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PHILHARMONICA. International Music Journal
Reference:

The study of the creative directions of the art of the twentieth century in the classes of the theoretical cycle of disciplines in music universities and colleges

Sorokina Ekaterina Aleksandrovna

PhD in Art History

Associate Professor, Department of History and Theory of Music, Tambov State Music Pedagogical Institute named after S.V. Rachmaninov

392000, Russia, Tambovskaya oblast', g. Tambov, ul. Sovetskaya, 87

sorokina_e_al@mail.ru

DOI:

10.7256/2453-613X.2022.1.37473

Received:

03-02-2022


Published:

14-03-2022


Abstract: The music of the twentieth century is characterized by multidimensional concepts, a variety of composing techniques, a complex content context, which makes it difficult to master the studied material in the lessons of theoretical disciplines of music educational institutions. The purpose of the article is to substantiate the specifics of studying the musical art of the twentieth century within the disciplines of the theoretical cycle of the modern multilevel system of music education. The main method of research was a complex, requiring an interdisciplinary approach (art history, musicology, cultural studies, pedagogy, music pedagogy). The scientific novelty of the study consists in identifying optimal approaches to mastering one of the most difficult periods of composer creativity for students to perceive. As a result, a thesis formulation of the categorical and conceptual apparatus of the studied creative trends, trends and compositional styles with an accompanying illustrative series, both auditory and visual, is proposed. The practical significance of the research lies in the fact that the methodological approaches presented in the work in the study of musical art of the twentieth century will be in demand within the framework of theoretical disciplines at different levels of musical education. The materials are addressed primarily to top-level teachers (bachelor's degree, within the framework of studying the disciplines "History of Foreign Music" and "Music of the twentieth century"), however, they may be in demand, including fragmentary, and in college, and with some adaptation in high schools of music and art schools when studying the composition of the twentieth century centuries.


Keywords:

musical style, the art of the twentieth century, creative directions, compositional creativity, vanguard, modern, neoclassicism, postmodernism, music education, perception of music

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

The study of the peculiarities of the development of the musical art of the twentieth century is particularly difficult in modern pedagogy. The difficulty of perceiving music of this period of time is associated with the multifaceted artistic and philosophical content of creativity, the variety of stylistic trends and compositional techniques, the ambiguity of their differentiation, the complexity of awareness of specifics, the diversity and often experimental nature of compositional searches. All this requires the teacher to search for ways to optimize the musical process, which justifies the relevance of the presented research.

The theoretical basis was, first of all, the works devoted to the problems of style in the musical art, these are the works of S. S. Skrebkov [1], M. K.Mikhailova [2], E. V. Nazaikinsky [3]. The main informative material on the musical art of the twentieth century is presented in the collective work "Theory of Modern composition" [4], the works of A. S. Sokolov [5, 6], the problems of perception of music of the twentieth century are reflected in the articles of Yu. N. Kholopov [7, 8].

The study of the musical art of the twentieth century in the artistic and stylistic aspect

The music of the twentieth century is often perceived difficult by students due to the complexity of concepts, insufficient understanding of compositional techniques, the peculiarities of the musical language. A. S. Sokolov, characterizing the culture of the time period under consideration, notes its originality: "The art of the twentieth century is the embodiment of the boundlessness of human thought and spirit, as a reflection of the mosaic of the world, experiencing the shock of seemingly unshakable fundamentals..." [6, p. 4]. The difficulty lies, first of all, in the fact that many concepts are of a debatable nature, "today they allow ambiguity of interpretations" [9, p. 7] this problem, in particular, is pointed out by the authors of the book "Music of the XX century: from the avant-garde to Postmodern". The issues of the chronology of musical art of this historical and cultural period are also ambiguous - these problems, within the framework of considering the specifics of understanding music of the XX and the beginning of the XXI century, are covered in detail in the introductory section of the collective monograph "Theory of Modern Composition" [4, pp. 14-49].

Back in the 60s of the twentieth century, Yu. N. Kholopov noted the importance of understanding the features of new musical works: "Misunderstanding the language of modern music often closes the artistic richness of the best musical works from the listener" [8, p. 391]. The article "On the perception and understanding of new music" raises the question of the difficulty of mastering modern music and the ways to solve it. These problems, but from the perspective of the completed twentieth century, are considered in a later article, which concludes that the perception of music has changed: "Looking back at the past century, we are convinced that our perception of music has also changed and without much effort we correctly understand the works that were once inaccessible to listeners" [7, p. 413]. However, in music pedagogy, the problems of music perception of the twentieth century are still no less relevant.

