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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Historical informatics" > Rubric "Geographic information systems and 3D reconstruction"
Geographic information systems and 3D reconstruction
Zherebyatyev D.I., Malyshev A.A., Moor V.V. - Gorgippia in the Archaic Era: 3D Methods and Technologies of the Ancient Fortress Town pp. 33-50

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2018.3.27575

Abstract: The article reconstructs the building system of the antique fortress town Gorgippia in the 6th-4th centuries BC that was located in the south-west part of the Bosporan Kingdom. The development of the town center on the territory of modern Anapa for a period of 2.5 thousand years has changed the ancient landscape. However, the traces of the ancient town can be seen when archeological excavation materials, historical documents (cartographic materials and other visual sources in particular) are analyzed. Using modern methodological approaches such as BIM, photogrammetry and aerial photography, 3D modeling and sculpting, the authors step by step create 3D reconstruction of the ancient landscape, restore residential, commercial, religious, administrative and fortification buildings of Gorgippia in the Archaic Era. The results obtained allow the authors to reconstruct the life of the ancient seaside trading town with its distinctive culture, to deeper consider the formation of its individual districts as well as transport routes and the building system itself from its foundation to destruction. The study of the formation processes of the ancient town and its 3D reconstruction contribute to the development of historical urban science in general.
Grishin E. - The Reference Database of Symbols for Historical Maps: General Concept, Methodology and Application pp. 38-62

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2018.1.25698

Abstract: The study aims at unifying the technique of historical mapping and creating a database of symbols for historical maps and geoinformation systems. The author substantiates the advantages of a general symbol set to simplify the reading of cartographic materials and formation of a uniform standard to improve interaction between specialists. Basing on a variety of examples from atlases and cartographic materials the author analyzes historical map legends. He finds optimum solutions providing for the choice of symbols and legend structuring. Comparative method is used. The author examines the existing lists of standardized symbols in other domains of cartography and compares different situations of legend formation in historical mapping. Chronological approach is employed as well to demonstrate the association of map structure complexity with higher requirements to legends. The main research value of the article is the formulation of methodological and technological grounds providing for creation of uniform database of historical map symbols. It is the first attempt to move forward within a sector of historical mapping which somewhat lacked previous base. The article presents the general structure of the reference symbol database, its main resources, the ways of its seeding as well as the algorithm of electronic symbol database creation as a full value tool to form historical maps and geoinformation systems. 
Chernenko D.A. - Suzdalskiy Uezd in the Late 18th century: GIS-Mapping of the Territory Population and Development Processes pp. 44-55

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2017.4.25057

Abstract: The article characterizes the use of GIS-technologies in historical and geographical research based on statistical and cartographic sources of the late 18th – middle of the 19th centuries. These materials born by the process of General Land Surveying in the Russian Empire provide for mapping and analyzing economical and demographical processes on the micro level: uezd – vladenie (possession) – rural settlement. The research object is a spatial network of rural settlements and possessory dachas of Suzdalskiy Uezd of Vladimirskaya Guberniya – a territory in Central Russia that has long been developed. The main research aim was to carry out total mapping of the uezd. The article demonstrates the opportunities of combining data of the Economical Notes to the General Land Surveying of 1770s-1780s with those of 1850s Mende Atlas, describes the principles of attribute-value table formation and arrangement of GIS-layers by the research topic. The result of the work is a series of thematic maps demonstrating the main parameters of the region’s development in the late 18th century. These are population density, settlements network density and their size, arable land development degree. The results show that these indicators significantly varied even within a relatively small uezd territory. This allows the author to structure it into different northern and southern districts contrasting even as far as their development is concerned. 
Borisova S.V., Kartashov S.A., Zherebyatyev D.I., Trishin I.G., Mironenko M.S., Dryga D.O. - Preservation of Pre-Mongol Rus Cultural Heritage: Reconstruction of the Lost Stone Reliefs of the 13th Century St. Georgers Cathedral pp. 51-75

