Security Issues - номер 4 за 2017 год
Security Issues
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Security Issues" > Contents of Issue № 04/2017
Contents of Issue № 04/2017
Strategy of national security
Ponomarev A.I. - Task-oriented methodology of strategic target-setting as a prerequisite for progressive development of society: socio-economic development (part two) pp. 1-12


Abstract: The paper considers topical issues of strategic target-setting in the Russian Federation. The second part of the study contains the results of methodological analysis of the system of strategic lines in the sphere of socio-economic development of the Russian Federation. This approach helps easily define the appropriateness of the strategic target-setting system, since, knowing the methodology, one can regularly check the conclusions of others from the viewpoint of their method and rely on them as on methodologically correct. The analysis of the current documents shows that by the end of 2016, the has been no formalized long-term strategy of socio-economic development. Therefore, the author considers the content of the “2020 Strategy: the new growth model – the new social policy”, since many of its provisions have been implemented in budgetary and financial policy. The methodological analysis of this document shows that it doesn’t contain any socio-economic development model; it merely offers the set of separate measures, which can’t guarantee any result. The generalization of strategic planning helps the author to conclude that two approaches can be used for target-setting: a target-based and a scenario-based. In the author’s opinion, progressive development can be achieved if these two approaches are combined. The author also reveals some methodological positions connected with a possibility to formulate positive targets of social development in the context of the current condition of social and scientific thought. Targets should be formulated on the basis of values. Interrelation between targets and values is the basis for the assumption about the existence of some targets-values system, which determines the direction of socio-historic movement. The author concludes that the detection of a wide range of initial characteristics of the object of development is the essence of the task-oriented approach in strategic target-setting in socio-economic development. 
Technologies and methodology of security systems
Ermakov S.V., Bondarev V.A. - Dangerous, extreme and emergency situations in ship navigation pp. 13-22


Abstract: The research subject is the terminology, which is used to describe the situations in ship navigation, which can be harmful for life and health of people, property (cargo and ship) and environment.The research object is theory and methodology of the risk of emergency situations in ship navigation. The authors consider dangerous, extreme and emergency situations, their definitions, features and interrelation. The study is based on legal and commonly used definitions and those acquired in the process of studying. The research methodology is based on terminological system analysis, which is applied to each definition and the whole conceptual framework (terminological system). The authors detect commonness, difference and correlation of notions defining the situations, which occur in the process of ship navigation and are characterized by the presence of danger. In other words, the authors systematize the terminology. The most common term is dangerous situation, which is only determined by the presence of danger. An additional feature of extreme situation is a human factor. The level of extremality of the situation is determined by the probability of an accident and emergency situation. The research results supplement the theory and methodology of emergency situations risk management in ship navigation. They can be used for generalization of effective procedures of management on the basis of prognostication and minimization of human factor in ship navigation safety. 
Legal support of national security
Belyaeva G.S., Belyaev V.P. - Formation and development of legal regulation of national security in pre-revolutionary Russia pp. 23-35


Abstract: Using historical and legal analysis, the authors analyze sources and documents to study formation and development of legal regulation of Russia’s national security before revolution. The authors determine the key periods of formation and development of legal regulation of national security, demonstrate distinctive features and peculiarities of each of them. While studying the development of legal regulation of national security, the authors detect correlation between the result of formalization of the elements of national security provision and the recognition and systematization of national security threats by the state at a certain stage of its development. The authors use the set of genera scientific methods and techniques of logical cognition: analysis (including the historical-legal) and synthesis, abstraction, modeling, the system-structural, functional and formal-logical approaches. This study has both theoretical-conceptual and historical-legal nature. It is a complex interdisciplinary study aimed at establishing common approaches to the understanding of evolution of legal regulation of national security in general and the mechanisms of its provision in the Russian state during the pre-revolutionary period. The results of this study can be used for the solution of issues of legal coverage of national security in contemporary Russia. 
Informational support of national security
Kobets P.N. - On the need to struggle against the key factors, promoting dissemination of extremist ideas in social networks, as an element of national security provision pp. 36-45


