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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Legal Studies" > Contents of Issue № 01/2018
Contents of Issue № 01/2018
Law and order
Trush V.M., Gomonov N.D. - Crime Infestation of Criminal Personality from the Point of View of L. Szondi's Fate Analysis pp. 1-30

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2018.1.25092

Abstract: In this article the authors study the phenomenon of crime infestation of criminal personality depending on the severity of a committed crime. The research is based on the theory of personality and fate analysis offered by L. Szondi. Respondents include people who have been convicted of crime against person, property, sexual freedom and sexual integrity, as well as for illegal production, purchase, storate, transfer or sale of narcotic or psychotropic substances. The subject of the research is the structure of personal needs and motives, qualitative and quantitative description thereof depending on a group a respondent attributes to. The research method includes comparative analysis of needs and motives based on quantitative indicators (the level of needs structure tensity, evaluation of changes in 'mean motives' (Р and Sch vectors), qualitative indicators (comparative evaluation of vector space histograms, interpretation of the leading needs and motives, comparative evaluation of horizontally fused one-direction tendencies of vector pictures), and analysis of data collected by usign the 'semantic key' method and relative parameters (vector space tendencies in needs and motives) of personality traits of criminals in aforesaid groups. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that based on the foundation of personality (physical existential) one's personal criminogenic level (crime infestation) is defined based on particular parameters that describe personality traits of individuals depending on their attribution to a particular criminal group. Consequently, the thesis about systemic sustainable nature of the phenomenon of crime infestation based on the physical existential in humanistic structure of criminals' personality traits can be also used to analyze their needs and motives according to L. Szondi test. 
JUDICIAL POWER
Solovyev A.A. - Organisation of Judicial Compliance Assessment in Latin American Countries pp. 31-40

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2018.1.23651

Abstract: The article is devoted to analyzing different models of judicial compliance assessment (procedure for judicial test of compliance of legal acts to precedent legal acts) that are executed by judicial authorities of different kind with both general and specific jurisdiction within the framework of constitutional, criminal, civil or administrative legal proceedings (independently or with a later appealing to constitutional courts or other competent judicial authorities). The author of the article focuses on how these models are applied in Latin American countries. Using the methods of analysis, synthesis, comparison, specification, and generalisation the author analyses state models of judicial compliance assessment used by the foreign states as well as approaches to classification of these models. In particular, the author examines the institution of judicial compliance assessment in a number of Latin American countries such as Argentine Republic, Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, United Mexican States, Republic of Costa Rica, Republic of Ecuador, and Federative Republic of Brazil. In conclusion the author describes advantages of the system of 'disperse' judicial compliance assessment in Latin American countries. 
Mamatov M.V., Maslov I.A. - Preventive Role of Prosecutor in the Scope of Administrative Offences Legislation pp. 41-52

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2018.1.23507

Abstract: Based on the analysis of applicable laws and current law-enforcement practice, the authors of this article describe preventive measures undertaken by prosecutors in the sphere of administrative offences legislation. The authors pay special attention to the issues that may arise in the process of applying special means set forth by Article 29.13 of the Russian Federation Administrative Offence Code - prevention of causes and conditions that constitute an administrative offence by analysing the nature of such offence and reflecting on whether existing opinions on the matter are false or true. The authors of the article study organizational/management and information guidelines of prosecutor's office, judicial and non-judicial practice of administrative justice authorities. In the course of their research, tasks and objectives setting and achievement, the authors have used a set of diversified research methods and theoretical analysis. The research is based on the dialectical approach and associated research methods such as systems approach, structure analysis, logical, comparative law, special law and legal modelling methods. The Russian Federation Administrative Offence Code describes different legal mechanisms aimed at prevention of such offences. One of the most efficient means is to introduce the provision about elimination of causes and conditions that constitute an administrative offence based on Article 29.13 of The Code. For the first time in the academic literature the authors of the article carry out an integral analysis of how this means is applied by prosecutor's office. 
Law and order
Raskina T.V. - The Prosecutor's Office in the System of Prevention of Law Violations pp. 53-60