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2018.3.27576

Abstract: Whitestone St. Georger’s Cathedral is one of the most well-known monuments of pre-Mongol stone architecture in Vladimir-Suzdal Rus in the 13th century. The unique feature of the cathedral is the carved whitestone décor which themes are those of Christian iconography, pagan images and floral ornament. In the 15th century the cathedral fell down and was restored, but the integrity of stone reliefs was lost. Later the reliefs were restored by masters of Vasiliy Ermolin in random order thus complicating the task of their correct order reconstruction. During reconstruction the temple became lower, lost its original proportions and the unique ornament. Some reliefs were lost while the others happened in hard-to-get places. Some stone reliefs can be found in the cathedral masonry under the temple roof or in the columns. Inside the building one can see reliefs which have not been used by masters during reconstruction. Researchers have attempted to reconstruct the cathedral many times, but the oddness of reliefs and their multiple damages complicated this work. Modern information technologies (laser scanning, photogrammetry, 3D modeling programs and BIM) provide for solving the problem of reconstructing the cathedral original appearance and lost ancient themes as well as testing the cathedral reconstruction hypotheses at hand. Digitization of stone reliefs allows the researcher to work with them in digital format preserving the integrity of the object. One of the results is the software environment developed by the authors to systematize stone reliefs. Within this environment the authors have reconstructed a number of lost mythical and biblical themes of stone reliefs located on the cathedral walls. 
Grishin E. - Specialized Editor for Historical Geoinformation Systems Bibliosof-IGIS: Technological and Methodical Function Bases pp. 56-66

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2017.4.25070

Abstract: The article studies functions and software for historical geoinformation systems. The research object is historical geoinformation systems, dynamical GIS-projects creation technologies and means of spatiotemporal analysis. The author considers separate structural parts of IGIS-resources creation service in detail. Emphasis is laid on auxiliary materials for historical GIS-cartography, in particular, to the sample base of conventional values and means of historical geoinformation systems unification. The study employs descriptive and comparative methods to demonstrate advantages of the proposed GIS-editor conception for historical maps and projects better. The author describes his variant of a specialized historical geoinfirmation system editor that takes into account specific functions of spatiotemporal analysis. Distinctive features of this resource in comparison with common editors are considered as well. The article concludes that historical GIS-projects need specialized software and functions and only close cooperation of historians and GIS-specialists will lead to an optimum tool set of historical maps and geoinformation systems.
Shchekotilov V.G., Shalaeva M.V., Shchekotilova S.N. - Complexes of Multi-Sheet Plans of the 19th Century Territories as a GIS and a Geoportal Component pp. 58-67

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2018.2.26570

Abstract: The article studies GIS and geoportal adaptation of multi-sheet plans of mid 19th century territories. The authors have revealed a layer of complexes of multi-sheet large-scale cartographical works of the mid 19th century presented in the form of territory plans on certain locations. One complex of 65 sheets belongs to Vetluzhskiy Uezd of Kostromskaya Guberniya. Other guberniyas can also boast such complexes. The plans demonstrate the boarders of landownings, populated regions and areas. To create various raster electronic maps the authors have suggested to use a method based on the evaluation of parameters of the sheet grid followed by virtual combining of plan sheets and formation of the agreed complex of raster electronic maps with preset parameters. They suggest to use raster electronic maps for geocoding the list of populated territories. The main conclusion is the possibility to use this approach for creating databases with raster electronic maps covering multi-sheet complexes of mid 19th century territory plans which can be further employed in GIS or geoportals when computerizing historical studies. The creation of such databases will add existing information resources covering large-scale topographic boundary maps of 8 guberniyas made by A.I. Mende and military topographic maps thus expanding research opportunities.
Frolov A. - Dynamic Map as the Basis for GIS Historical Map pp. 61-73

