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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Legal Studies" > Contents of Issue № 07/2014
Contents of Issue № 07/2014
State institutions and legal systems
Makartsev A.A. - Efficiency of the norms of election law: definition, criteria and implementation conditions. pp. 1-35

DOI:
10.7256/2305-9699.2014.7.12010

Abstract: The object of studies involves defining the criteria for efficiency of the norms of election law, which is established by correlation between the goal, which was set at the adoption of the norm and the results of its practical implementation. This issue is being studied based upon the regional election legislation and judicial practice concerning election issues. The author considers that the law-making stage, when the goal of the legal norm and purpose of legal regulation are defined is a key to guaranteeing efficiency. At the same time establishing the goal is an initial stage of law-making, when there is a need to adopt a certain normative legal act. The author notes that sometimes the legislator purposefully hides the goals for which a certain normative act is adopted, if such goals contradict to the interests of majority of the population. The reasons for the disparities between the results of application of a norm and the goal, which was set, when the norm was adopted, may be various. They may involve contents of a legal norm, conditions of its adoption and application, subjectively incorrect evaluation of the norm by the legal practitioners. The process of analysis of efficiency problems regarding legal norms is furthermore complicated , since currently the legal practices faces the "crisis of goals", leading to the "crisis of purposes", and sometimes to their conflict, when the initial goals of legal act contradict each other.  Provision for the main goal of adoption of legal acts in such acts shall allow the legal practitioners to understand the goal of legal regulation correctly, and it may also serve as a basis for interpretation of normative provisions, allowing to avoid abuse of rights.be � p��4 �+ n the process of describing the stages of experimental law-making process, using the law-making experiment in Kemerovo region as an example.   Among the special legal cognition methods applied in this article one should mention formal legal, structural functional methods, and the method of legal interpretation. There exist certain directions of legal process, and their specific features were not yet studied in Russia. Specifically, these involve experimental law-making process. Experimental law-making process is a complicated and comprehensive term by its nature. The question of legal nature of experimental law-making process is debatable, since the legal nature of legal process is ambiguous, and experimental law-making process is a type of legal process. Experimental law-making process is a procedural form of turning legal ideal models of law-making experiment into the real system of legal relations united by a common goal. In the broadest sense experimental law-making process is a complex and multi-aspect term characterizing the combination of all of the legal forms of activities of state bodies and other competent subjects, which is related to taking certain legally valuable actions in the sphere of law-making experiments  within a procedure defined by law. In the end, it causes legal consequence - the legal hypothesis is verified.  In its narrow sense, experimental law-making process is a generalizing term characterizing duly legally regulated procedure for experimental activities, as well as the activities of bodies (services, officials) on preparing, holding and analyzing the results of law-making experiment. The main stages of experimental law-making experiment are 1) preparation for the law-making experiment, 2) holding law-making experiment; 3) analyzing results of the law-making experiment. 
Transformation of legal systems
Pibaev I.A. - Electing representatives of religious organizations into legislative bodies of the constituent subjects of the federation: theoretical and historical aspect. pp. 36-47

DOI:
10.7256/2305-9699.2014.7.12706

Abstract: The article concerns history and modern practice of participation of representatives of various religious denominations in the activities of legislative bodies. Within the framework of Inter-Council Assembly of the Russian Orthodox Church on February 2, 2011 they have adopted a document entitled "Practice of Claims and Actions of Hierarchs, Clergy, Monks and Common People during the Election Campaings". While this document has suppored the pre-existing prohibition for the church clergy to take part in election, it has left a "loophole" for exceptions.  After that there was a widespread discussion on the possibility and necessity for the church clergy to take part in elections of various levels.  While writing the article, the author applied the special methods, such as historical legal method, comparative legal method and systemic method. Application of combination of the said methods has allowed for a comrehensive solution in order to achieve the goals and aims of the study. The author has analyzed the attitude of Russian religious organizations to the political activities. The conclusion is substantiated that the religious clergy sholud not take part in elections for the legislative bodies of constituent subjects. In the opinion of the author this type of activities is more suitable for the common people, who have active position and religious world view.
History of state and law
Kodan S.V. - Genesis of source studies of history of state and law in the Russian historical science and legal studies (XVIII - early XIX centuries). pp. 48-65