Awareness of the specifics of the musical art of the twentieth century is directly related to the category of artistic style. "The diversity of cultural processes of the XX century is largely understood through the prism of the evolution of artistic styles it is style as an aesthetic category (idea) and a system of linguistic norms (material) that reflects the specifics of worldview and artistic thinking" [9, p. 9].

The principles of musical and historical styles are elaborated in detail in S. S. Skrebkov's monograph, in which a separate section is devoted to the style of music of the twentieth century [1]. E. V. Nazaikinsky, in the introductory section of the work "Style and genre in Music", emphasizes the need to develop these phenomena in more detail within the framework of academic disciplines [3, p. 5-6], in including differentiating the concepts of musical style and its narrower refraction the stylistics of a musical work. The author notes that the manifestation of style is possible only through a musical work, therefore its generalized awareness should be realized through concretization on the example of specific musical works.

Musicologists are developing approaches to the development of materials. To date, textbooks have been created containing very extensive musical material on the era under study diverse and multifaceted. However, compositional creativity is so complex, and creative concepts are multifaceted, that there is a problem of structuring the material, awareness of its hierarchy. Therefore, it is necessary to systematize the studied material as clearly as possible.

Traditionally, the authors of the developments build textbooks on the principle of analytical essays, trying to create a three-dimensional idea of the specifics of the musical culture of the twentieth century. Therefore, in the works that have appeared over the past decades, a general trend is noticeable a musical work becomes the starting point. Thus, the mentioned textbook "Music of the XX century: from avant-garde to postmodern", addressed to students of the specialty "Musicology" of universities, contains a number of analytical studies of works of various styles and genres [9]. E. V. Strigina's manual, aimed at the secondary level of music education, is also primarily based on specific artistic examples [10]. In the work of A.V.Denisova's "Music of the twentieth Century" [11] draws the image of the era through separate essays devoted to the life and work of a number of composers. It is the direct acquaintance with a piece of music that makes it possible to realize both a separate creative style direction and contributes to the formation of an idea about the appearance of the epoch as a whole.

Among the problems that arise in the lessons of the musical-theoretical cycle (Music History, Music of the second half of the twentieth early twenty-first century, Musical form in bachelor's degree; Musical literature and Analysis of musical works in college) in connection with the study of the musical art of the twentieth century, the following stand out:

striving for the formation of students' clear understanding of the stylistic directions of musical art, their clear differentiation;

awareness of the mobility of the stylistic boundaries of compositional creativity, which cannot be determined solely by one stylistic direction;

understanding the aesthetic aspirations of the era, which are directly reflected in the content of works of art, including musical;

the need to select a number of musical works that most vividly illustrate the studied musical and artistic directions of art.

Thus, the comprehension of a voluminous historical phenomenon occurs by detailing. The task of the teacher is to choose from a huge variety, sometimes quite multifaceted and complex musical phenomena, those examples that would help in understanding the artistic and stylistic phenomenon.

Practical recommendations in the development of creative styles and directions of musical art of the twentieth century by students

For the practical solution of the indicated problems in the development of the artistic and stylistic content of the musical art of the twentieth century in the classes of musical and theoretical disciplines of music universities ("History of Music" and "Music of the twentieth century") and colleges ("Musical Literature")teachers are offered a methodological development, in which a succinct definition of a particular creative direction is given. The development of methodological approaches is based on the traditions of modern music education. The interpretation of the terminological apparatus, the set of categories and concepts, the chronological framework and aesthetic attitudes are based on the body of knowledge of Russian musicology, as well as the established traditions of teaching disciplines of the musical and theoretical cycle. At the same time, the musical culture of different countries is considered both foreign and domestic, which makes it possible to form a more reliable and voluminous idea of the epoch, blurring the line between disciplines that traditionally study these artistic phenomena separately in courses of foreign and domestic music history and musical literature.

This article presents the theses of methodological development aimed at mastering the musical art of the twentieth century within the disciplines of the musical-theoretical cycle. The basis of the material is the formulation of the leading content vectors that will help characterize a particular style trend. Differentiation of directions is carried out according to several general parameters:

etymology of the name of the creative direction of art and approximate chronological framework;

a visual-associative series in the form of a parallel with fine art, aimed at gaining knowledge and experience within the framework of interdisciplinary connections;

characteristic aesthetic and artistic installations;

auditory series examples of musical works of the studied compositional direction.

