Cybernetics and programming
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Cybernetics and programming" > Contents of Issue № 02/2018
Contents of Issue № 02/2018
Belikova M.Y., Karanina S.Y., Karanin A.V., Glebova A.V. - Visualization and analysis of WWLLN network data on the territory of the Altai-Sayan region using Web-GIS pp. 1-8


Abstract: At present, the technology of creating information and analytical systems in the field of climate-ecological monitoring has been developed quite well. The construction of such systems is based on the use of GIS and Internet technologies and includes both data from monitoring stations and remote sensing data. The article describes the architecture of a web application that implements elements of GIS technologies and is developed to solve the tasks of collecting, storing, visualizing, searching and analyzing information on lightning discharges recorded by the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). The software and technology platform of the system is based on the use of freely distributed technologies and software, including the Ubuntu operating system, the NGINX web server,  Python  as the main development language and the Django framework, the PostgreSQL / PostGIS database, the GDAL libraries, the OpenLayers. The WWWLNN archive data and the results of clustering are included in the web-GIS database. The system provides the feature of selecting information about lightning discharges, as well as performing cluster analysis for the sample obtained. The developed web-based GIS can provide specialists with convenient web-based tools for using WWLLN data to study regional climatology of lightning activity. 
Automated systems of engineering process administration
Galemov R.T., Masalsky G.B. - Planning the trajectory of the manipulator for a moving target pp. 9-28


Abstract: Authors present a modified combined search method for solving the inverse problem of the kinematics of a multi-link manipulator under conditions of target motion. A genetic algorithm was used for the initial approximation to the goal and simplex search to improve the results of the genetic algorithm. Compensation of the effect of the movement of the target on the objective function is based on estimates of the drift of the target along each axis of the working space. These estimates were used to subtract the contribution of drift to the objective function, which improves search efficiency. The estimates were calculated by the recursive least squares method. Experiments were carried out on mathematical models of planar and spatial, kinematically redundant and non-redundant multi-link manipulators. The results showed that for all the above manipulators it is possible to plan the trajectory according to the position and orientation of the working member, and the constructed trajectories in the generalized coordinates are smooth and do not have abrupt changes. The combined search method finds the solution of the inverse kinematics problem for one iteration of the search procedure due to the global properties of the genetic algorithm and the efficiency of the simplex search.
Data encryption and data protection
Sivachev A.V. - Increasing the efficiency of steganoanalysis in the area of discrete wavelet image transformation by analyzing the parameters of the frequency domain of the image pp. 29-37


Abstract: The object of the study are the methods of stegan analysis in the area of discrete wavelet transformation of an image. The author investigate the influence of the fact of embedding in the region of a concrete wavelet transformation on the values of the coefficients of the regions of discrete cosine transform and image in order to improve the efficiency of detecting the fact of embedding into the discrete wavelet transformation domain. The influence of the fact of embedding in the region of discrete wavelet transformation on certain coefficients of regions of discretely cosine transform and discrete sine transformation of the image is shown. The author proposed to use certain coefficients to improve the quality of training of the support vector machine. Method of research: to assess the effectiveness of the steganoanalysis method proposed in the article using the proposed coefficients, a comparison of the efficiency of image classification with other popular steganoanalysis methods for the wavelet decomposition region is performed. As a steganographic influence, the values of the least significant bits of the coefficients of the discrete wavelet transform are used. Main results of the study is the possibility of using certain coefficients of discrete cosine transform and discretely sinus transformation of the region with the purpose of steganoanalysis in the region of discrete wavelet transformation is shown. According to the results of the study, an original method of steganoanalysis is proposed, which makes it possible to increase the efficiency of steganoanalysis for the LH and HL regions of the discrete wavelet transformation of the image. The obtained results can be used in the development of steganoanalysis systems to provide an effective detection of the fact of embedding into the discrete wavelet transformation region of an image.
Question at hand
Bashmakov D.A. - Accuracy of Pixel Predication in Background Areas of Digital Images as Part of Stegoanalysis Performed Using the Weighted Stego Method pp. 38-47