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2017.2.23355

Abstract: The article studies historical mapping on the basis of modern geographic information technologies. Today, historians are used to maps demonstrating historical dynamics by means of static images. However, dynamic maps which are more in line with the nature of historical research are considered more promising. The article describes different modes of transmitting reconfiguration of vector objects over time both in the desktop version of GIS-project and web-GIS. The approach proposed resides on data on the time when each objet appears and disappears (lower date and upper date) as its attributes. Basic principles of dynamic historical mapping were put forward around 20 years ago in English historiography. However, that map has not been widely used and specific solutions of its creation have not been discussed either. Rampant development of web-GIS technologies let us address the problem again. The research novelty is in the view on a dynamic map as a basic solution to develop a general GIS-platform integrating historical geography research results obtained by different historians. It is the first address to technical issues of a dynamic map creation in Russian literature.
Batyrbaeva S.D., Soltobaev O.A., Tursunova E.T. - Virtual Reconstruction of the Medieval Settlement of Koshoy-Korgon a Fortress of Nomads on the Great Silk Road pp. 63-74

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0891.2017.1.22452

Abstract: The article discusses the role and importance of computer modeling in the reconstruction of historical and cultural monuments in Kyrgyzstan's part of the Great Silk Road. Due to a number of objective and subjective causes all monuments of ancient and medieval ages of Kyrgyzstan demonstrate that the abundant historical and cultural heritage has either not been preserved or has been partially or fully renovated thus resulting in its changed appearance. The authors have tried to carry out a 3D reconstruction of Koshoy-Korgon settlement on the basis of former practices aimed at reconstruction of fortification complexes, ancient settlements and historical landscapes. This settlement dates back to the 10th-12th centuries and was the nomadic and administrative center of the At-Bash Valley in the Karakhanid State. The process of Koshoy-Korgon virtual reconstruction was accomplished by stages on the basis of historical and archaeological studies with the help of  such programs as ArchiCAD, Photoshop CS3, Unity3D, Autodesk 3D Max, 3DWorldStudio. 3D virtual reconstruction of disappeared monuments of Northern Kyrgyzstan traditionally considered a region of nomadic cultures  will allow us to take a fresh look at architectural features of monuments along the Great Silk Road and scrutinize social, economical, cultural and political aspects of historical objects. 3D  reconstruction based on comparative analysis will provide for drawing parallels to find out the interpenetration of architectural styles of states along the Great Silk Road in Central Asia.
Kartashova M. - Localization of Home Crafts in the Russian Empire in the Late 19th Early 20th Centuries (Spatial and Statistical Analysis) pp. 63-85

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2018.1.25145

Abstract: The article studies home crafts of the Russian Empire. The territorial framework covers the Russian Empire as a whole including the central guberniyas, Asian Russia, the Caucasus, the Kingdom of Poland and Finland. The study was carried out on the territorial basis. The author analyzes statistics and reveals the home craft distribution level throughout gubernyas and oblasts using localization indices. At the second stage of the study home crafts are analyzed according to groups and types. Guberniyas and centers with prevailing home crafts are identified. The author employs interdisciplinary approach, localization indices, MS Excel statistical, spatial and statistical analysis in the MapInfo geoinformation system. It is the first time in history when home craft localization indices are used within the frames of the whole empire and indices are compared in relation to home craft population and factory workers. The data obtained allowed the author to identify 4 groups of guberniyas. The first group (Kamchatskaya Oblast) totally lacked home crafts. The second group covers 35 regions with the low home craft level scattered throughout the empire. The third group with the medium level of home craft localization includes 21 regions that are also scattered. The fourth group counts 9 guberniyas located in the northern and the central industrial parts of the empire, Tobolskaya Guberniya and Semipalatinskaya Oblast. More than half of the 32 guberniyas and oblasts understudy had low indices of the factory industry localization thus casting doubts on wide-spread conclusions about the decline of home crafts throughout the empire before the First World War. 
Trishin I. - Creation of Software on the Basis of Unity 3D Game Engine to Reconstruct Facades of the Saint George Cathedral in Yuriev-Polskiy (Vladimirskaya Oblast) pp. 68-74