Verism (ital. vero true, truthful) the turn of the XIX XX centuries (associative series: J. Pellizza da Volpedo "The Fourth estate"):

interest in the life of the poor, peasants;

sharp dramatic collisions in the plot;

emphasized emotional style;

the main genre is opera.

Illustrations: operas by P. Mascagni "Rural Honor", R. Leoncavallo "Pagliacci", J. Puccini "Manon Lescaut", "Bohemia".

Impressionism (French impression - impression) the last quarter of the XIX the beginning of the XX century (associative series: E. Degas "Blue dancers"):

the desire to embody fleeting impressions;

timbre and harmonic colorfulness;

transparent texture, unsteady rhythm;

complication of chord complexes, archaic frets;

short phrases-symbols in melody, stratification of motives.

Illustrations: K. Debussy 24 preludes, opera "Pelleas and Melisande", M. Ravel "The Play of water", "Reflections", K. Shimanovsky "Metopes", A. K. Lyadov "Magic Lake".

Expressionism (from Latin expressio expression) the beginning and middle of the XX century (associative series: E. Moon "Scream"):

tragic worldview on the eve of the First World War;

predominance of negative images;

sudden and unexpected variability of tempo and rhythm;

replacement of singing with speech, whispering, shouting;

atonality, dodecaphony, serial technique;

creative association Novovenskaya school: A. Schoenberg, A. Webern, A. Berg.

Illustrations: A. Schoenberg "Moon Pierrot", A. Webern Symphony Op. 21, A. Berg "Wozzeck", R. Strauss "Salome", B. Bartok "Duke Bluebeard's Castle".

Art Nouveau, Modernism (French moderne the newest, fashionable) the first decades of the twentieth century (associative series: M. A.Vrubel "Venice"):

art is evaluated from the perspective of the future;

poetization of the life of a modern city (Urbanism);

denial of the values of late romanticism;

interest in jazz, variety show culture, light genres;

reflection in the art of the technological progress of the twentieth century;

creative association the French group of six (Groupe des Six).

Illustrations: The joint ballet of the French group of six "Newlyweds on the Eiffel Tower", D. Millau ballet "Bull on the Roof", J. Orik ballet "Phaedra", A. Honegger "Pacific 231", F. Poulenc opera "Human Voice", J. Tayfer ballet "Bird Seller", L. Duray opera "Chance".

Neoclassicism (new classicism) of the 1920s-1930s (associative series: E. A. Burdel "Music"):

reaction to the need to objectify creativity;

appeal to authoritative models of the past;

the return of polyphony and ancient forms;

the balance of all elements of the artistic whole;

elitism of art.

Illustrations: I. F.Stravinsky ballet with singing "Pulcinella", R. Strauss opera "The Cavalier of the Rose", E. Sati. "Bureaucratic Sonatina", S. S.Prokofiev "Classical Symphony", P. Hindemith "Ludus tonalis".

Neo-Romanticism (new Romanticism) the turn of the XIX-XX centuries (associative series: A. Beklin "Island of the Dead"):

grew up on the basis of the traditions of romanticism as a reaction to the realistic and naturalistic in art;

optimism, faith in the spiritual possibilities of a person;

a world of surprises, adventures, dangers.

Illustrations: L. Janacek "Taras Bulba", R. Vaughan-Williams "Sir John in Love", S. V.Rachmaninov "Island of the Dead", N. K. Medtner "Fairy Tales".

Neo-Romanticism is also called a return to the "new simplicity" in the last third of the twentieth century. Illustrations: B. I.Tishchenko Concerto for harp and orchestra, E. V.Denisov "Three paintings by Paul Klee", S. M. Slonimsky "The Northern Ballad in memory of Grieg".

Neo-folklore (new folklore) 1st third of the twentieth century (associative series: N. K. Roerich scenery for the ballet "Sacred Spring"):

updating the means of expression with a deep reliance on folklore;

folklore is quoted, developed with the help of technical and stylistic techniques of modern music;

generalized embodiment of national character, speech, thinking, etiquette.

Illustrations: I. F.Stravinsky "Wedding", B. Bartok "15 Hungarian dances", M. de Falla "7 Spanish songs", Z. Kodai "Hungarian psalm".

The "New folklore wave" in Russian music of 1950-80. Illustrations: G. V. Sviridov "Kursk songs", A.V. Gavrilin "Chimes", R. K. Shchedrin "Naughty ditties", S. M. Slonimsky "The Song of the Freemen".

