most relevant for traveling musicians.

Another explanation for the structural independence of the ballad may be the assessment of its text as borrowed. If we assume that the ballad "Prince Mikhailo" was brought by pilgrims from their travels (probably from the West Slavic side), then we can assume that it has become entrenched in Russian lands in its original form of text presentation.

What is the meaning of the Novgorod variant? Despite the fact that the recording of the ballad in Novgorod is a single one, the direct similarity of its melody with the chant of the kalik of the crossing, recorded in the Borovichi district by A. K. Lyadov, suggests that the musical type with the end of the choreic type was well known to the Novgorod tradition. Thus, the Novgorodians could have been directly involved in getting both the text of the ballad and its melody to the Russian North.

We cannot unequivocally state that the ballad's melody was formed precisely in the Novgorod territories. Nevertheless, the probability of this is high, given the role that Veliky Novgorod played in the formation of the institutions of buffoonery and pilgrimage. Let us recall that for medieval wandering musicians, the ancient free city was a breeding ground, which was constantly updated thanks to cultural and trade contacts. Information about the distant wanderings of Novgorod pilgrims (Dobrynya Yadreikovich, Stefan Novgorodets and others) is reflected in the monuments of ancient Russian literature of the XIII-XIV centuries, which describe their "walks" to Byzantium {10}. No less significant in Novgorod was the buffoon culture, the idea of which is formed by various historical sources written texts, images, archaeological finds. Its echoes have come down to us in various phenomena of folklore tradition song and instrumental forms of folklore, in calendar rituals and poetic texts of a laughing nature.

The conclusions made in this study are the basis for continuing the work. The expansion of the range of recordings of the ballad about Prince Mikhail, taking into account other Slavic variants and their comparative analysis, has a perspective. Another direction may be related to the involvement in comparison of other genres of narrative folklore lamentations, wedding and lyrical songs, the forms of which are typologically related to the structural model described in this work.

