Legal Studies - rubric Questions of current interest
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Legal Studies" > Rubric "Questions of current interest"
Questions of current interest
kozhevnikov o.a. - Disputable issues of formation of judicial practice in the field of protection of competition by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation pp. 1-8

DOI:
10.7256/2409-7136.2016.5.18940

Abstract: The research subject is the analysis of legislation interpretation by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation for the purpose of ensuring the legality regime in the Russian Federation by means of maintaining the unanimity of interpretation and application of legal provisions by courts. The author analyzes the judicial practice of the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation. The article studies the issues of correspondence of judicial practices of the Supreme and the Constitutional Courts using the example of protection of competition and antimonopoly legislation. The author applies general and special scientific research methods, including the historical-legal, the system, the comparative-legal, the statistical, the formal-logical and other methods. The author reveals disputable issues of the interpretation of judicial practice in protection of competition by the Supreme Court. The author supposes that the development and introduction of interpretations of the Supreme Court in the judicial practice should be more accurate, in order to avoid the formation of a contradictory practice by the subordinate courts ignoring legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation. 
Kuznetsova N.G. - Legal Status of the Aggregator of Information about Goods (Services, Works, Digital Content) and its Pre-Contractual Duties pp. 1-15

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2018.3.25508

Abstract: The article is devoted to the problem of the legal status of the aggregator of information about goods (services, works, digital content). The author of the article examines the draft law and amendments thereto that regulate the definition of the aggregator of information about goods (services), its pre-contractual duties and responsibility before consumers. The author also focuses on the role of the aggregator at the pre-contractual stage. The author analyzes whether it is possible to impose other pre-contractual duties on aggregators such as submission of necessary information and the degree of their responsibility before consumers. In her research Kuznetsova uses such methods of research as analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, formal law method, analysis and generalization of legal materials, and legal forecasting. The author of the article gives a fuller definition of the aggregator as it is set forth by the draft law and extends the scope of the activity of aggregators so that the scope includes not only goods and services but also works and digital content. In the course of her research Kuznetsova analyzes the experience of the foreign states, in particular, that of the European Union. The author offers a list of pre-contractual duties beared by the aggregator before consumers. These duties regulate the right of consumers to information protection as well as the degree of responsibility of the aggregator. The author also gives recommendations regulating the activity of the aggregator of information about goods (services, works, digital content) at the pre-contractual stage.
Morkhat P.M. - Concerning the Question about the Legal Personality of Electronic Person pp. 1-8

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2018.4.25647

Abstract: The subject of the research is the analysis of the legal personality of a new entity, electronic person. Morkhat provides current definitions of electronic person including those offered by the foreign scientists. The author of the article underlines the importance of developing the Russian law that would regulate the electronic person (artificial intellect) issue. The author analyzes the legal consolidation of The Commission of the European Parliament for Civil Regulation in the Field of Robotechnics. Indeed, we should not forget about the risks when we encourage the development of the human civilization through the means of technical regulation and try to create robots with artificial intellect that would serve the humanity. In this research Morkhat has used the method of materialist dialectic, structured system analysis, functional analysis, comparison, formal logic, comparative law, technical law and logical method. According to theauthor, growing independence of robots with artificial intellect would require to review a whole range of reference legal structures and even reference branches or institutions of law (legal responsibility regime, taxation regime, regulation of accountability and reporting, regulation of intellecltual property rights, e-commerce regime or so called trade bots, electronic person protection regime, etc.).
Morkhat P.M. - Smart Contracts and Artificial Intelligence: Civil Right Perspective pp. 1-6

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2018.5.26124

Abstract: The article is devoted to the definition of the term 'smart contract' and how it is used by civil law. The idea of smart contracts was created in 1994 by Nick Szabo who defined it as a computer protocol of transaction that is made to faciliate a performance of a contract. The blockchain is a limited form of a smart contract. Today the technology of distributed ledgers (including bitcoin blockchain) have revived smart contracts and have made them applicable again. Smart contracts is a next step in developing the blockchain technology  allowing an automatic performance of a contract after parties come to agreement. It implies remote, full and quick performance of contractual obligations. In this research Morkhat has used such methods as analysis, comparison, analysis of the history of creation and development of the term, and legal expirement. Smart contracts, in fact, are not that 'smart' in terms of artificial intelligence. Generally speaking, the term 'smart contract' does not necessarily mean attribution to artificial intelligence technologies. However, there are certain points where these technologies interact. Recent findings in the field of crypto currency and smart contracts create new opportunities for using artificial intelligence methods. These economic technologies stand to gain from deeper knowledge and analysis because they will be integrated in everyday trade. Crypto currency and smart contracts can also provide infrastructure for artificial intelligence systems conforming to legal standards and safety regulations as they integrate more and more in a human society. 
Den D. - Application of Anti-Dumping Measures That May Be Needed in the Process of Organizing Tenders for State and Municipal Needs pp. 1-8

