Historical informatics - rubric Geographic information systems and 3D reconstruction
Historical informatics
Journal Menu
> Issues > Rubrics > About journal > Authors > About the Journal > Requirements for publication > Peer-review process > Peer-review in 24 hours: How do we do it? > Article retraction > Ethics > Copyright & Licensing Policy > Publication in 72 hours: How do we do it? > Digital archiving policy > Open Access Policy > Open access publishing costs > Article Identification Policy > Plagiarism check policy > Editorial Board > Council of Editors
Journals in science databases
About the Journal

MAIN PAGE > Journal "Historical informatics" > Rubric "Geographic information systems and 3D reconstruction"
Geographic information systems and 3D reconstruction
Chernenko D.A., Khitrov D.A. - General Land Survey Data on Urban Dwelling Area in Russia's North and North-West in the Late 18th Century pp. 1-11


Abstract: The article discusses the debating urban dwelling area data as presented by the General Land Survey in the 18th century. The Russian city of that period was not mainly a commercial and industrial but an administrative center. Moreover, military and agricultural spheres played an important role as well. These factors predetermined rather free plans of Russian cities integrated in the landscape. An interesting opportunity for this comparison is given by the materials of the General Land Survey which recorded the state of most of the cities in European Russia before or during the urban planning reform of Catherine II in the 1770s-1780s. The article uses the materials of Economic Notes and city plans for four guberniyas of Russia's North and North-West: Vologodskaya, Novgorodskaya, Olonetskaya and Pskovskaya ones. The authors of these documents attempted to clearly define the boundaries of the urban dwelling area separated from various suburban lands. Thus, the ratio of the land "under a settlement" within urban dachas to a number of households can be an integral indicator describing urban dwelling area. On the basis of statistical analysis and data GIS cartography the authors conclude that the information about urban dwelling areas is better presented for old cities both in statistical and cartographic materials. As far as the cities founded during the gubernial reform of 1775 are concerned, the data are more likely to demonstrate the government's "projects" of the city development.
Zherebyatyev D.I., Malyshev A.A., Moor V.V. - Gorgippia in the Archaic Era: 3D Methods and Technologies of the Ancient Fortress Town pp. 33-50


Abstract: The article reconstructs the building system of the antique fortress town Gorgippia in the 6th-4th centuries BC that was located in the south-west part of the Bosporan Kingdom. The development of the town center on the territory of modern Anapa for a period of 2.5 thousand years has changed the ancient landscape. However, the traces of the ancient town can be seen when archeological excavation materials, historical documents (cartographic materials and other visual sources in particular) are analyzed. Using modern methodological approaches such as BIM, photogrammetry and aerial photography, 3D modeling and sculpting, the authors step by step create 3D reconstruction of the ancient landscape, restore residential, commercial, religious, administrative and fortification buildings of Gorgippia in the Archaic Era. The results obtained allow the authors to reconstruct the life of the ancient seaside trading town with its distinctive culture, to deeper consider the formation of its individual districts as well as transport routes and the building system itself from its foundation to destruction. The study of the formation processes of the ancient town and its 3D reconstruction contribute to the development of historical urban science in general.
Grishin E. - The Reference Database of Symbols for Historical Maps: General Concept, Methodology and Application pp. 38-62


Abstract: The study aims at unifying the technique of historical mapping and creating a database of symbols for historical maps and geoinformation systems. The author substantiates the advantages of a general symbol set to simplify the reading of cartographic materials and formation of a uniform standard to improve interaction between specialists. Basing on a variety of examples from atlases and cartographic materials the author analyzes historical map legends. He finds optimum solutions providing for the choice of symbols and legend structuring. Comparative method is used. The author examines the existing lists of standardized symbols in other domains of cartography and compares different situations of legend formation in historical mapping. Chronological approach is employed as well to demonstrate the association of map structure complexity with higher requirements to legends. The main research value of the article is the formulation of methodological and technological grounds providing for creation of uniform database of historical map symbols. It is the first attempt to move forward within a sector of historical mapping which somewhat lacked previous base. The article presents the general structure of the reference symbol database, its main resources, the ways of its seeding as well as the algorithm of electronic symbol database creation as a full value tool to form historical maps and geoinformation systems. 
Khapaev V., Batsura I. - Computer 3D Reconstruction of Antique and Medieval Chersonesus Taurica: Results, Problems and Prospects pp. 39-56