References
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To the journal "PHILHARMONICA. Russian Russian Music Journal" the author presented his article "The Folk ballad "Prince Mikhailo" in the context of the Russian musical and epic tradition", in which a study of the peculiarities of the Russian musical tradition and the uniqueness of the ballad "Prince Mikhailo" was conducted. The author proceeds in the study of this issue from the fact that "Prince Mikhailo" belongs to the group of classical ("senior") ballads by philologists. Among other ballad works, he stands out for his epic narrative style. In the Russian northern regions, the ballad was included in the repertoire of many storytellers. Musicologists and ethnographers consider this ballad in the context of epic traditions and include it in collections of epics. Unfortunately, the author does not specify the relevance and scientific novelty of the study. The theoretical basis of the study was a compositional and musicological analysis conducted by theorists and collectors of samples of folk vocal art P.N. Rybnikov, A.V. Markov, A.D. Grigoriev, D.M. Balashov, A.Y. Kastrov, etc. The empirical basis of the study was various collections of epic songs of the Russian North and the Novgorod region. The methodological basis of the work is an integrated approach, including comparative, cultural-historical, compositional and musicological analysis. The purpose of the study is to identify expressive musical means and compositional features characteristic of various musical folk works of various regions of Russia, including spiritual and epic ones. The subject is the texts and musical sequences of the ballad "Prince Mikhailo", as well as a number of other songs and legends. To achieve this goal, the author divided the text of the study into logical parts, each of which highlights a certain direction and answers the questions posed by the author within the framework of the problem being raised. In the section "Material and research objectives", in addition to the theoretical justification of the problem, the author presents a cultural and historical analysis of the ballad "Prince Mikhailo", the features of its plot, puts forward the thesis that ancient ballads make it possible to trace the ways of their geographical distribution based on a comparison of variants. In connection with the thesis, the author makes the assumption that the ballad "Prince Mikhailo" has Novgorod roots, from where it spread as the population migrated to the northern regions of Russia. In the section "The Novgorod melody of the ballad in comparison with its other variants", the author gives answers to the questions: What are the musical features of the Novgorod ballad? How does her chant compare with the variants recorded in the Northern Russian provinces? The author notes that the Novgorod ballad has a one-line organization. A strict chant of a narrative nature consistently reproduces the same melodic pattern in a quart ambitus. The poetic text of the ballad is based on 8 complex tonictype lines, the distinctive feature of which is the choreic ending. The chant is based on an 11-time syllabic rhythm model. As features of this model, we note the uniform principle of syllabification in the intercental zone, the longitudinal separation of the first syllable and the last two syllables. When comparing the Novgorod version of the ballad "Prince Mikhailo" with variants from other traditions, the author concludes that they all have a stable connection with the tonic verse having a choreic ending, as well as intonational kinship due to the general narrative orientation of the musical utterance. In the section "The Chant of the Kalik peredozhikh", the author answers the questions: Are there any tunes related to the ballad "Prince Mikhailo" in Russian traditions? What subjects are they performed with? What is the sphere of their existence? The purpose of this analysis is to find out the reasons for the special status of this ballad in the folklore traditions of the Russian North. Having conducted a comparative musicological analysis of ballads and religious tunes common among beggars and kalik transients, the author notes that they are united by the 10-time basis of melostrok and 8-9 by the complex structure of the poetic text, in which dactylic and choreic endings freely alternate. The melodies of the ballad are similar to the songs of Kalik in intonation. The author has made an observation that the melodies of the health and memorial chants of the Kalik of the crossing reveal kinship over a fairly large territory and cover several northwestern and central provinces of Russia. The texts with which the variants of the chant were recorded form a very important semantic part of the poetic heritage of the itinerant singers, since they were created directly in their environment and reflected the function of ritual communication with those to whom the verse was performed. In the section "12-time structural type with choreic ending in the Russian musical-epic tradition" the author continues to study the intonational compositional similarity of the ballad with folk songs by answering questions: How can we explain this similarity? Does it mean that the ballad "Prince Mikhailo" was included in the repertoire of the kalik peredozhikh? Are there any tunes of a similar structure in Russian epic folklore with other poetic texts? According to the author, musical and poetic forms with a 10- and 12-time basis and a choreic ending form an independent typological group in Russian folklore, uniting various types of musical epic. Their melodies are diverse in the mode and melodic relations, but at the level of the style of presentation they have a commonality. It consists in a narrative manner of intonation, which can be implemented in the range from recitation-chanting to melodious recitation. However, the author concludes that such a structure is not typical for epics. The next section, "On the question of the origin of epic poems with a choreic ending," is devoted to answering the questions: What are the origins of this structural type? Is it a "new formation" associated with genres of spiritual content? Are there any reasons that could contribute to the consolidation of this form in the field of Russian musical epic? In this section, the author conducts a compositional and musicological analysis based on the research of ancient Russian musical culture by A.S. Famintsiyn and A.Y. Kastrov. The result of the research in this area is the author's conclusion that the 12-time formula was one of the structural models suitable for statements of a narrative nature, and existed in both folk and church musical systems. In conclusion, the author draws conclusions about the stability of the structure of the variants of the Prince Mikhailo ballad, recorded by collectors in different local traditions of the north-west, north and center of Russia, the commonality of its structural type with a choreic ending with health, memorial chants, spiritual verses and tall tales, which indicates its Novgorod origin and subsequent spread northward in the population migration links. The author also noted the socio-cultural significance of the ballad in the traditions of folk storytellers, kalik of the passing and buffoons. It seems that the author in his material touched upon relevant and interesting issues for modern socio-humanitarian knowledge, choosing a topic for analysis, consideration of which in scientific research discourse will entail certain changes in the established approaches and directions of analysis of the problem addressed in the presented article. The results obtained allow us to assert that the study of musical, compositional and plot features of folk art samples, the analysis of their similarities and differences depending on the area of distribution is of undoubted scientific and practical cultural significance. The obtained material can serve as a basis for further research within the framework of this issue. The material presented in the work has a clear, logically structured structure that contributes to a more complete assimilation of the material. This is also facilitated by an adequate choice of an appropriate methodological framework. The bibliographic list of the study consists of 27 sources, which seems sufficient for the generalization and analysis of scientific discourse on the subject under study.
The author fulfilled his goal, received certain scientific results that allowed him to summarize the material. It should be noted that the article may be of interest to readers and deserves to be published in a reputable scientific publication. However, the text of the article needs correction.
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