Abstract:  The subject of the research is the accuracy of predicting pixels of background areas of static digital images using the Weighted Stego Image method as part of passive resistance to data transmission channels that use the method of embedding the spatial domain of static digital images with a significant share of homogeneous background in the least significant bit. In his research Bashmakov analyzes the dependence of the accuracy of defining the length of an embedded message on the accuracy of pixel prediction of the image background area. The author focuses on an original algorithm Weighted Stego Image and a number of modifications thereof including the AWSPAM version. He analyzes the formula for calculating an embedded message length and the relationship between its accuracy and the accuracy of pixel prediction. The pixel prediction accuracy is viewed as an error distribution between the predicted and actual values. The accuracy of the stegoanalysis algorithm is viewed as the share of false-positive classifications given the share of correct classifications. The author demonstrates that information about surrounding pixels is not enought for an accurate prediction of pixel and proves that there is a certain relationship between the accuracy of pixel predition and accuracy of an embedded message length, or, in other words, accuracy of the classification using the Weighted Stego method. The author also demonstrates that the AWSPAM algorithm can predict pixels with the highest accuracy compared to the original algorithm prediction function and other modifications thereof.
Automation of manufacturing and production planning
Ulianov R.S. - Development of Criteria and Methods to be Used to Evaluate the Light Environment in Order to Improve Compujter-Aided Design Procedure of Lighting Systems with Spectral Control pp. 48-55


Abstract: In his research Yulianov examines issues related to improving the process of designing lighting systems, in particular, moving from manually operated methods of design decision making to CAD automation of the process. The object of the research is the process of designing lighting systems. The subject of the research is the development of criteria and methods that can improve the lighting system design taking into account available technologies that are based on the dynamic change of the spectra. In particular, the author examines verification of design results by carrying out an on-site inspection of a facility using dedicated means. The author defines criteria of light environment that are subject to verification within the aforesaid process based on the systems analysis of existing and perspective concepts of lighting systems with spectral control. The result of the research is the conceptual description of lighting system verification methods based on the criteria offered by the author for evaluation the light environment. In prospect, these criteria will be available for lighting systems with spectral control. These methods can be used at certain stages of a service life of a facility considering that the iterative approach to lighting systems design has been undertaken. 
Pogrebniak G. - Developing the Method of Parametric Modeling of Gearings in Mechanic Engineering for Raising Efficiency of Design Engineering pp. 56-65


Abstract: The subject of this research is the increase in the level of engineering design automation of CAD systems. The object of the research is gearings in mechanic engineering. The rationale of the research is caused by the need to make integrated solutions aimed at reducing the volume of work and time when modelling gearings in mechanic engineering and thus increasing efficiency of engineering design productivity. The author of the article focuses on difficult issues that can be faced in the process of modelling gearing profiles. In this research Pogrebnyak gives a description of the overall methods of parametric modeling in the process of desinging gearings in mechanic engineering. The author presents his method as a stage-by-stage sequence of actions consisting of six stages. The main result of the research is the method of parametric modelling of gearings using the direct programming method in the T-FLEX CAD 3D environment which allows to raise productivity of modelling, reduce time and efforts and increase the quality of design of gearings in mechanic engineering. 
Computer appliance implementations of numerical analysis and its mathematical models
Tyugin D. - Developing Software Tools to Accompany a Numerical Modeling of Internal Waves in Stratified Fluid pp. 66-74


Abstract: The object of the research is the geophysical processes in the ocean, in particular, distribution and transformation of internal waves in stratified fluid. According to the author, it is possible to study such large-scale processes using the methods of numerical modeling and open hydrological data sources. Nevertheless, numerical experiments require accompanying software tools. These tools include means of incoming data processing, software presentation methods in a form of networks, data sample preparation methods, data visualization means, and methods of initialization of mathematical models. The author examines all stages of a numerical experiment and required software tools as well as aspects of initialization of numerical models. The author demonstrates that part of the initial conditions can be created from the data context in an automatic mode. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author offers methods to be used to create problem-oriented software tools to carry out a numerical experiment on modelling geophysical processes that depend on spatiotemporal distribution of multivariable data. The methods offered can be used in many spheres of mathematical modelling of physical processes such dependencies are attributable to. 
Knowledge bases, intelligent systems, expert systems, decision support systems
Ryaskov A.S. - Ensuring Weak Connectivity of the Expert System and Ontological Knowledge Base by Adding the Service Layer pp. 75-82