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2018.1.24029

Abstract: The subject of the research is the place and role of prosecutors in prevention of law violations including crimes. The purpose of the research is to reveal the content and directions of realization of the preventive potential prosecutorial activities, and to justify the place of the Prosecutor's Office in the system of prevention subjects. The author of the article analyzes legal acts and regulatory documents of the General Prosecutor of the Russian Federation including that in the historical context governing the participation of the Prosecutor in the prevention of law violations. The author has studied the way prosecutors prevent law violations and use modern methods of comunicating with the public. The monitoring of regulatory legal acts, content analysis of newsletters, memos and other prosecutors documents, statistical and comparative analyses were used during the research. The conclusion is that prosecutor's office takes an important place in the system of subjects preventing law violations. The author of the article also emphasizes the need to improve legal, information, methodological, and research support of prevention of law violations by the Prosecutor's Office and adopt a special regional order concerning the General Prosecutor of the Russian Federation. 
Isaeva K.A., Abdukarimova N.E., Seilkhanova S.A. - The Main Factors that Determine Commitment of Particular Crimes by Organized Crime Groups in the Kyrgyz Republic pp. 61-70

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2018.1.23913

Abstract: The aim of this article is to define the most significant determinants that activate organised crime and spread of criminal business under modern socio-political environment of the Kyrgyz Republic. The subject of the research is particular crimes committed by organised crime groups in the Kyrgyz Republic taking into account new social and legal realities. For this purpose, the authors focus on specific features and conditions that are typical for Kyrgyzstan and aggravate such social phenomena as drug business, targeted killing, economic crimes, and kidnapping. The authors also describe the main trends that will continue to activate organised crime in the aforesaid spheres. The authors carry out an integral research of particularities of interaction between crime groups of Kyrgyzstan, their functions, causes and conditions, and means or methods chosen by these groups to achieve their goals depending on the situation in the republic such as political events that have been taking place since 2004. The authors describe the relationship between organised criem and state authorities officials that has led to the growth of targeted killing, kidnapping, economic and drug business crime. The results of the research are based on diversified analysis of factors that have triggered development of organised crime and expanded their activity over the last decade. Thus, the authors describe specific determimants that encourage the growth of crime in particular spheres of social relations in the country as well as the change in the structure of modern organised crime. These results can be of interest for scientists and practical experts when preparing and choosing crime preventive measures. Moreover, the results complete criminological and forensic researches and can be used to achieve certain targets and goals of research. 
Договор и обязательства
Mel'nichenko S.V. - Problems of Applying Bank Guarantee and Penalty Under Contractual Obligation pp. 71-77

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2018.1.25136

Abstract: The article is devoted to the problem of realizing the rights of the creditor that is based on the requirement of the beneficiary to pay out money on a bank guarantee and forfeit if the principal obligation is violated. The author investigates the rules of law governing the procedure for securing contractual obligations with the help of penalty and bank guarantee as well as their correlation in the implementation of the claims of the creditor (beneficiary). In the author's opinion, the bank guarantee can not be a measure of property liability, therefore, it is a way of compensation for losses, and the amount collected at the request of the beneficiary can not be changed and depends on the amount of the penalty to be paid. The article also considers the problem of the impact of penalty and bank guarantee on the rights of the beneficiary to demand the fulfillment of the main obligation after satisfying the requirement under the bank guarantee. The scientific novelty of the research is that the author first identified the problem of the ratio of forfeit and bank guarantee in contractual obligations and their impact on the fate of the main obligation. The author comes to the conclusion about fundamentally different legal relations that arise when forfeit and bank guarantee are simultaneously used as well as the rights and obligations of the creditor (beneficiary) arising on their basis.
History of state and law
Zolotova O.I. - Institution of the Judge Dissenting Opinion in Civil Legal Proceedings in the XVIIIth - XXth Centuries in Russia: From the Point of View of History and Law pp. 78-82

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2018.1.22102

Abstract: The object of the research is social relations arising in the process of implementing the institution of the judge dissenting opinion before The Judiciary Reform of 1864 and until the end of the XIXth century. The subject of the research is the legal regulation of the institution of the judge dissenting opinion in Russia since XVIIIth till XIXth centuries. The author of the article examines how that legal phenomenon evolved during the aforesaid period and analyzes the practice of the Senate in appealing to dissenting opinions to court proceedings, archives, and all cases when court decisions were not ordinary. The methodological basis of the research involved such research methods as systems analysis, historical and legal analysis, dialectical, formal (logical) methods, complex approach, etc. The main contribution of the author to the studies of the institution of the judge dissenting opinion in civil legal proceedings is her attempt to study how the institution evolved from the point of view of causal and competitive models of civil legal proceedings. The author comes to the conclusion that the main features of this phenomenon, although naturally integrated into basic principles of the causal model, were set forth by The Senate in the course of the development of the institution of the judge dissenting opinion. 
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