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2018.8.26837

Abstract: The present article is devoted to the analysis of legal and economic reasons of unbiased reduction of the initial contract price by tender participants. The object of the research is the social relations that may arise during application of security measures in the process of establishing agreements between participants in order to conclude a civil law contract for the interests of public-law entities. The subject of the research is the standards that regulate the procedure for applying anti-dumping measures during auctions and tenders organized for state and municipal needs. The methodological basis of the research implies a set of general and special research methods. In the course of the research the author has applied the dialectical method, systems approach and comparative law method. The author concludes that dumping is the mean of unfair competition of state procurement participants. The author carries out an analysis of law enforcement practice of the Federal Antimonopoly Service of Russia that relates to violations of laws regulating the procedure of application of anti-dumping measures during tenders. As a conclusion of the research, the author makes legal and technical recommendations that may allow to avoid unbiased decrease of initial price by dishonest suppliers. 
Bakhteev D.V. - Risks and Ethical-Legal Models of Using Artificial Intelligence Systems pp. 1-11

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2019.11.31333

Abstract: The matter under research of the legal patterns of interaction between the society and individuals and artificial intelligence technologies. Elements of the matter under research is the technological grounds for functioning of artificial intelligence systems, potential risks and negative consequences of using this technology based on the example of intellectual processing personal data and autonomous vehicles and weapon systems, ethical and legal approaches to its regulation. Bakhteev analyzes approaches to describing positions of artificial intelligence systems and whether these systems have personalities and thus certain rights. The research is based on the method of modelling that is used to describe stages of ethical-legal research of artificial intelligence technology. The author also describes different kinds of responses of the society to the development of the aforesaid technology. The main conclusions of the research is the description of stages of artificial intelligence studies, in particular, analysis of the technology itself, associated risks and responses of the society and creation of ethical and then legal grounds for regulation of this technology. The author gives the results of the analysis of possible ethical-legal models of subjectivity of artificial intelligence systems from the point of view of the need and possibility to grant them certain rights. These models include instrumental, tolerant, xenophobic and empathetic. The author also states the main provisions of the code of ethics for developer and user of artificial intelligence systems. 
Gorokhova S.S. - Identification of artificial intelligence systems in legal field: the fundamentals of cyber law pp. 1-11

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2020.6.33419

Abstract: The subject of this article is the social relations established in the process of scientific and technological development in IT sphere that support the work of artificial intelligence systems and relate to scientific discussion on the role of artificial intelligence, robots and objects of robotics in the legal field. The author examines the relevant questions of identification of artificial intelligence systems as a subject, object or other legal phenomenon within the structure of legal relations. The research problem consists in the fact outstripping that the scientific-technological progress outstripped legal regulation of interaction between an individual, society and artificial intelligence, which justifies the need for creation a cyber-law theory. The opinions on the matter in foreign and national literature are analyzed. The article outlines the trends and prospects of implementation of artificial intelligence in various social and economic spheres; determines the contrast of opinions regarding the problems of identification of artificial intelligence systems, as well as incorporation of artificial intelligence into the established legal reality. The author presents and substantiates an original conceptual version of inclusion of artificial intelligence into the legal field, based on the principle of assignment of partial legal capacity to strong and super strong artificial intelligence. The positions on legal responsibility in relations complicated by the presence of artificial intelligence are defined.
Danilov I. - The Main Approaches to Legal Regulation of Relations that Involve the Use of Robots pp. 7-15