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2018.2.26602

Abstract: The study aims at 3D reconstruction of the Saint George Cathedral facades (Yuriev-Polskiy) on the basis of white-stone décor by means of special software creation. The article discusses the creation of such a program which provides for reconstructing minute objects when merging their full-size models. The program is sure to be of interest both to scholars reconstructing cultural heritage monuments and readers who are interested in innovations in this field of history. The main methods are photogrammetry (digitization of stone reliefs) and programming of Unity 3D work C# environment. The author’s main contribution to this study is the creation of his own software designed for a user with minimum PC skills. As far as there are no specialized programs to reconstruct objects, the author hopes to help those who study the Saint George Cathedral and stimulate further ideas of software development in the sphere of historical and architectural studies. The result of this study is the program that is now being modified and tested.
Grishin E. - Spatiotemporal Technologies and Technique in Special Historical GIS-projects pp. 74-84

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2017.2.23295

Abstract: The article studies a technique and technologies of dynamic historical GIS-projects development and the employment of spatiotemporal analysis to study historical processes. The study covers geoinformation systems, the use of cartographical method in history, electronic cartography, historical process modeling. The author pays special attention to a heuristic work with a historical GIS-map as well as regularities by searching for synchronized and consecutive alterations of attributive and metric data of map objects. The main method employed is a comparative one. The comparison is drawn between historical and mathematical GIS-projects. Historical geoinformation systems at hand have also been compared to analyze and search for more preferable variants. The research novelty is an attempt to set up basic principles of spatiotemporal analysis when working with historical GIS-projects. The author presents his own variant of a dynamic geoinformation system allowing for historical process modeling. The article concludes that historical geoinformation systems are a particular class of GIS-format projects demanding specific methodical and technological approach as well as development of specific functions for spatiotemporal analysis..
Frolov A., Golubinskii A., Kutakov S. - Web-GIS Drawings of the Russian State of the 16-17th Centuries (http://rgada.info/geos2/) pp. 75-84

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0891.2017.1.22025

Abstract: The study aims at a web-GIS that has been publicly-accessible since the early 2017.The article describes the sources used, the algorithm of their processing, the software, the structure of GIS-project attribute table, the ways to geocode digital copies of drawings as well as the methods of closer linking of drawing’s image to a location. Web-interface is characterized as well. It lets a user work with the resource through any browser with the help of scaling and navigation tools, text search, reading of selected object attributes, variation of raster transparence and choice of cartographic underlay. The article also describes the possibilities to address the initial attribute table and its lookup and view undeformed (not geocoded) large-scale drawing image (including the possibility to scale, move and rotate an object). In spite of different techniques of drawings execution as well as their different purpose and origin, the drawings studied are rather good at describing historic reality. This provides for considering a set of drawings as a document complex that can undergo general procedures of online publishing. The technologies used are mainly based on the employment of “open” software (from creation of desktop version of GIS-project to spatial libraries used to visualize web-versions). Optimization of web-GIS work mainly relates to minimization of traffic between a server and a client. To do this the work is organized so that downloading of all raster and most of vector objects starts only after the client’s computer sends a user query for a definite object to the server. The main result of the study is a free Internet access to the complex of Russian drawings of the 16th-17th centuries. The number of cartographic drawings totals 1000 and most of them have good images. 49 drawings have been found that had been left out by V.S. Kusov’s catalogue. Over 700 drawings have been linked to a locality and 140 have not been localized yet. An original method to localize a territory shown on the drawing on the map has been developed.
Borodkin L., Mironenko M., Chertopolokhov V., Belousova M., Khlopikov V. - Virtual and Augmented Reality Technologies (VR/AR) to Reconstruct Historical City Building System (the Example of Moscow Strastnoy Convent pp. 76-88