Abstract: The article contains the analysis of the key factors, promoting the dissemination of extremist ideas on the Internet, and the measures, which could help struggle against them. Special attention is given to the study of the circumstances and consequences of use of information technologies by extremist criminal groups. The author studies the problems of use of social networks by extremist groups for revolutionary propaganda, recruiting, training, fundraising, communication and target-setting for a strike. The research methodology is based on the elements of social networks analysis. The author also uses various general scientific approaches and ways of logical cognition: analysis and synthesis, abstraction, modeling, the formal-logical approach, comparative and express analysis. The author concludes that extremists use social networks for various purposes: firstly, for communication with other criminal groups and individual supporters of such ideas; secondly, for dissemination of ideas through direct recruiting of potential participants of extremist activity or manipulation of collective consciousness. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the author’s conclusion that despite the active struggle against extremism on the Internet, the question of its effectiveness is still open. To successfully solve the task of struggle against extremism, the whole range of complex measures should be taken, including effective social policy, formation of a well-thought system of political education for young people, creation of a socio-oriented legal system. This study can be used as a theoretical source and as a guide for action. Its results can be used by law-enforcement agencies for the struggle against extremism in social networks. 
External threats and countermeasures
Dikikh A.A. - India and Pakistan: wars, conflicts, their settlement and consequences pp. 46-59


Abstract: The author outlines and studies the origins and reasons of wars (of 1947, 1965, 1971 and 1999) and conflicts between India and Pakistan from 1947 till the present time. The author considers the role of the UN Security Council in the settlement of armed conflicts between the countries. Among the key reasons of confrontation between the states, the author outlines the struggle for the territory of Jammu and Kashmir, religious contradictions, disputes over water resources, India’s interference in the conflict between West and East Pakistan in 1971, nuclear tests from 1974 till 1998, struggle for the Siachen Glacier from 1984 till 1987, repeated crossing of the Line of Control by Pakistani troops, etc. The research methodology is based on the historical method, comparative, structural-functional and system analysis, synthesis, induction and deduction. The author emphasizes the existing tension between the countries, caused by religious contradictions, differences in economic situation in the countries, the unsettled territorial dispute over the demarcation Line of Control, China’s influence on the Pakistani government, which aggravates the contradictions between the countries and the possibility of its reduction through the participation of the countries in the SCO. 
Humanitarian support of national security
Vnukova L. - Radicalization as an individual process and a social phenomenon: foreign theories and Russian realities pp. 60-69


Abstract: The article adapts the foreign interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenon of radicalization for understanding contemporary Russian realities. Existing factors - precursors, promoting radicalization, are identified and analyzed from the standpoint of the system approach. Transformative learning theory is drawn from psychology to explain the processes taking place in the consciousness of an adult person during his/her transformation into a radical terrorist capable of violent actions. The foreign theories have a heuristic potential, but they are not properly represented in Russian-language studies.The article is written on the basis of an interdisciplinary approach using general scientific methods of analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction.A. Wilner and C.-J. Dubouloz consider three precursors of the radicalization process in their study: socio-political alienation, deep religious identity as opposed to globalization and discontent with the foreign policy of the state. Socio-political factors are objective and projected onto the individual personal circumstances through the prism of his/her psychological characteristics and ideological convictions. It does not matter whether the reasons are subjective (problems in the family, the impossibility to realize personal aspirations, death, divorce, etc.) or objective (socioeconomic, political, ecological, etc.), psychological processes of rethinking and searching for new meaningful prospects in the conditions of instability. The key role in this process belongs to ideology in a broad sense, including religion, and the relevant values. Ideology allows an individual to talk about justice, evaluate events. Objective conditions - precursors or socio-political factors - affect the entire society, the information-ideological field is the same for all, but there is no complete radicalization. Everyone chooses from the proposed set of ideas those shaping or transforming their own worldview. Involvement in radical social groups and networks contributes to the perception of violent acts and terrorism. Understanding of the processes of personal transformation in the mind of an individual explains why people, using a unique combination of causes in each case, come to the same result - go on the path of violence, exposing themselves and their closed ones to danger. The radicalization theories explain the processes both in Western countries, in Africa, and in Russia and Asia, that's why we can conclude that they are universal.
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