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2019.6.29150

Abstract: The article is devoted to the main challenges and issues that can be found in the laws on robotics as part of the Russian legal doctrine. Danilov analyzes the main approaches to legal regulation of social relations that involve the use of robots as these approaches are described in Russian and foreign academic literature. Theoretical views of Russian and foreign scientists on perspective concepts in legal regulation of robotics are classified and represented in the form of theoretical models. The researcher proves the rationality of these models and describe their advantages and disadvantages. Danilov presents the concept of limited legal capacity and competence of robots. Danilov defines the borders of legal capacity, competence and tort capacity. The methodological basis of the research includes dialectical and comparative law methods. In particular, application of the dialectical method has allowed to analyze the definition of the term 'robot' from the point of view of its origin and development. Comparative law method has ensured accurate comparison of approaches to legal regulation of relations that involve the use of robots as these approaches are described by Russian and foreign science. As aresult of the research, the author concludes that all approaches to defining the legal nature of robots as artificial intelligence bearers can be divided into three groups. The first group is based on the idea that these relations are a special object of law with special characteristics that require the development of special laws that would regulate such relations. The second approach is based on the need to declare partial legal capacity of robots limited with their tort capacity. The third concept is based on the need to extend the legal competence of artificial intelligence bearers by including the legal capacity therein. 
Savoskin A.V., Romanov A.N. - Recognition of Juridical Persons by Subjects of the Constitutional Right to Appeal pp. 8-13

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2018.6.18764

Abstract: The authors of the article analyze the amendments to the Federal Law "On the order of consideration of citizens of the Russian Federation" that sets forth the rules for legal entities referring to the bodies of state power and local self-government. The role of the Constitutional Court in giving organizations the constitutional right to an appeal is discussed. The reasons for the establishment of the existing two-part complex regulatory structure "treatment of citizens' associations, including legal persons", as well as studied the problems of its use are covered. The authors also analyzed foreign legislation on the organization of appeals. The research is based on the dialectical method as the general research method and special methods such as system-structural, formal and legal, logical and comparative law analysis. The results of the research demonstrate that amendments to the Federal Law "On the order of consideration of applications of citizens of the Russian Federation" were of the forced nature and were carried out without proper scientific justification. That resulted in unrevealed concept and features of the organization as a subject of the constitutional right to an appeal. The authors of the article propose to develop a clear definition of treatment will of the organization as an association of citizens or legal persons set out in writing or formulated on a personal reception of the person authorized to represent the organization.
Belikova K.M. - Responsibility of scholars for engineering, development and implementation of the technologies for euthanasia: certain aspects pp. 12-24

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2020.5.33276

Abstract: The subject of this research is certain aspects of responsibility of the scholars for engineering, development and implementation of the technologies for euthanasia. The author raises the questions: whom the scholar is responsible to (his conscience, future and currently living generations), for what (scientific components of his development/discovery, their application and consequences), what type of responsibility (moral, legal). The author seeks answers on the basis of studying, scientific comprehension and analysis of the developing and existing mechanism, methods, and means for euthanasia as legally permitted or prohibited in the medical establishments. The ideas underlying the support and implementation of euthanasia are examined. The scientific novelty is substantiated by articulation of the problem: responsibility of a scholar (medical personnel, etc.) with regards to the practice (ban of a number of aspects in the practice) of euthanasia on the example of legislation of the countries, in which it is allowed (was allowed) or unwelcomed. Among the formulated conclusions is the idea that any approach is based on persuasions of a person; there is not special morality, a scholar always remains a human, with all the weaknesses and strength. Namely these persuasions lead the licensed medial practitioners toward creation of technologies, means and methods for alleviation of suffering and acceleration of death.
ermakova i.v. - Development of contextual advertising in the conditions of network economy: relevant questions of legal theory and practice pp. 12-29

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2020.8.33902

Abstract: The subject of this research is the legal norms aimed at legal regulation of relations in the field of contextual advertising on the Internet. The object of this research is the public relations emerging in the process of creation, placement and consumption of contextual advertising. The author examines such question as the general concept of advertising and its legal definition, as well as essence, characteristics and legal regulation of contextual advertising. Special attention is given to protection of exclusive rights with regards to means of individualization in the process of arrangement of contextual advertising using the keywords, including trademarks and commercial designations, as well as mechanism for the protection of an infringed right and liability the corresponding infringement. The novelty of this work consists in determination of the existing approaches of courts and the Federal Antimonopoly Service of the Russian Federation applicable to the concept, definition and relevant issues of legal regulation of contextual advertising, including the questions of infringement of exclusive rights for means of individualization in arrangement of contextual advertising, which ultimately resulted in development of original approach towards definition of the concept of “contextual advertising”. The author resumes and concludes on the need for legislative consolidation of legal definition of the concept of “contextual advertising” with an indication of corresponding formulation.
Rundkvist A.N. - Fairness as a Mandatory Requirement for Judicial Decision pp. 14-23