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2018.3.27549

Abstract: The article puts forward a new approach to the development of virtual reconstruction of historical and cultural heritage objects that is based on the advanced 3D modeling technologies and addresses the issues of historical urban science. Along with sociocultural significance and architectural importance of the lost cultural heritage objects (convent complex in this case) for virtual reconstruction tasks, an important criterion for their selection is the preservation rate of the source base. The article focuses on the use of virtual and augmented reality technologies in historical reconstruction tasks. As an additional opportunity to “plunge” into the historical past, the authors propose the creation of historical panoramas to use them in pads or smartphones. The article also studies the technology associated with the use of VR HMD. 3D modeling, digital sculpting, photogrammetry of monuments, layer projection technologies form an important part of methods used in this work. The article is the first in Russian historiography to address the practical use of virtual and augmented reality technologies to reconstruct the lost objects of the historical building system (by the example of Strastnoy Convent). The authors test the software module that validates / verifies the results of virtual reconstruction as well as enhances representation and visualization opportunities of these results. The authors simulate the augmented reality within the virtual reality and thus overcome limitations of AR. 
Chibisov M.E., Vladimirov V.N., Krupochkin E.P. - Development of Historical GIS to Study the Clergy and Parishes of Altai (Gornyi) Okrug in the Late 18th Century Early 20th Century. pp. 85-95

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0891.2017.1.22339

Abstract: The article studies the issue of historical GIS development and offers methodical approaches and technological solutions realized by means of MapInfo and ArcGIS geoinformation systems. The key problem studied is the development of GIS-project “The Clergy of Altai Gornyi Okrug in the Late 18th c. – Early 20th c.” Special emphasis is laid on issues related to the development of a unified mathematical and cartographic basis for the GIS. A technological scheme have been developed and tested that includes operations with raster data and a group of operations with a set of vector data (GIS-layers). An important tool of the project is an opportunity to analyze GIS-statistical data on parishes and other territorial units by means of interactive maps creation. This basis provided for mapping parish population structure, settlement occurrence, church objects distribution, etc. The data sets gained as a result of the procedures employed allow for covering any attributive information and any spatial data irrespective of time. This provides for retrospective GIS-modeling and studying cause-and-effect relationship both in time and space.
Ivakin Y.A., Potapychev S.N. - Development of Geochronological Tracking Information Technology for GIS-Based Historical Studies pp. 85-94

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2017.2.23083

Abstract: The article addresses logical and functional features of an applied geochronological tracking information technology. From the viewpoint of its applied aspect, this information technology is scientific methodological and program tools to automatize certain historical issues related to biographical and geographical data merge on the basis of geoinformation systems and corresponding geoinformation technologies. It is an example of a specific information technology developed to help historians employing geographical interpretation of their subject domain when solving research problems. The methodology bases on the object-oriented approach to modeling within GIS domains and ontologies widely used in modern programming and complex software systems development. The novelty of the solution proposed is the principles of biographical and geographical data integration for humanities. The article studies qualitatively new opportunities provided by such a GIS tool as software application of geochronological tracking which it acquires in the process of its development.
Ivakin Y.A., Potapychev S.N., Ivakin V.Y. - Testing of Historical Hypotheses on the Basis of Geochronological Tracking pp. 86-93

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2018.1.25344

Abstract: Information technology of geochronological tracking is a total of processes that accumulate and integrate data on geographic relocation of historical figures for a given time interval and represent the results as a generalizing graph in GIS. Hypotheses about stable migration trends are represented as subgraphs of the graph. To test such hypotheses is to search and evaluate statistical significance of relevant graph isomorphism. The article describes these qualitatively new opportunities provided by such an approach as well as relevant mathematical and algorithmic tools. Methodology of the study grounds on graph theory, probability theory, mathematical statistics and statistical accuracy and stability evaluation methods.Information technologies of geochronological tracking form the methodological and program apparatus for automation of selected class of historical tasks, connected to fusion of biographical and geographic data based on GIS. The novelty of the study is a new class of methodical tools for historical studies addressing geospatial social and political processes on the basis of geoinformation systems and relevant technologies. The main theoretical conclusion is the applicability of mathematical tools of confidence figure evaluation when making a decision in historical studies on the basis of geochronological tracking net structures.  
Zhurbin I.V. - Complex Studies of Archeological Sites and Geoinformation Analysis of Interdisciplinary Data pp. 89-105

