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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Security Issues" > Rubric "Transformation of national security systems"
Transformation of national security systems
Belyaeva G.S., Belyaev V.P. - Modern national security conceptions of foreign states: legal aspect pp. 11-23


Abstract: The paper analyzes the main provisions of modern conceptions of national security of foreign states. The authors consider the reasons for their adoption, the approaches to the interpretation of national interests, the threats to national interests and the system of measures and methods of national security protection in different countries. Special attention is given to the role of Russia in the international legal space in the context of the national security conceptions of the USA and some other foreign states. The authors ascertain and systematize the peculiarities of foreign approaches to national security protection. The research is based on various general scientific methods of cognition: analysis and synthesis, abstraction, modeling, the system structural, functional and formal-logical approaches. The article can have both a theoretical and a branch application; it is an interdisciplinary study which is aimed at the establishment of conceptual approaches to understanding of national security and the mechanisms of its protection in different countries. The authors carry out the comparative analysis of the experience of strategic legal regulation of national security issues in foreign states, which is necessary in the context of new global challenges. 
Litvinov I.M. - Formation and development of intelligence community of France pp. 15-25


Abstract: The research subject of the study is formation, development and legal regulation of intelligence community in France. The chronological framework of the study covers the historical period from 1994 to the present time. The first independent counterintelligence service in France was established in the last year of World War II, thus laying the foundation of the future intelligence community. During the period under consideration, various changes had happened to the internal policy of France and the international situation. Internal and external factors influenced the organization and activities of France’s intelligence community and the condition of national security. The research methodology of the study is based on the dialectical method, concrete historical approach, system analysis, formal legal and comparative legal methods. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the consideration of the transformations of the national security system of France from 1944 to the present day. The transition from the Fourth to the Fifth Republic had significantly changed the role of public authorities in the sphere of security provision. The reforms of the national security system of France which had taken place during 2007-2009, were based on the experience of American intelligence community. France’s counterintelligence agencies and political investigation service reforming was accompanied by the reduction of human, financial and technical resources. The author of the study concludes that these reforms, coupled with unfavorable external factors, had led to internal security weakening and serious drawbacks in combating terrorism. 
Panenkov A.A. - Fighting terrorism and its financing shall remain a topical long-term problem for Russia. pp. 19-77


Abstract: The author provides a system of arguments proving that the problem of terrorism and terrorism financing shall remain topical in Russia in a long-term perspective. The article includes the results of scientific studies (2010 - 2012) in the sphere of terrorism financing, and the author makes specific propositions on optimizing fighting terrorism financing.  Scientific studies in this sphere are continued by the Scientific Research Institute of Prosecution General of the Russian Federation in 2013, the polling of expert workers of law-enforcement bodies of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic was done (223 questionnaires). One should also take into account the internal factors forming conditions for organized terrorist acts in the Northern Caucasus and the Volga region. The author supports a position that the terrorism threat in Russia is a real long-term problem.  An external factor of active terrorist activities in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Syria, etc. also plays an important role in foreign investments into terrorist activities.
Karpovich O.G. - Processes of supplanting and substitution of national interests with corporate ones in global politics: the conflict of interests and values pp. 31-43


Abstract: The piece studies the modern processes of supplanting and substitution of national interests with the corporate interests of new political actors – transnational corporations in global politics, resulting in the conflicts of interests and values. The research object is global politics as a whole and political activities of non-state actors in particular. The research subject is the conflicts of interests and values arising in the result of supplanting and substitution of national interests with corporate ones in global politics. The purpose of the research is to find out the essence and the content of modern processes of supplanting of national interests from global politics and their substitution with corporate interests and values of TNCs. The research methodology is based on the system, institutional, structural-functional and comparative-political approaches, the methods of analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction and observation.The author focuses on the fact that in the result of the transformation of the global political system, caused by a massive “invasion” of TNCs in the political sphere, the national sovereignty principle can be substituted with the transnational interests’ balance principle, and international law – with corporate law extending its influence on the global political sphere. In this context, the growth of TNCs’ and the related groups’ interests in global politics can lead to the substitution of corporate interests of TNCs’ for national interests; it can cause further commercialization of global politics, supplanting of nation-states on its periphery, and indication of new challenges and threats to international security. 
Ursul A.D., . - The problem of security: global and universal evolutionary aspects pp. 81-159
Abstract: The paper analyzes the security problem from the standpoint of global and interdisciplinary research and is considered formation of a unified methodology of research problems and the concept of security in connection with their expansive interpretation, and on the basis of a global (universal) evolutionism. It is noted that the formation of the global world fraught with new risks and dangers planetary scales, which may cause anthropogenic global catastrophe. Arises the need for exposure to globalization and other global processes of a sustainable development-oriented full providing security and the survival of civilization. In the future, global world with sustainable development, national and global security will be ensured by not primarily a defense, but mainly through this type of development, which will promote the positive and overcome the negative trends in global development.
Shumov V. - Criterion for frontier security: philosophical, systemic technical and systemic historical approaches. pp. 88-132


Abstract: The article contains the criterion for the frontier security - prevented harm to public good minus the costs of frontier activities. The criterion allows to account for the efficiency of frontier measures and frontier constrainment. Efficiency of frontier measures is evaluated with the use of frontier productive function, efficiency of constrainment is evaluated with the logit model.  The definition of security has value-oriented subjective character, and it is determined by the historical experience of the people. In order to take into account subjective factors, the article contains definition of the view (perception) function and evaluation of adequacy of formal dependencies.  With the use of systemic historical approach the author provides analysis of frontier security of the state in the XX century. Development of the frontier system is regarded as an adaptation. The author reveals adaptation mechanism, showing dependencies between the contents of various stages of the recent frontier history and the dominant perception of value of security among the elites and in the society.  The evaluation of these approaches to frontier security facilitates the formation of an "intellectual" frontier in order to improve security of the state and society from the transborder challenges.
Sedykh N.S. - Information and psychological means of involving youth in terrorism. pp. 93-131