Abstract: The article studies history and archeology of ancient and medieval Chersonesus via its computer reconstruction. The authors are a group including a historian, an archeologist, an architect, a painter and a computer graphics designer. Two periods have been reconstructed. These are the beginning of the New Era and the 10th century. The source base of reconstruction are materials of archaeological reports, photographs, drawings, plans and schemes of archaeological monuments of Chersonesus, materials of topographical survey. The research methods are a historical and typological method to accompany 3D reconstruction of different buildings and structures and a method of analogs to create variants of building/structure reconstruction since some building and structures are badly preserved and this hinders reconstruction. The research novelty is the fact that is the first complex computer 3D reconstruction of Chersonesus. It is the first time when all buildings and structures (earlier 2D reconstructed) have been 3D reconstructed. The authors are the first to propose and substantiate a graphical reconstruction of a two-storied basilica, reconstruct the south-west part of the defensive wall completely destroyed by construction works at the end of the 19th century. The article concludes that a complex 3D reconstruction of an archeological site is of both a research and an applied importance as it provides for determining characteristics of buildings and structures and promoting an archeological object, creating movie projects and illustrating books.The efficiency of a combination of computer programs such as SketchUp, 3DMax and Google-Earth online service has been proven.
Chernenko D.A. - Suzdalskiy Uezd in the Late 18th century: GIS-Mapping of the Territory Population and Development Processes pp. 44-55


Abstract: The article characterizes the use of GIS-technologies in historical and geographical research based on statistical and cartographic sources of the late 18th – middle of the 19th centuries. These materials born by the process of General Land Surveying in the Russian Empire provide for mapping and analyzing economical and demographical processes on the micro level: uezd – vladenie (possession) – rural settlement. The research object is a spatial network of rural settlements and possessory dachas of Suzdalskiy Uezd of Vladimirskaya Guberniya – a territory in Central Russia that has long been developed. The main research aim was to carry out total mapping of the uezd. The article demonstrates the opportunities of combining data of the Economical Notes to the General Land Surveying of 1770s-1780s with those of 1850s Mende Atlas, describes the principles of attribute-value table formation and arrangement of GIS-layers by the research topic. The result of the work is a series of thematic maps demonstrating the main parameters of the region’s development in the late 18th century. These are population density, settlements network density and their size, arable land development degree. The results show that these indicators significantly varied even within a relatively small uezd territory. This allows the author to structure it into different northern and southern districts contrasting even as far as their development is concerned. 
Borisova S.V., Kartashov S.A., Zherebyatyev D.I., Trishin I.G., Mironenko M.S., Dryga D.O. - Preservation of Pre-Mongol Rus Cultural Heritage: Reconstruction of the Lost Stone Reliefs of the 13th Century St. Georgers Cathedral pp. 51-75


Abstract: Whitestone St. Georger’s Cathedral is one of the most well-known monuments of pre-Mongol stone architecture in Vladimir-Suzdal Rus in the 13th century. The unique feature of the cathedral is the carved whitestone décor which themes are those of Christian iconography, pagan images and floral ornament. In the 15th century the cathedral fell down and was restored, but the integrity of stone reliefs was lost. Later the reliefs were restored by masters of Vasiliy Ermolin in random order thus complicating the task of their correct order reconstruction. During reconstruction the temple became lower, lost its original proportions and the unique ornament. Some reliefs were lost while the others happened in hard-to-get places. Some stone reliefs can be found in the cathedral masonry under the temple roof or in the columns. Inside the building one can see reliefs which have not been used by masters during reconstruction. Researchers have attempted to reconstruct the cathedral many times, but the oddness of reliefs and their multiple damages complicated this work. Modern information technologies (laser scanning, photogrammetry, 3D modeling programs and BIM) provide for solving the problem of reconstructing the cathedral original appearance and lost ancient themes as well as testing the cathedral reconstruction hypotheses at hand. Digitization of stone reliefs allows the researcher to work with them in digital format preserving the integrity of the object. One of the results is the software environment developed by the authors to systematize stone reliefs. Within this environment the authors have reconstructed a number of lost mythical and biblical themes of stone reliefs located on the cathedral walls. 
Grishin E. - Specialized Editor for Historical Geoinformation Systems Bibliosof-IGIS: Technological and Methodical Function Bases pp. 56-66