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2018.3.27100

Abstract: Modern approach to the study and preservation of archaeological sites is based on the complex application of natural-science and archaeological methods. The development of archeological site study algorithm (aerial photography, geophysics, soil examinations, etc.) is a topical research trend. An effective tool to compare different data is a geographic information system which contains not only traditional cartographical and thematic layers, but also transformed maps (which result from the application of operators to initial maps) and interpretation layers (which result from the comparative analysis of the transformed maps). The article addresses the Kushmanskoe settlement dated 9th-13th centuries AD. It was one of medieval Finno-Ugrian settlements in the basin of Cheptsa river (the northern part of the Udmurt Republic). To interpret the interdisciplinary data complex the author offers informative markers to estimate the preservation state of the cultural layer and decision rules to recognize the areas with characteristic properties. As a result, the author has determined the boarders of the settlement parts with different preservation state of the cultural layer: that with transformed surface and a substituted one. He has also found a part of “household periphery” Uchkakara – a boarder of the cultural heritage object. The analysis of mutual alignment of geophysical anomalies related to local underground objects let the author reconstruct proper layout of the settlement.
Grishin E. - Henry IVs Spatial Mobility in 1063-1073 as the Factographic Basis for Information Dissemination in Medieval Germany pp. 106-122

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2018.3.27415

Abstract: The article studies spatial mobility and information dissemination within the medieval space. The research object is the factors of information conductivity such as geographical activity of the population and individuals as well as general spatial characteristics such as topographic conditions, population density and communication routes. The author pays special attention to the geographical outlook of the authors of narrative sources and their ability to remotely monitor Henry IV’s movements. Particular attention is paid to the influence of geographical imperatives that determine the content of sources. The author explains the distortion of localizations and inconsistencies of dates. The research method is the predominant application of the cartographic method followed by the space-time analysis. The research data were presented as a chronologically oriented geoinformation system. The research novelty is the topics raised. These are the information dissemination in a specific historical context and its influence on various aspects of historical processes. The author also stresses the importance of regular spatial activity of the population for studying historical geography of the region and potential and productivity of the information dissemination from the viewpoint of narrative sources analysis. From the viewpoint of methodology, the research significance is to demonstrate the capabilities of the complex geoinformation project for solving multiple problems. 
Shchekotilov V.G., Shalaeva M.V., Shchekotilova S.N. - Geographic Information Systems and Databases in Search of a Duty Area and a Death Place of the Missed in Action pp. 123-145

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2018.3.27122

Abstract: The article studies the use of GIS and DB to analyze text and cartographic materials of the information systems “Memory of the People” and “Memorial” and non-digitized materials of the Defense Ministry’s Central Archive to identify soldiers accounting for inexact data and data about those missed in action (after being wounded). The key element of the studies is the adjustment of the Great Patriotic War archival maps of the portal “Memory of the People” and a resource of the American Association of Historians “Gutenberg” to functionally use them in GIS and geoportal. The research methodology is the following techniques: step by step studies starting from a supposition through data search to a hypothesis, its test with the help of specialists and individual search for supporting documents with the aim to further perpetuate the memory of the fallen. The scientific component is the creation of database complexes covering the Great Patriotic War maps and those of the prewar periods as well as geocoded data, the formation of the regiments’ configuration, the cross-matching of data of reports on those lost, documents specifying the losses, memory books, financial statements, etc. The research novelty is the complex use of data of the Great Patriotic War maps, both old and modern ones, as well as data of the database “Memory of the People” and “Memorial” and other documents stored in the Defense Ministry’s Central Archive with the application of GIS, DB and authors’ software for cross-matching. The main conclusion is the efficiency of GIS and DB in search of data of those wounded soldiers who are considered missed in action.
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