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2018.6.22925

Abstract: The subject of the research is the Russian procedural law and judicial practice of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation regarding general requirements set forth for judicial decisions. The researcher pays attention to the evaluation of such decisios from the point of view of the general legal principle of justice. The aim of the research is to describe essential features and give a definition of the fair judicial decision. In addition, the author touches upon the problem of differentiation between private, social, public and state interests that are important for keeping the legal balance through distribution of mutual rights and responsibilities when making a fair administered justice. The author has applied the general research methods as dialectical analysis, and a number of private research methods such as analysis, induction, deduction and formal law method. The results of the research demonstrate the relationship between judicial decision that fulfils the requirements of fairness and such terms as adequacy, proportionality, legal balance, etc. The scope of the research results covers the law enforcement practice as well as procedural branches of the Russian law, in particular, the author emphasizes the need to enfroce requirements for the fairness of a judicial decision in particular articles of the Civil Procedure Code of the Russian Federation, Arbitration Procedure Code of the Russian Federation and Administrative Procedure Code. The author of the article also gives recommendations to coordinate requirements for legality and fairness in the course of justice and offers an integrative approach to interpreting the principle of fairness taking into account the role of justice in the entire system of legal principles and legal axiomes. 
ermakova i.v. - Impact of networkization of the economy upon changes in the provisions of competition law (on the example of blockchain and smart contracts in the area of advertising and intellectual property law) pp. 14-32

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2020.9.34183

Abstract: The subject of this research is the legal norms that regulate legal relations in the context of application of blockchain technology and smart contracts based on it in the area of online advertising and intellectual property. The object of this research is the social relations emerging in the indicated spheres. Analysis is conducted on the concepts and characteristics of blockchain technology and smart contracts. The author also reviews some controversial theoretical and practical issues, such as terminology, legal nature of blockchain, smart contracts, and related concepts. Examples are provided of the currently existing blockchain platforms and services premised on them. The novelty of the conducted research consists in focusing on the relevant problems that emerge in the conditions of network economy in such spheres as online advertising and intellectual property. On the example of blockchain platforms functioning in the indicated spheres, the author reveals the problems the can be resolved using such technologies. The author also underlines certain practical difficulties that arise in the process of application of blockchain and smart contracts, particularly associated with the absence of legal definition of a number of concepts. The examples of corresponding court decisions are provided. A proposal is made on the need for consolidation on the legislative level of definitions of such concepts as “blockchain”, “smart contract”, “cryptocurrency”, and “token”.
Davydova E.A. - Concerning the Question about the Legal Stimulating of the Economy Innovative Development pp. 16-23

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2018.3.25768

Abstract: The article is devoted to topical issues relating to the legal stimulating of the economy innovative development in the Russian Federation. The object of the research is the theoretical and practical aspects of the legal stimulating and the subject of the research is the legal patterns of developing the mechanism of legal stimulating of the economy innovative development. The author of the article analyzes definitions of the legal stimulus and and legal stimulating. Davydova assumes that it would make a sense to apply a more general approach to studying the phenomenon of legal stimulating in terms of the economy economic development. In a wide sense, legal stimulating can be defined as the process that ensure the achievement of certain goals through making a positive influence on social relations. It is better to apply a more integral approach to developing the mechanism omf the legal stimulating of the innovative development, moreover, the development of legal stimulating is impossible without using methods and empirical material of other sciences (economics, politics, social studies, psychology, etc.). Thus, the author of this article uses the interdisciplinary approach to carrying out the research. Based on the author, the first and the main factor that makes it difficult for the Russian Federation to start the innovative development is poor activity of social institutions, in particular, the fact that there is no institution of property. Based on the analysis, the author defines structural elements of the mechanism of legal stimulating as including political, legislative, organisational and financial measures. The author also emphasizes the need to undertake measures to improve the institutional environment as it is an essential condition for innovative development, as well as to create the system of timely monitoring of the economic and legal situation in the sphere of innovations in order to discover and improve unproductive legal mechanisms.  
Kubatko S., Mordovin P., Kushkhova B. - Analysis of Current Issues of the Institution of Bankruptcy of Physical Entities in the Russian Federation pp. 24-29