Abstract: The aim of the article is to offer methods and applied technologies allowing to reduce the time of adapting knowledge bases and expert systems to one another. In his research Ryaskov gives an evaluation of the current connectivity architecture of expert systems and knowledge bases and analyzes drawbacks thereof, the main drawback being the need to rewrite the layer of conjunction of expert system and knowledge base whenever the data exchange protocol is changed. The author also sets a goal to reduce the connectivity between expert system and knowledge base. The architecture that is based on the weak connectivity architecture is extensively used in other fields. The research methods used by the author include the software engineering methods, descriptive logic, knowledge engineering and numerical methods. The service layer is exected based on the requirements set forth for client-service apps. As a result of his research, Ryaskov offers to use the mediation layer (service layer) and proves the novelty and efficiency of this approach. The author carries out an analysis of technologies allowing to abstract from data format provided by the knowledge base. The author decides that it is useful to apply the GraphQl technology for data exchange and the mediation layer should be used as a server (in terms of the client-server architecture). The author describes practical implementation of that decision for the expert system of the environmental load in Volgograd. Implementation of the service layer allowed to ease up the mutual adaptation of expert systems and knowledge bases and to reduce the component connectivity. As a prospect, the author offers to embed an access management component and general public service component into the servicelayer, for example, to provide data to the population about the environmental load. 
Data encryption and data protection
Bashmakov D.A. - Adaptive Prediction of Pixels in Gradient Areas to Raise Steganalysis Accuracy of Static Digital Images pp. 83-93


Abstract: In his research Bashmakov analyzes accuracy of background area selection in static digital images by using the histogram method as part of steganalysis performed by Weighted Stego Image and WSPAM methods. He examines the dependence of practical accuracy of steganalysis of static digital images by using Weighted Stego Image and  WSPAM methods on the kind of prediction model in gradient regions of an image as part of resistance to data transmission channels that use the method of embedding the least significant bit of spatial domain in static digital images with a significant part of homogeneous background. The author analyzes the Weighted Stego steganalysis algorithm and WSPAM modification thereof. To evaluate the analysis efficiency, the author has used the BOWS2 collection. To evaluate efficiency of homogenous background selection, the author has used images selected from a wide range of sources. The information is built in by changing the least significant bits of images in spatial domain with an actual load from 3-5%. Efficiency of methods is defined based on true-positive, true-negative, false-positive and false-negative values of image classification. The author demonstrates the low accuracy of homogenous background selection using the histogram method. The author suggests to select homogenous background using the segmentation neural net and proves its efficiency. He also offers an improved model of pixel prediction in image gradient areas, this model allowing to achieve the highest accuracy of steganalysis. The results of the research can be used to create systems of passive resistance to steganographic data transmission channels that are based on the Weighted Stego algorithm. 
Computer graphics, image processing and pattern recognition
Lobanov A.A., Filonov A.S. - The Method of Optical Processing of Spatial Information for the Purpose of Guidance and Landing Space Probes on Solar System Small Bodies pp. 94-102


Abstract: In this article the authors focus on the issues that relate to using the promising technique of optical correlation for onboard guidance and landing a space probe on a surface of a solar system small body. The authors use the ability of optical systems to perform the Fourier transformation which allows to construct optical-electronic devices of high-speed and high-efficiency computing systems. Distribution of illumination (energy) inplane or through the lens of the entrance pupil is an input data flow for an optical computing system that has been constructed on the basis of the aforesaid principle. In a general way, this information will function as a reference standard tranmission according to two (x, y) coordinates. To analyze the aforesaid aspects, the authors of the article have used mathematical analysis methods, in particular, integral calculus for creating a mathematical model of an optical correlation bearing finder with a revolving the reference standard. The authors suggest to modulate an optical signal going through a transparent reference standard both upon the amplitude and phase. The advantage of the method is a superspeed of information processing that is restricted by the light velocity and happens almost at instance taking into account small sizes of devices. The authors give a theoretical justification of the efficiency of the optical polar correlation method. The authors demonstrate that in order to neutralize the reference standard when guiding and landing a space probe it is better to use a revolving of a reference image. The authors also analyze the method of revolving of a reference image to find the function extremum of the correlation signal and neutralizing the reference standard.
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