Электронный журнал Юридические исследования - №6 за 2020 г. - Содержание - список статей. ISSN: 2409-7136 - Издательство NotaBene
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Legal Studies
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Legal Studies" > Contents of Issue № 06/2020
Contents of Issue № 06/2020
Questions of current interest
Gorokhova S.S. - Identification of artificial intelligence systems in legal field: the fundamentals of cyber law pp. 1-11

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2020.6.33419

Abstract: The subject of this article is the social relations established in the process of scientific and technological development in IT sphere that support the work of artificial intelligence systems and relate to scientific discussion on the role of artificial intelligence, robots and objects of robotics in the legal field. The author examines the relevant questions of identification of artificial intelligence systems as a subject, object or other legal phenomenon within the structure of legal relations. The research problem consists in the fact outstripping that the scientific-technological progress outstripped legal regulation of interaction between an individual, society and artificial intelligence, which justifies the need for creation a cyber-law theory. The opinions on the matter in foreign and national literature are analyzed. The article outlines the trends and prospects of implementation of artificial intelligence in various social and economic spheres; determines the contrast of opinions regarding the problems of identification of artificial intelligence systems, as well as incorporation of artificial intelligence into the established legal reality. The author presents and substantiates an original conceptual version of inclusion of artificial intelligence into the legal field, based on the principle of assignment of partial legal capacity to strong and super strong artificial intelligence. The positions on legal responsibility in relations complicated by the presence of artificial intelligence are defined.
Law and order
Bagavieva E.A. - Relevant questions of decisions agreement on receipt of information on connection between subscribers and/or devices pp. 12-20

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2020.6.33186

Abstract: This article analyzes the procedural autonomy of an investigator and agreement of investigative work with the head of the investigative branch or prosecutor. The object of this research is the relations forming in the process of decisions agreement on receipt of information on connection between subscribers and/or devices. The author examines the questions of the role of the investigator, head of investigative branch and the prosecutor in this procedure. Analysis was conducted on the legislative and departmental normative legal act regulating the authority of the aforementioned officers, corresponding law enforcement practice, as well as literary sources dedicated to this issue. The research substantiates the conclusion that there is a need for ensuring procedural autonomy of the investigator, including through the means of voiding the need for agreement from the head of the investigative branch or prosecutor to forego filing for court warrant to obtain information. The autonomy of the investigative branches from prosecutor’s office can be ensured by delegation of authority by agreement of procedural decisions that require prosecutor’s approval over to the head of the investigative branch. The question of allowability of circumvention of the right to privacy of phone communication is the subject of consideration of the request to obtain information on connection between subscribers and/or devices by a court.
Danilovskaia A. - Criminal law protection of competition in the European Union, Germany, Great Britain and France pp. 21-35

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2020.6.33294

Abstract: The object of this research is competition policy and criminal law policy with regards to protection of competition in Europe that are similar to the Russian approach of countering infringement on fair competition. Legislation on competition is dynamically developing in all countries, which causes corresponding changes in their criminal law policy. For improving the effectiveness of cartel detection, many countries endorsed leniency policy for cartels, as well as make amendments to their laws due to proliferation of unfair competition, particularly on the Internet, as well irregularities in tendering. The analysis of modern sources of competition and criminal law of Germany, Great Britain and France, as the first European countries that developed the rules aimed at protection of competition, can be valuable for understanding the concept of protection of competition adopted by the world community, as well as its European model. The consists in broadening the existing knowledge on criminal law protection of competition in Europe, acquired as a result of comprehensive research of the legislations of the European Union, Germany, Great Britain and France in the area of protection of fair competition with consideration of recent amendments, including leniency policy for cartels. The author concludes that Europe has a developed criminal law mechanism for counteracting anticompetitive behavior, which is characterized by a range of prohibited acts, application of versatile criminal law measures to the persons guilty of such infringements, differentiated approach to the questions of their criminal liability, and substantial main and additional sanctions applicable to not only physical entities, but also legal entities in some countries. The obtained results can be useful in lawmaking, scientific and educational activity.
Verenich I.V. - Theoretical and applied bases for overcoming obstruction of criminal investigations pp. 36-46