Avante gard (French: avante gard the leading detachment) The first wave of the 1910s-1920s; The second wave: the 1950s-1970s. (associative series: K. Malevich "Black square"):

opposition to historically established norms of art, ahead of time;

the goal is to radically change the art space;

the desire to create a fundamentally new language of art;

wide application of modern techniques of musical language.

Illustrations: The first wave of the avantgarde A. Schoenberg Suite for piano, A. Webern "Concerto for 9 instruments solo"; G. Eisler "Divertimento for wind instruments"; The second wave of the avant-garde - P. Boulez "Hammer without a master"; K. Stockhausen "Microfonia" I and II; D. Ligeti "Atmospheres".

Soviet avantgarde - the time of the Soviet period (associative series: E. Belyutin "Running"):

irreconcilable, nonconformist position;

depth, inner search, the artist's conversation with his soul;

conceptualism as a response to false propaganda art.

Illustrations: D. D. Shostakovich symphonies "October", "May Day", opera "Nose".

Avant-gardists of the second wave, illustrations: A. Schnittke opera "The Story of Dr. Johann Faustin", S. A. Gubaidulina "De profundis", E. Denisov opera "Foam of Days".

Postmodernism (French postmodernisme after modernism) the second half and the end of the twentieth century, identified with the second wave of the avant-garde (associative series: F. Clemente "Untitled"):

return to modernism after the avant-garde;

the primacy of the mood of the end of culture, irony;

the desire to erase the boundaries between elite and mass art;

rejection of standardized technology in the search for a new one;

a combination of styles and genres.

Illustrations: J. Cage "4'33"", L. Berio "Opera", A. G. Schnittke The First Symphony, V. I. Martynov "Opus posth".

The presented materials of methodological development became the basis for a visual textbook in the traditional poster format. The illustrative materials present not only informative theses characterizing each direction of the composer's work, but also the names of works, the names of composers. The visual side is represented by portraits of composers, and the background is canvases by artists familiar from the course of the discipline "World and Art Culture", helping students to master complex material and conduct much-needed interdisciplinary connections.

Thus, the formulated theses are aimed at a sufficiently capacious, but at the same time a clear awareness of the individuality of each artistic direction will help students to form a clear idea of both individual areas of musical creativity and to realize the artistic appearance of such a complex era.

Conclusion

In general, the specifics of studying the musical art of the period of the twentieth century in the lessons of the musical-theoretical cycle of disciplines is associated with a clear differentiation of artistic and stylistic phenomena. The presented methodological approaches help in the implementation of intrasubject and intersubject connections in the process of musical learning.

An important methodological recommendation is the creation of an associative and illustrative series that helps in mastering complex aesthetic aspirations and individual creative trends, and in perceiving the appearance of the musical culture of the twentieth century as a whole.

The prospects of the study can be directed to the practical implementation of the methodological approaches outlined, in particular, to a more detailed development of the issues considered within the framework of educational and methodological projects, manuals, including the preparation of materials for the control parameter.

References
1. Skrebkov, S. S. (1973). Artistic principles of musical styles. Moscow: Music.
2. Mikhailov, M. K. (1990). Etudes on style in music: Articles and fragments. Leningrad: Music.
3. Nazaikinsky, E. V. (2003). Style and genre in music. Moscow: Humanit. publishing house VLADOS Center.
4. Tsenova, V. S. (Ed.). (2007). Theory of modern composition. Moscow: Music.
5. Sokolov, A. S. (2004). Introduction to the musical composition of the twentieth century. Moscow: Humanit. ed. center VLADOS.
6. Sokolov, A. S. (2007). Musical composition of the twentieth century: dialectics of creativity. Moscow: Composer.
7. Kholopov, Yu. V. (2008). The perception of the language of modern music. In Ideas Y. N. Kholopov in the twenty-first century: the 75th anniversary of the birth (pp. 401-413). Moscow: Monistat.
8. Kholopov, Yu. N. (2008). About the perception and understanding of new music. In Ideas Y. N. Kholopov in the twenty-first century: the 75th anniversary of the birth. (pp. 391-400). Moscow: Monistat.
9. Vysotskaya, M. S., & Grigoryeva, G. V. (2011). Music of the XX century: from avant-garde to post-modernism. Moscow: Moscow state Conservatory.
10. Strigina, E. V. (2006). Music of the twentieth century. Biysk: Publishing House Biya.
11. Denisov, A. V. (2006). Music of the twentieth century. St. Petersburg: Composer.

