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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Legal Studies" > Contents of Issue № 05/2021
Contents of Issue № 05/2021
Теория и философия права
Trukhan R.P., Nadtochii S.O. - Emergence of the category of “accessority” and historical peculiarities of its reception in Russian civil law pp. 1-15

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2021.5.35572

Abstract: The subject of the article is the examination of evolution of the institution of accessory obligations and its gradual “infiltration” into Russian law. The author reviews the genesis of the category of “accessority” in Roman law, within the framework of which its initial formula “the validity of the accessory legal relationship is predetermined by the validity of the basic legal relationship" gained widespread. Description is given to the peculiarities of evolution of accessority in Russian law. In civil law of pre-revolutionary Russia, accessority was being neglected for a long time. In the Soviet period, the identification of the terms “security obligation” and “accessory obligation” established in civil science. Currently, in Russian law, the concept of “accessority” is identified with the security obligation. The conclusion is made on versatility of the category of “accessority”. In the course of the development of law, the concept of accessory obligations undergone significant changes – from perception of accessority as a certain obligation that ensures the repayment of debt and the transfer of “belonging” to the sold goods towards its identification with security obligations as a whole. With time, the opinion that accessority is attributed to different types of obligations with own features and specifics, has established in the legal doctrine. The relevance of the selected topic is defined by a range of problematic questions, which have not been previously covered in Russian civil science. Thus, the legislation of the Russian Federation does not contain a legal definition of the concept of accessory obligations. The civil law doctrine also does not have a unanimity of opinion on the matter. The authors assume that the established situation, namely in the context of the civil legislation that has been fundamentally reformed in 2012 – 2015, does not contribute to unified understanding of the essence of accessory obligations and optimization of their doctrinal interpretation.
Договор и обязательства
Mazepov P.E. - The problems of regulation of social franchising in the Russian legislation pp. 16-23

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2021.5.35742

Abstract: The subject of this research is the legal regime of social franchising in the Russian Federation. The object of this research is the social emerging between the actors of social franchising. The article outlines the essential characteristics of social franchising on the basis of existing research and effective legislation of the foreign countries. Attention is given to the role of the phenomenon under review within the franchising system and its related to the concession agreement. The article explores the existing legal regulation of social franchising in the Russian Federation and formulates the conclusion on purposefulness of its improvement. The scientific novelty consists in comprehensive examination of social franchising from the legal perspective, determination of its role within the system of the types of franchising, and recommendations for the improvement of the corresponding legal regime. The conclusion is made that social franchising represents the system of relations that are based on the contract on the exercise of exclusive rights. Similar to commercial franchising, the central place is held by the intellectual-legal and obligatory aspect of relations, but the fundamental difference lies is the vector towards fulfillment of the socially useful functions, alleviation of social problems, and rendering aid to vulnerable population. The development of this institution requires elaboration of the special legislation, since the norms of the Chapter 54 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation do not correspond with the established practice of social franchising.
Questions of current interest
Gorokhova S.S. - On certain aspects of public legal responsibility in the sphere of using artificial intelligence and autonomous robots pp. 24-41

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2021.5.35557

Abstract: The subject of this research is certain theoretical aspects of public legal responsibility that may emerge in the spheres and situations of the use of artificial intelligence and robotic autonomous systems takes place. Special attention is given to interpretation of public legal responsibility as a legal category, and its role within the system of legal regulation of public relations in the country. The article explores the basic aspects of public responsibility in the sphere of potential use of the systems equipped with technological solutions based on artificial intelligence. The author describes the possible risks determined by the development and implementation of such technologies in accordance with trends of scientific and technological progress. The conclusion is made that currently in the Russian Federation does not have a liability system applicable particularly to damage or losses resulting from the use of new technologies, such as artificial intelligence. However, the existing liability regime at least ensures the basic protection for the victims suffered from the use of artificial intelligence technologies. However, the peculiar characteristics of these technologies and complexity of their application may hinder payment of compensations for inflicted harm in all cases when it seems justified, and not ensure fair and effective allocation of responsibility in a number of cases, including the violation of non-property rights of citizens.
Novgorodov D. - On the possibility of replacing administrative fine with another type of administrative penalty pp. 42-47

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2021.5.35668

Abstract: The object of this research is the social relations arising with regards to bringing to administrative responsibility and imposition of administrative penalties in the form of administrative fine on the persons who have committed administrative offenses. The subject of this research is the current administrative legislation of the Russian Federation that regulates the procedure for bringing the offenders to administrative responsibility, as well as the materials of judicial statistics and practice on imposition of administrative penalties in the form of fines. Analysis is conducted on the amendments in administrative legislation that took place in recent years. The author compares the judicial statistics for the period from 2015 to 2019. The novelty consists in the fact that having analyzed the amendments in administrative legislation and judicial statistics, the author concludes that the practice of bringing the offenders to administrative responsibility testifies to the lack of effectiveness of the taken measures. The growing number of offenses indicates that administrative responsibility does not achieve the goals set by the Part 1 of the Article 3.1 of the Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Offenses. The natural response of the legislator to low efficiency consists in increasing the size of administrative penalties and application of stricter sanctions, but it won’t produce the desirable effect. Therefore, the author offers to develop and adopt a new procedure for replacing one type of administrative penalty with another.
Семейное право
Purge A.R. - The problems of legal regulation of cryopreservation: the experience of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Tajikistan pp. 48-57

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2021.5.35712

Abstract: The object of this research is the social relations emerging with regards to cryopreservation procedure as one of the assisted reproductive technology, as well as the problems of legal regulation of such relations (based on the experience of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Tajikistan). The subject of this research is the legislative norms that regulate the cryopreservation procedure currently effective in Russia and Tajikistan; corresponding law enforcement practice; statistical data and publications of the official media sources. The scientific novelty consists in carrying out a comprehensive comparative legal analysis of the peculiarities of legislative regulation of cryopreservation procedure in different world’s countries (on the example of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Tajikistan), determination of the existing problem, and development of their possible solutions. The acquired results encompass the author’s original recommendations aimed at elimination of the detected problems of legal regulation of this method of assisted reproductive technology, which usually requires the development and adoption of the special normative legal act that would regulate the cryopreservation procedure in both, the Russian Federation and the Republic of Tajikistan.
Jurisprudence
Kocheva D.V. - Prosecutor's authority in the conceptual-categorical apparatus of the theory and practice of prosecutorial activity outside the criminal law sphere pp. 58-68

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2021.5.35662

Abstract: The subject of this research is the approaches existing in the theory and practice of prosecutorial activity towards determination of the concept of “prosecutor's authority” and its constituent definitions, their correlation with the scientific views of legal scholars upon the state-legal category of “authority”. Due to the fact that any science is based on the terminological framework, featuring units that differ in their semantic content, the research of the cognizable basic category that does not have a universal definition, neither in science nor effective legislation, as well as the contradicting legal phenomena of different legal nature (rights and obligations) at its part, substantiates the relevance of this research. The scientific novelty of lies in the author’s argumentation of similar, identical and opposite perspectives on the subject matter existing in the literature, effective legal regulation, personal experience of working in the prosecutor's office, justification of conclusion in the indicated category of “legal obligations”. The author comes to the conclusion there is no need for normative differentiation the rights and responsibilities of the prosecutor within the framework of his “general oversight” authority and optimality of the existing regulation, which authorizes the prosecutor to act at the own discretion (making decisions based on subjective opinion and assessment) in terms of the grounds  and means set by law, with consideration of private and public interests.
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