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2020.6.33390

Abstract: The subject of this research is the theoretical and practical bases for overcoming obstruction of criminal investigations, criminal phenomenon of obstruction of justice, elements of obstruction, as well as measures for discovering criminal obstruction. The work is aimed at determining the characteristic and innate elements of obstruction of justice, research of the stages, determination of types, tactics and means of this counteraction for putting forth criminalistics versions and investigative planning using the means and methods of overcoming obstruction of investigations. The research methodology of the general scientific methods, including sensory-rational scientific methods (observation, description, comparison, experiment and simulation), logical methods (analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, analogy, hypothesis and abstraction), mathematical methods (measurement, calculation, geometric construction); methods of criminalistics (forensic identification, fingerprinting, odorology, planning of investigative actions, organization of investigation); and special methods of other sciences, which include physical, chemical and physical-chemical methods, anthropological and anthropometric methods, sociological and psychological methods. The scientific novelty of this research is defined by the aspect of inquiry into criminal phenomenon of obstruction of justice, overcoming the obstruction, formation of criminalistics doctrine on overcoming obstruction of justice, emergence and establishment of criminalistics doctrine for overcoming obstruction of justice, as well as formation and completion of criminalistics doctrine in its final form as a holistic system of theoretical positions and practical recommendations.
Договор и обязательства
Murdalov D.R. - Relevant issues of responsibility of the members of the board of directors pp. 47-55

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2020.6.33455

Abstract: This article explores most relevant issues of responsibility of the members of the board of directors in corporations, limited liability companies and joint-stock companies. The object of this research is the relations formed as a result of violations by the members of the board of directors of fiduciary duties imposed upon them. The subject is the norms that regulate responsibility of the members of the oversight council of corporations in civil law, related law enforcement practice, as well as the theoretical provisions of various experts. The main goal of this work consists in determination of relevant problems of the institution of responsibility in form of losses of the members of the board of directors in public and private companies. The scientific novelty lies in the analysis of relevant issues pertinent to responsibility of the members of the board of directors. Detailed analysis is conducted on case law of the courts of superior jurisdiction on the matter. The scientific novelty lies in identification of most urgent problems associated with exercising of authorities of the members of the board of directors and proposal of the mechanisms for improvement of their responsibility in the current legislation, namely with regards to allocation of responsibility for the decisions of higher authorities.  The conclusion is made that the development of the institution of responsibility of the board of directors should correspond with the modern requirements, stimulate economic development, entrepreneurial initiative, allow the subjects of responsibility to predict the consequences of their actions (or inaction), and contribute to efficient fulfillment of their responsibilities.
Murdalov D.R. - Vertical deadlock in public corporations pp. 56-64

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2020.6.33454

Abstract: This work explores the problem of directorial board execution of the competency of voiding a contract with the registrar in public commercial corporate legal entities. The author provides a number of arguments that allow designating the aforementioned authority of the public joint-stock company as a deadlock situation. Based on the latter, classification is carried out on the deadlocks by level of their emergence into horizontal and vertical, describing characteristic traits of the vertical deadlock. The subject of this research is comprised on the norms that regulate the competence of the members of the oversight committee of corporations in civil law, pertinent law enforcement practice, as well as theoretical positions of various experts. The scientific novelty of this research consists in the analysis of the relevant practical issues associated with emergence of deadlock situations due to the activity of the directorial board. Detailed study and analysis is conducted on the case law of the courts dealing the problems of horizontal deadlock situations. The results of this work include proposed classification of deadlocks by the level of their emergence into horizontal and vertical; definitions of the horizontal and vertical deadlocks; examination of the mechanisms of resolution of horizontal deadlocks.
Трудовое право
Basalaeva S.P. - On responsibility of the employer to undertake measures for preventing corruption pp. 65-79

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2020.6.33581

Abstract: The subject of this research is the legal relations on corruption prevention in organizations from the perspective of anti-corruption and labor legislation, as well as law enforcement practice. The author employs a general scientific method of dialectical cognition, as well as a number of private scientific methods: technical-legal, system-structural, formal-logical (deduction, induction, determination and divisions of concepts). The article analyzes the four aspects of responsibility of an organization to undertake measures for preventing corruption: 1) circle of measures; 2) form and methods for establishing measures; 3) content of measures; 4) legal consequences of failure to deliver or unacceptable delivery) of the responsibilities for undertaking measures. The author describes the risks of the employer in organization of anti-corruption policy, as well as formulates the proposals on proper discharge of anti-corruption duties by an organizations in accordance with the following aspects: 1) the need to develop and undertake all measures established in the Part 2 of the Article 13.3 of the Law “On Corruption Prevention”; 2) the local normative acts should represent the form of anti-corruption measures; 3) the criterion for establishing anti-corruption responsibilities of the employees relates to their work function and rules of conduct in the organization; 4) proper discharge of responsibilities for undertaking anti-corruption  measures is an essential condition for exemption from liability set by the Article 19.28 of Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation.
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