DOI:
10.7256/2305-9699.2014.7.12062

Abstract: The object of studies concerns analysis of genesis of source  studies in the sphere of cognition of development of state and law in Russia in XVIII - early XIX centuries in historical and legal spheres of knowledge. The author shows growing attention to the legal acts among the historians, how they revealed and published legal materials, how they started recognizing legislation as one of the most important sources for studying the past.  The author discusses growing scope of attention to sources of law in the historical projection in practical legal studies, and in the forming legal education and science.  Within the frameworks of historical and comparative approaches the author shows the process of defining place and role of legal acts in the studies of historical and political legal processes in Russia. As a result it may be stated that  the period from XVIII to early XIX century in the process of genesis of source studies in history of state and law of Russia was characterized by recognition of role and value of the sources of law, their active involvement in the scientific turnover in the historical studies. In this period of time there are prominent historical works showing the role of legislation as a historical source and actively revealing and publishing legislative classics.  Due to the underdevelopment of legal education and science the Russian legal studies mostly involved practical approach towards the studies of sources of law, when the studies of sources of legal information served the needs of law-making activities, searching for the ways to organize the legislation, public administration, legal, and especially judicial, practice.  Nevertheless, it was the time of genesis of the scientific historical and legal source studies, which was also related to the genesis of professional legal education and legal studies.
Practical law manual
Kabanov P.A. - Compromises in the implementation of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the sphere of fighting corruption as means of resolving legal contradictions. pp. 66-78

DOI:
10.7256/2305-9699.2014.7.12702

Abstract: The object of studies involves compromises in the implementation of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the sphere of fighting corruption as means of resolving legal contradictions. The goals of study include the following: analysis of the normative legal acts of the Russian Federation allowing for the use of compromises in the implementation of the state policy in the sphere of fighting corruption; analysis of the practice of using compromises when implementing state policy of the Russian Federation in the sphere of fighting corruption; development of proposals for the further studies of compromises  in the implementation of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the sphere of fighting corruption.  The methodological basis for the studies involves dialectic method of cognition of social matters and processes taking place in the society and general scientific methods of scientific cognition:  analysis, synthesis, extrapolation and other methods used in social sciences. For the first time in the Russian legal science the author analyzes the possibility and substantiates the need for compromises in the sphere of fighting corruption, paying attention to the overly radical approach to fighting corruption in the modern Russian federal anti-corruption legislation and related legislation on the state service.
Jurisprudence
Fat'yanov I.V. - Definition, characteristic features and legal nature of experimental law-making process. pp. 79-97

DOI:
10.7256/2305-9699.2014.7.12688

Abstract: The object of studies involves experimental law-making process in Russia, its definition, characteristic features, legal nature, elements, and its main stages: preparation, holding and analyzing the results of the law-making experiment. The author pays special attention to experimental legislative process from various standpoints, providing his own definition of "experimental law-making process" in its broad and narrow meanings. The object of studies involves social relations appearing in the process of organization, holding and analyzing the results of law-making experiments. The author used general and specific scientific methods, as well as special cognition methods. The studies are based upon the dialectic approach towards cognition of the objective reality, which defines theoretical and methodological aspects of cognition of experimental law-making. In order to reveal the nature of experimental law-making process the author used the philosophical knowledge on the term "process", as well as legal definitions involving legal process. The author applied  general scientific methods, such as analysis and synthesis, deduction and induction, generalization, abstraction, extrapolation, systemic approach, hermeneutic approach, etc. For example, with the use of synthesis as a method the author established correlation between experimental law-making process and legal process, allowing to define the legal aspect of the matter. Systemic approach was involved as a basis for the studies of law-making experiments in the components of legal system of Russia, and to be more specific, in the process of describing the stages of experimental law-making process, using the law-making experiment in Kemerovo region as an example.   Among the special legal cognition methods applied in this article one should mention formal legal, structural functional methods, and the method of legal interpretation. There exist certain directions of legal process, and their specific features were not yet studied in Russia. Specifically, these involve experimental law-making process. Experimental law-making process is a complicated and comprehensive term by its nature. The question of legal nature of experimental law-making process is debatable, since the legal nature of legal process is ambiguous, and experimental law-making process is a type of legal process. Experimental law-making process is a procedural form of turning legal ideal models of law-making experiment into the real system of legal relations united by a common goal. In the broadest sense experimental law-making process is a complex and multi-aspect term characterizing the combination of all of the legal forms of activities of state bodies and other competent subjects, which is related to taking certain legally valuable actions in the sphere of law-making experiments  within a procedure defined by law. In the end, it causes legal consequence - the legal hypothesis is verified.  In its narrow sense, experimental law-making process is a generalizing term characterizing duly legally regulated procedure for experimental activities, as well as the activities of bodies (services, officials) on preparing, holding and analyzing the results of law-making experiment. The main stages of experimental law-making experiment are 1) preparation for the law-making experiment, 2) holding law-making experiment; 3) analyzing results of the law-making experiment.  
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