Abstract: The article concerns topical issues of global informatization of the social sphere and intensifying terrorist threats. The author provides grounds for the classification, generalizes the approaches towards defining and understanding the nature of the modern terrorism. The author discusses the issues on the role of the mass communications and information resources in the social construing of the terrorism phenomenon, analyzing means of information-related and psychological influence, which are organized by the extremists in order to popularize radical ideology, to form "extremist mind" and active involvement of the youth in the terrorist activities.  Due to this the author discusses specific means and methods of development of social rhetoric, organization of convincing influences and formation of loyalty towards radical social and political ideals and destructive means of achieving them.  The author analyzes social and psychological specificities of propaganda in the Internet, which is aimed at forming loyal attitudes towards extremist ideas and moral legitimation of violence. The author studies the technologies of the virtual virus marketing, which is based on the phenomenon of the psychological contamination, and which is aimed at the development of the social fashion, sanctioning certain types of behavior.  The author points out the need for the further studies of the terrorism phenomenon within the context of the ongoing processes of informatization and globalization of threats.  Special attention is paid to the need for the efficient use of information resources in order to optimize anti-terrorist influences and development of the system of information -  psychological counteraction against the terrorist and extremist ideologies.
Sosnin V.A. - The spiritual and religious bases for suicidal terrorism: the ideology of “Global Jihad” as a psychological motivation for the suicide terrorism by Islamic radicals. pp. 112-159


Abstract: The article is devoted to the spiritual and religious bases for the suicidal terrorism and the ideology of Global Jihad as a psychological motivation of suicide terrorism by the Islamic radicals. The author provides conceptual positions on the correlations between the concept of terrorism in general and suicide terrorism in particular.  He analyzes the topical issues of Fundamentalism and its revival in the Islamic world in the current geo-political conditions. He evaluates ideological and psychological bases of the views on suicidal terrorism as martyrdom  by the ideologists of Al-Qaeda (Ben- Laden, Al-Zavahiri). He also analyzes the psychology of motivation of suicide terrorists from the canonical Koran positions. He refers to the ways of fighting terrorism in the current conditions. The main goal of this article is to explain to the scientists specific features of spiritual and religious motivations of followers and performers of terrorism and to indirectly show that the problem of fighting terrorism in the current geo-political situation is not  limited to "bombs and rackets" issue, or holding military and anti-terrorism actions (while military and intelligence elements of this fight are important).  It is a fight in the sphere of morals and ideology, and it is a long-term one at that. It might take decades. And the information resistance should include psychological operations among the other technologies.
Sergunin A.A. - The Concept of Military Security and Evolution of Politico Military Thinking in Post-Soviet Russia pp. 119-140
Abstract: The author of the article studies the development of the idea of military security in Russian politico military thinking during the post-Soviet period. The author provides the critics of the logic and contents of this definition provided in doctrine documents of the Russian Federation. The author concludes that, despute the fact that the process of development of the conceptual framework of politics in the sphere of national and military security has been completed, the terminology used in this sphere is still far from being perfect and needs further development It has been only the first step towards global changes and Russia's need in a new system of national and military security. In the future, the author plans on clarifying associated definitions and terms and even changing their contents for a more reasonable one at the doctrine and operational levels. 
Vladimirova T.V. - The growing demand for "need for the Undeniable" and public security. pp. 136-157


Abstract: The article includes the development of the approach towards the problem of security in the society as sustainable social order in the conditions of growing deviation/variety. It is noted by the author that growth and complication of the social reality is reflected by the growing variety of social situations, ever greater generalization and evening out of social norms, greater topicality of the problems regarding norms in the social sphere.  In such conditions an individual gains more and more independency in establishing his situations, and the activities (communications) in any social structure become more and more complicated. The social communications become de-regulated, and it causes discontentment in the social system as a whole.  The analysis of the evolution theory of N. Luhmann allows one to see the role of deviation in the modern destinies in more detail. The idea of the author is that once the “semantic hypertrophy of variety ” appears, the social system develops a new “salvation formula” for the social order, which is development of network communication space. The network has a unique quantity – the limitless ability to meet the need for the Undeniable. In this sense, one may say that development of network communications “saves” the order in the society by localizing the anomia in the virtual network space.
Airikh V.A. - The relationship betwen public safety and crime prevention in the police law of Germany pp. 254-289


Abstract: This article analyzes the historical and theoretical aspects of public safety and crime prevention in relation to police legislation of the federal states of Germany, on the basis of the formation of the Prussian and southern German police systems which were first expressed normatively in the Code of Police Punishments of Baden and Württemberg. It comments on the common problems in the practical application of German and Russian regulations on preventive policing in the second half of the nineteenth century and details various positions relating to the doctrine of preventive policing, as developed by R.Molem. The article also considers the governmental approaches to the understanding of the role and importance of security, being a subjective public right to police protection. It highlights a range of positions extracted from the decisions of the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany on the issue. It states the fundamental differences between the legal provisions dealing with sanctions and those dealing with a preventive approach. Lastly, it considers the various elements which underpin "public safety" - the rule of law, individual and collective legal benefits. It notes that there is a tendency to subjectivise modern police law.
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