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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Historical informatics" > Rubric "Geographic information systems and 3D reconstruction"
Geographic information systems and 3D reconstruction
Chernenko D.A. - Suzdalskiy Uezd in the Late 18th century: GIS-Mapping of the Territory Population and Development Processes pp. 44-55


Abstract: The article characterizes the use of GIS-technologies in historical and geographical research based on statistical and cartographic sources of the late 18th – middle of the 19th centuries. These materials born by the process of General Land Surveying in the Russian Empire provide for mapping and analyzing economical and demographical processes on the micro level: uezd – vladenie (possession) – rural settlement. The research object is a spatial network of rural settlements and possessory dachas of Suzdalskiy Uezd of Vladimirskaya Guberniya – a territory in Central Russia that has long been developed. The main research aim was to carry out total mapping of the uezd. The article demonstrates the opportunities of combining data of the Economical Notes to the General Land Surveying of 1770s-1780s with those of 1850s Mende Atlas, describes the principles of attribute-value table formation and arrangement of GIS-layers by the research topic. The result of the work is a series of thematic maps demonstrating the main parameters of the region’s development in the late 18th century. These are population density, settlements network density and their size, arable land development degree. The results show that these indicators significantly varied even within a relatively small uezd territory. This allows the author to structure it into different northern and southern districts contrasting even as far as their development is concerned. 
Grishin E. - Specialized Editor for Historical Geoinformation Systems Bibliosof-IGIS: Technological and Methodical Function Bases pp. 56-66


Abstract: The article studies functions and software for historical geoinformation systems. The research object is historical geoinformation systems, dynamical GIS-projects creation technologies and means of spatiotemporal analysis. The author considers separate structural parts of IGIS-resources creation service in detail. Emphasis is laid on auxiliary materials for historical GIS-cartography, in particular, to the sample base of conventional values and means of historical geoinformation systems unification. The study employs descriptive and comparative methods to demonstrate advantages of the proposed GIS-editor conception for historical maps and projects better. The author describes his variant of a specialized historical geoinfirmation system editor that takes into account specific functions of spatiotemporal analysis. Distinctive features of this resource in comparison with common editors are considered as well. The article concludes that historical GIS-projects need specialized software and functions and only close cooperation of historians and GIS-specialists will lead to an optimum tool set of historical maps and geoinformation systems.
Frolov A. - Dynamic Map as the Basis for GIS Historical Map pp. 61-73


Abstract: The article studies historical mapping on the basis of modern geographic information technologies. Today, historians are used to maps demonstrating historical dynamics by means of static images. However, dynamic maps which are more in line with the nature of historical research are considered more promising. The article describes different modes of transmitting reconfiguration of vector objects over time both in the desktop version of GIS-project and web-GIS. The approach proposed resides on data on the time when each objet appears and disappears (lower date and upper date) as its attributes. Basic principles of dynamic historical mapping were put forward around 20 years ago in English historiography. However, that map has not been widely used and specific solutions of its creation have not been discussed either. Rampant development of web-GIS technologies let us address the problem again. The research novelty is in the view on a dynamic map as a basic solution to develop a general GIS-platform integrating historical geography research results obtained by different historians. It is the first address to technical issues of a dynamic map creation in Russian literature.
Batyrbaeva S.D., Soltobaev O.A., Tursunova E.T. - Virtual Reconstruction of the Medieval Settlement of Koshoy-Korgon a Fortress of Nomads on the Great Silk Road pp. 63-74


Abstract: The article discusses the role and importance of computer modeling in the reconstruction of historical and cultural monuments in Kyrgyzstan's part of the Great Silk Road. Due to a number of objective and subjective causes all monuments of ancient and medieval ages of Kyrgyzstan demonstrate that the abundant historical and cultural heritage has either not been preserved or has been partially or fully renovated thus resulting in its changed appearance. The authors have tried to carry out a 3D reconstruction of Koshoy-Korgon settlement on the basis of former practices aimed at reconstruction of fortification complexes, ancient settlements and historical landscapes. This settlement dates back to the 10th-12th centuries and was the nomadic and administrative center of the At-Bash Valley in the Karakhanid State. The process of Koshoy-Korgon virtual reconstruction was accomplished by stages on the basis of historical and archaeological studies with the help of  such programs as ArchiCAD, Photoshop CS3, Unity3D, Autodesk 3D Max, 3DWorldStudio. 3D virtual reconstruction of disappeared monuments of Northern Kyrgyzstan traditionally considered a region of nomadic cultures  will allow us to take a fresh look at architectural features of monuments along the Great Silk Road and scrutinize social, economical, cultural and political aspects of historical objects. 3D  reconstruction based on comparative analysis will provide for drawing parallels to find out the interpenetration of architectural styles of states along the Great Silk Road in Central Asia.
Grishin E. - Spatiotemporal Technologies and Technique in Special Historical GIS-projects pp. 74-84