First Peer Review

Peer reviewers' evaluations remain confidential and are not disclosed to the public. Only external reviews, authorized for publication by the article's author(s), are made public. Typically, these final reviews are conducted after the manuscript's revision. Adhering to our double-blind review policy, the reviewer's identity is kept confidential.
The list of publisher reviewers can be found here.

It is impossible not to agree with the author that "the study of the peculiarities of the development of musical art of the twentieth century is particularly difficult in modern pedagogy." But if the article says that "the difficulty of perceiving music from this period of time is associated with the multifaceted artistic and philosophical content of creativity, the variety of stylistic trends and compositional techniques, the ambiguity of their differentiation, the complexity of awareness of specificity, the multifaceted and often experimental nature of compositional searches," then it seems wrong to recognize only these reasons. Our pedagogical experience shows that children perceive the most "complex" music of the twentieth century absolutely simply and adequately, since it is not burdened with the auditory volume of classical and romantic music. In addition (for comparison) in European countries, the music of the twentieth century is heard more often on various radio and TV channels, which teaches the audience from childhood to understand and accept various musical styles. Imagine that, for example, in Finland there is a channel where you can listen and discuss only the music of Shostakovich or representatives of the French "six". Consequently, the difficulty of perceiving music of the twentieth century is often associated with its "ignorance" or rather late acquaintance with it, when the auditory receptors are "clogged" with music of the XVIII-XIX centuries. However, the author comprehends the situation associated with modern domestic musical professional education, and in this sense, the article suggests "treating the onset of the disease", rather than countering its appearance. In essence, the author offers a methodological development for the study of music of the twentieth century, visualizing it with paintings. A selection of musical and pictorial works has been made for each direction. Verism is proposed to be considered on the basis of the operas by P. Mascagni "Rural Honor", R. Leoncavallo "Pagliacci", J. Puccini "Manon Lescaut", "Bohemia"; impressionism based on the works of K. Debussy 24 preludes, the opera "Pelleas and Melisande", M. Ravel "The Play of Water", "Reflections", K. Shimanovsky "Metopes", A. K. Lyadov "Magic Lake"; expressionism based on the works of A. Schoenberg "Moon Pierrot", A. Webern Symphony Op. 21, A. Berg "Wozzeck", R. Strauss "Salome", B. Bartok "Castle of Duke Bluebeard"; modernism based on the works of D. Millau, A. Honegger, F. Poulenc, J. Typher, L. Duray, etc. Agreeing that the applicant has done a lot of work on the selection of musical texts and paintings that allow to more accurately present the specific characteristics of the studied directions and styles, it is impossible to understand to whom the text of the article is addressed. Is it intended for teachers of secondary and higher musical educational institutions who teach the discipline "History of music of the twentieth century"? Or is it addressed to students for independent work? How many hours is this course designed for? How can it be correlated with curricula, in which 36 hours are often given to study music of the twentieth century? To simply listen to the list of musical works proposed by the author, you need ten times more time. Maybe the author is counting on a change in curricula and suggests studying modern music for all four years of study? The proposed questions, in our opinion, are more controversial than those that the applicant discusses in the first part of the article. Part of the initial text seems redundant to us. Nevertheless, we must pay tribute to the author, who is able to clearly systematize the studied material, formulate the purpose and objectives of the study. If desired, the author can adjust the text taking into account the wishes of the reviewer.

Second Peer Review

Peer reviewers' evaluations remain confidential and are not disclosed to the public. Only external reviews, authorized for publication by the article's author(s), are made public. Typically, these final reviews are conducted after the manuscript's revision. Adhering to our double-blind review policy, the reviewer's identity is kept confidential.
The list of publisher reviewers can be found here.