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2018.6.26668

Abstract: The article is devoted to the research and analysis of the legislation and law enforcement practice of the institution of bankruptcy of physical entities in the Russian Federation. The subject of the research is the provisions of the Federal Law on Insolvency (Bankruptcy) regulating the aforesaid procedure in relation to physical entities. Within the framework of the research, the author defines and analyzes some problems that relate to the bankruptcy procedure of physical entities. At the present time there are both standard problems and problems arising as a result of implementation of these laws and regulations. The methods used by the authors include general research methods such as analysis, synthesis, generalisation, deduction, comparison, analogy and special research methods (comprative law and structured systems analysis). Within the framework of this research, the authors analyze five problems and in conclusion the authors offer solutions for each of them. At the end of the article the author emphasizes the need to make amendments to the current legislation about bankruptcy of physical entities. These changes are aimed, first of all, at increasing availability of the aforesaid procedure for low-income citizens who lead a marginal existence and are, in fact, bankrupts.  
Dzidzoev R.M. - Questions of federal structure in the revised version of the Constitution of Russia pp. 29-41

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2020.7.33720

Abstract: The subject of this research is the questions of constitutional reform regarding the federal structure of Russia, which require scientific assessment. The object of this research is the legal acts that laid the groundwork for the constitutional reform in Russia: Message of the President of the Russian Federation to the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation of January 15, 2020; Law on the Amendment to the Constitution of the Russian Federation; Conclusion of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation on Conformity with the Amendment of the Current Constitution of Russia. Detailed analysis is conducted on the content of the constitutional amendments, their correlation with the legal logic and the needs of constitutional federal progress in Russia. The combination of applied methods (general scientific and private scientific, such as formal-legal, comparative-legal, systemic) allows determining the degree and limits of impact of the constitutional amendments upon the federal structure of Russia. The key conclusions consist in ascertainment of the large-scale constitutional federal reform in Russia oriented towards the principles of state unity and territorial integrity, which received prominent and holistic reflection in the revised version of the Constitution; need to complete federal reform at the current legislative level via amending the Federal law “On The General Principles Of Organization of Legislative (Representative) and Executive Authorities of Constituent Entities of the Russian Federation”, as well as the Constitution and statues of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, which should be brought into compliance with the new revision of the Main Law of Russia. The author's special contribution to this research lies in a systemic analysis of recent amendments to the Constitution of Russia, which testify to substantial changes in federal structure of the country. The novelty is defined by the analysis of new constitutional provisions characterizing the content of the constitutional reform in Russia with regards to federal structure, which have not been previously examined in legal science.
Damm I.A., Basalaeva S.P., Ron'zhina O.V., Tolstikova I.N., Akunchenko E.A., Volkova M.A., Shchedrin N.V. - The Conflict of Interests of a Head of Educational Organization in Case of Secondary Employment pp. 39-56

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2018.5.26711

Abstract: The subject of the research is the regulations and laws of the Russian Federation that set forth an order of secondary employment at a higher educational organisation as well as researches, legal acts and law enforcement act devoted to the question of prevention and management of conflicts of interests. The authors focus on cases when a conflict of interests may arise because an individual works as a head of an educational organisation (rector or vice principal) and as a professor (department head) at the same time. In their research the authors have used the dialectical research method as well as structured-system, formal law and other methods of research. The results of the research cast light on the drawbacks of the legal regulation and methodological support of prevention and management of a conflict of interests in cases when an individual works as a head of an educational organisation and department head at the same time. The fact that there are no official explanations or recommendations of the federal authorities regarding the problem as well as contradictory judicial practice prove the importance of such analysis of corruption in social relations in cases of internal secondary employment at a higher education institution. 
Polikarpova I.V., Zaitseva O.V. - Preventive law: concept, structure and content pp. 39-50

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2020.8.34081

Abstract: The subject of this research is the federal and regional legislation that regulate preventive activity of law enforcement agencies, monographic studies of the leading Russian criminologists, as well as scientific publications discussing the concept, structure and content of preventive law. The object of this research is social relations formed in the process of implementation of norms that regulate the activity on crime prevention. The goal consists in examination of the content of preventive law for the explicating the detailed structure of this branch of legislation. This article is first within the national criminology to propose an original perspective on the preventive law as an independent branch of legislation. Based on the analysis of normative sources regulating the activity in the area of prevention of offences, the author determines the criteria for their classification:  1) by legal force, 2) by territorial scope of actions, 3) by subject of legal regulation, 4) depending on the role in legal regulation. The conclusion is substantiated on the need to systematize preventive law in form of a codified normative act – the Code on Prevention of Offenses in the Russian Federation, which should be aimed only at preventive regulation. The structure of this code is offered. In the authors’ opinion, the system of preventive law is a unified legal complex consisting of legislation of the Russian Federation, its constituent entities, as well as normative bylaws that regulate preventive legal relations that emerge prior to commission of offense, and for determination and elimination of the factors that conduce commission of offenses, as well as have educational impact upon persons in order to prevent commission of offenses or antisocial behavior.
Chugunova K.Y. - Peculiarities of property management of subsidiary companies established by the joint-stock companies with state participation (on the example of Russian Railways JSC) pp. 51-61