Abstract: The article studies a technique and technologies of dynamic historical GIS-projects development and the employment of spatiotemporal analysis to study historical processes. The study covers geoinformation systems, the use of cartographical method in history, electronic cartography, historical process modeling. The author pays special attention to a heuristic work with a historical GIS-map as well as regularities by searching for synchronized and consecutive alterations of attributive and metric data of map objects. The main method employed is a comparative one. The comparison is drawn between historical and mathematical GIS-projects. Historical geoinformation systems at hand have also been compared to analyze and search for more preferable variants. The research novelty is an attempt to set up basic principles of spatiotemporal analysis when working with historical GIS-projects. The author presents his own variant of a dynamic geoinformation system allowing for historical process modeling. The article concludes that historical geoinformation systems are a particular class of GIS-format projects demanding specific methodical and technological approach as well as development of specific functions for spatiotemporal analysis..
Frolov A., Golubinskii A., Kutakov S. - Web-GIS Drawings of the Russian State of the 16-17th Centuries (http://rgada.info/geos2/) pp. 75-84


Abstract: The study aims at a web-GIS that has been publicly-accessible since the early 2017.The article describes the sources used, the algorithm of their processing, the software, the structure of GIS-project attribute table, the ways to geocode digital copies of drawings as well as the methods of closer linking of drawing’s image to a location. Web-interface is characterized as well. It lets a user work with the resource through any browser with the help of scaling and navigation tools, text search, reading of selected object attributes, variation of raster transparence and choice of cartographic underlay. The article also describes the possibilities to address the initial attribute table and its lookup and view undeformed (not geocoded) large-scale drawing image (including the possibility to scale, move and rotate an object). In spite of different techniques of drawings execution as well as their different purpose and origin, the drawings studied are rather good at describing historic reality. This provides for considering a set of drawings as a document complex that can undergo general procedures of online publishing. The technologies used are mainly based on the employment of “open” software (from creation of desktop version of GIS-project to spatial libraries used to visualize web-versions). Optimization of web-GIS work mainly relates to minimization of traffic between a server and a client. To do this the work is organized so that downloading of all raster and most of vector objects starts only after the client’s computer sends a user query for a definite object to the server. The main result of the study is a free Internet access to the complex of Russian drawings of the 16th-17th centuries. The number of cartographic drawings totals 1000 and most of them have good images. 49 drawings have been found that had been left out by V.S. Kusov’s catalogue. Over 700 drawings have been linked to a locality and 140 have not been localized yet. An original method to localize a territory shown on the drawing on the map has been developed.
Chibisov M.E., Vladimirov V.N., Krupochkin E.P. - Development of Historical GIS to Study the Clergy and Parishes of Altai (Gornyi) Okrug in the Late 18th Century Early 20th Century. pp. 85-95


Abstract: The article studies the issue of historical GIS development and offers methodical approaches and technological solutions realized by means of MapInfo and ArcGIS geoinformation systems. The key problem studied is the development of GIS-project “The Clergy of Altai Gornyi Okrug in the Late 18th c. – Early 20th c.” Special emphasis is laid on issues related to the development of a unified mathematical and cartographic basis for the GIS. A technological scheme have been developed and tested that includes operations with raster data and a group of operations with a set of vector data (GIS-layers). An important tool of the project is an opportunity to analyze GIS-statistical data on parishes and other territorial units by means of interactive maps creation. This basis provided for mapping parish population structure, settlement occurrence, church objects distribution, etc. The data sets gained as a result of the procedures employed allow for covering any attributive information and any spatial data irrespective of time. This provides for retrospective GIS-modeling and studying cause-and-effect relationship both in time and space.
Ivakin Y.A., Potapychev S.N. - Development of Geochronological Tracking Information Technology for GIS-Based Historical Studies pp. 85-94


Abstract: The article addresses logical and functional features of an applied geochronological tracking information technology. From the viewpoint of its applied aspect, this information technology is scientific methodological and program tools to automatize certain historical issues related to biographical and geographical data merge on the basis of geoinformation systems and corresponding geoinformation technologies. It is an example of a specific information technology developed to help historians employing geographical interpretation of their subject domain when solving research problems. The methodology bases on the object-oriented approach to modeling within GIS domains and ontologies widely used in modern programming and complex software systems development. The novelty of the solution proposed is the principles of biographical and geographical data integration for humanities. The article studies qualitatively new opportunities provided by such a GIS tool as software application of geochronological tracking which it acquires in the process of its development.
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