To the journal "PHILHARMONICA. International Music Journal" the author presented his article "The study of creative art trends of the twentieth century in the classes of the theoretical cycle of disciplines in music universities and colleges", which conducted a study of the peculiarities of teaching art and musicology disciplines. However, it should be noted that the phrase "creative art directions" seems redundant and devoid of meaning. The author should either leave only the "directions of art", or add a definition of "musical", based on the problems of the article. The author proceeds in the study of this issue from the fact that the musical art of the twentieth century presents a certain complexity in terms of pedagogy and methodology of its study due to its multi-genre and multifaceted artistic and philosophical content. The relevance of the research is due to the need to find ways to optimize the educational musical process in the context of the stylistic, compositional and semantic diversity of the studied material. The theoretical basis of the study was the work of such researchers as S.S. Skrebkov, M.K. Mikhailov, A.S. Sokolov, etc. The empirical basis was textbooks containing musical material on the era under study. The purpose of the study is to develop methodological recommendations for teaching musical art of the twentieth century based on the analysis of existing pedagogical techniques and scientific works devoted to this issue. The subject of this study is various musical trends and works of the twentieth century. The practical significance of the research lies in the methodological recommendations developed by the author on the teaching of musicological disciplines. To achieve this goal, the material of the article is divided into two logically justified sections. The first section "The study of the musical art of the twentieth century in the artistic and stylistic aspect" is devoted to the musical trends of the twentieth century and scientific works devoted to this issue. Having carried out a bibliographic analysis of scientific works, the author states that the consensus of the scientific community is that the study of music of the twentieth century causes certain difficulties for students for a number of reasons. Among them, the author identifies both directly musicological (the complexity of compositions, the variety of musical genres, styles and directions, the peculiarity of the musical language, the lack of a single accepted chronology) and methodological (insufficient understanding of compositional techniques, different interpretations of musical terms and concepts). According to the author, today there are a number of textbooks on teaching musicological disciplines. However, all of them are written as analytical essays and are based on the principle of studying and detailing certain trends and periods using examples of the analysis of specific works. It is a single work that is the starting point for the study of an entire epoch, which makes the material voluminous and disjointed. The author notes the lack of scientific validity, the lack of theoretical systematization and classification of the material in such manuals and textbooks. Thus, the author identifies the following problems that arise when teaching disciplines of the musical and theoretical cycle (Music History, Music of the second half of the twentieth - early 21st century, Musical form, Musical literature and Analysis of musical works), when studying the musical art of the twentieth century: the desire to form students' clear understanding of the stylistic directions of musical art, their clear differentiation; awareness of the mobility of the stylistic boundaries of compositional creativity, which cannot be determined solely by one stylistic direction; understanding the aesthetic aspirations of the era, which are directly reflected in the content of works of art, including musical; the need to select a number of musical works that most vividly illustrate the studied musical and artistic directions of art. In the second section of the study "Practical recommendations in the development of creative styles and directions of musical art of the twentieth century by students", the author presents the theses of methodological recommendations developed by him for teaching such disciplines as Music History, Music of the twentieth century, Musical literature. The development of methodological approaches is based on the traditions of modern music education. The interpretation of the terminological apparatus, the set of categories and concepts, the chronological framework and aesthetic attitudes are based on the body of knowledge of Russian musicology, as well as the established traditions of teaching disciplines of the musical and theoretical cycle. At the same time, both foreign and domestic musical culture are considered. The author focuses on the formulation of the leading content vectors that will help characterize a particular style trend. Each musical direction is characterized by several general parameters: the etymology of the name of the creative art direction and approximate chronological framework; a visual associative series with fine art aimed at gaining knowledge and experience within the framework of interdisciplinary connections; characteristic aesthetic and artistic installations; an auditory series - examples of musical works of the studied compositional direction. Based on this methodological guide, the author has developed a visual aid in a poster format. After conducting the research, the author comes to the conclusion that the specifics of studying the musical art of the twentieth century period is associated with a clear differentiation of artistic and stylistic phenomena. The developed methodological approaches, and especially the creation of an associative and illustrative series, can help in the implementation of intrasubject and interdisciplinary connections in the process of musical education. According to the author, further elaboration of the studied topic may be of practical importance, for example, when creating control materials. It seems that the author in his material touched upon relevant and interesting issues for modern socio-humanitarian knowledge, choosing a topic for analysis, consideration of which in scientific research discourse will entail certain changes in the established approaches and directions of analysis of the problem addressed in the presented article. The results obtained allow us to assert that the peculiarities of studying the musical art of the twentieth century are of undoubted cultural and art criticism interest and can serve as a source of further research. The material presented in the work has a clear, logically structured structure that contributes to a more complete assimilation of the material. The bibliographic list of the study consists of 11 sources, which seems sufficient for the generalization and analysis of scientific discourse on the subject under study. However, an analysis of foreign works on the issue under study could advantageously complement the study. The author fulfilled his goal, received certain scientific results that allowed him to summarize the material. It should be noted that the article may be of interest to readers and deserves to be published in a reputable scientific publication, despite several noted shortcomings.
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