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2020.8.33847

Abstract: The relevance of this topic is substantiated by the insufficient coverage within scientific literature of the questions of legal regime of property of subsidiary companies with state participation in share capital, and management of state property transferred to such economic entities. The majority of research on the topic of property management of legal entities with state participation is structured through the prism of the efficiency of usage of state property, leaving outside the scope property sphere of subsidiary companies, which is also of considerable interest. The object of this article is the process of property management in the joint-stock companies with state participation, while the subject is the relations between the state-owned joint-stock company and its subsidiaries in the property sphere. Special attention is given to the practice of “Russian Railways” JSC (100% of which belongs to the Russian Federation) that is one of the largest private owners of real estate in Russia , and consolidates significant volume of money, shares and other movable property, which makes “Russian Railways” JSC and its subsidiary companies a fruitful ground for studying the topic at hand. The article underlines the need for identification of boundaries of the corporate and economic control of the parent company over its subsidiary, the absence of which in the current legislation can lead to a relative property autonomy of the subsidiaries of large joint-stock companies with state participation. Therefore, the author proposes mechanisms for improvement of legislation.
Gorian E. - National approaches towards implementation of artificial intelligence: Singapores experience pp. 62-73

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2020.8.33919

Abstract: The object of this research is the relations in the area of implementation of artificial intelligence technologies. The subject of this research is the normative documents of Singapore that establish requirements towards development and application of artificial intelligence technologies. The article determines the peculiarities of Singaporean approach towards regulation of relations in the indicated sphere. Characteristic is given to the national initiative and circle of actors involved in the development and realization of normative provisions with regards to implementation of digital technologies. The author explores the aspects of private public partnership, defines the role of government in regulation of relation, as well as gives special attention to the question of ensuring personal data protection used by the artificial intelligence technologies. Positive practices that can be utilized in Russian strategy for the development of artificial intelligence are described. Singapore applies the self-regulation approach towards the processes of implementation of artificial intelligence technologies, defining the backbone role of the government, establishing common goals, and involving representative of private sector and general public. Moreover, the government acts as the guarantor of meeting the interests of private sector by creating an attractive investment regime and citizens, setting strict requirements with regards to data usage and control over the artificial intelligence technologies. A distinguishing feature of Singaporean approach consists in determination of the priority sectors of economy and instruments of ensuring systematicity in implementation of artificial intelligence. Singapore efficiently uses its demographic and economic peculiarities for proliferation of the technologies of artificial intelligence in Asian Region; the developed and successfully tested on the national level model of artificial intelligence management received worldwide recognition and application. Turning Singapore into the international center of artificial intelligence is also instigated by the improvement of legal regime with simultaneous facilitation in the sphere of intellectual property. These specificities should be taken into account by the Russian authors of national strategy for the development of artificial intelligence.
Zolotovskaia E.A. - Life and health insurance as an element of a credit agreement: problems of law enforcement pp. 85-92

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2017.5.23226

Abstract: The research subject is the problem of a borrower’s life and health insurance as a security element of a credit agreement (personal insurance contract). The author studies the effectiveness of insurance as a security measure, guaranteeing the performance of obligations by the parties to a consumer loan agreement, and analyzes the problems of application of such measures. The author analyzes the factual goals of a personal insurance contract, which don’t correspond with the goals of this type of contracts if used for the purpose of a consumer loan obtaining. The research methodology includes the analysis of law enforcement practice in the disputes over the nullification of the insurance conditions of credit agreements and the dissolution of credit agreements, based on the comparative-legal and the logical methods, analysis and synthesis. The problems under study are vivid in the law enforcement practice connected with the provision of the freedom of citizens in deciding over the conclusion of insurance contracts. The author concludes that at the present time, there’s no standardized judicial practice in this category of disputes; often courts pass contradictious judgements on alike issues. 
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