Abstract: The article studies functions and software for historical geoinformation systems. The research object is historical geoinformation systems, dynamical GIS-projects creation technologies and means of spatiotemporal analysis. The author considers separate structural parts of IGIS-resources creation service in detail. Emphasis is laid on auxiliary materials for historical GIS-cartography, in particular, to the sample base of conventional values and means of historical geoinformation systems unification. The study employs descriptive and comparative methods to demonstrate advantages of the proposed GIS-editor conception for historical maps and projects better. The author describes his variant of a specialized historical geoinfirmation system editor that takes into account specific functions of spatiotemporal analysis. Distinctive features of this resource in comparison with common editors are considered as well. The article concludes that historical GIS-projects need specialized software and functions and only close cooperation of historians and GIS-specialists will lead to an optimum tool set of historical maps and geoinformation systems.
Stepanova Y.V., Savinova A.I. - Resettlement of the Karelians in the Upper Volga Region in the Middle the Second Half of the 17th Century: GIS-Technology Test pp. 57-72


Abstract: The article summarizes the study addressing the resettlement of the Karelians in the Upper Volga Region in the middle - the second half of the 17th century after entry of a part of Karelia into the Swedish state. The study applies GIS-technologies and focuses on the location and the number of the Karelians in the Upper Volga Region. The study is based on written sources: scribal descriptions and acts. For localization purposes the authors used additional sources of the 18th-19th centuries such as General Land Survey data, statistical descriptions and maps. They have created GIS layers with “Korelyane” settlements. The layers show resettlement dynamics from 1640s to the late 1670s. Attributive tables include data on population numbers. The research novelty is a detailed picture of mass resettlement of the Karelians in the Upper Volga Region and stages of this resettlement. The earliest settlements of “korelyane” are localized in Bezhetskiy Verkh on manorial and monastery lands. In the 1650s-1660s palace Karelian territories are formed in Bezhetskiy Verkh, Novotorzhskiy uezd and the southern part of Bezhetskaya Pyatina and Derevskaya Pyatina. In the 1670s the Karelians continued to resettle on manorial and monastery lands. By the late 1670s “korelyane” had settled the territories near such rivers as Mologa, Medveditsa and Tvertsa. They grew in number too. The author is the first to use some new sources to analyze resettlement and demography of Karelian immigrants in the central regions of Russia in the 17th century. 
Shchekotilov V.G., Shalaeva M.V., Shchekotilova S.N. - Complexes of Multi-Sheet Plans of the 19th Century Territories as a GIS and a Geoportal Component pp. 58-67


Abstract: The article studies GIS and geoportal adaptation of multi-sheet plans of mid 19th century territories. The authors have revealed a layer of complexes of multi-sheet large-scale cartographical works of the mid 19th century presented in the form of territory plans on certain locations. One complex of 65 sheets belongs to Vetluzhskiy Uezd of Kostromskaya Guberniya. Other guberniyas can also boast such complexes. The plans demonstrate the boarders of landownings, populated regions and areas. To create various raster electronic maps the authors have suggested to use a method based on the evaluation of parameters of the sheet grid followed by virtual combining of plan sheets and formation of the agreed complex of raster electronic maps with preset parameters. They suggest to use raster electronic maps for geocoding the list of populated territories. The main conclusion is the possibility to use this approach for creating databases with raster electronic maps covering multi-sheet complexes of mid 19th century territory plans which can be further employed in GIS or geoportals when computerizing historical studies. The creation of such databases will add existing information resources covering large-scale topographic boundary maps of 8 guberniyas made by A.I. Mende and military topographic maps thus expanding research opportunities.
Frolov A. - Dynamic Map as the Basis for GIS Historical Map pp. 61-73


Abstract: The article studies historical mapping on the basis of modern geographic information technologies. Today, historians are used to maps demonstrating historical dynamics by means of static images. However, dynamic maps which are more in line with the nature of historical research are considered more promising. The article describes different modes of transmitting reconfiguration of vector objects over time both in the desktop version of GIS-project and web-GIS. The approach proposed resides on data on the time when each objet appears and disappears (lower date and upper date) as its attributes. Basic principles of dynamic historical mapping were put forward around 20 years ago in English historiography. However, that map has not been widely used and specific solutions of its creation have not been discussed either. Rampant development of web-GIS technologies let us address the problem again. The research novelty is in the view on a dynamic map as a basic solution to develop a general GIS-platform integrating historical geography research results obtained by different historians. It is the first address to technical issues of a dynamic map creation in Russian literature.
Batyrbaeva S.D., Soltobaev O.A., Tursunova E.T. - Virtual Reconstruction of the Medieval Settlement of Koshoy-Korgon a Fortress of Nomads on the Great Silk Road pp. 63-74


Abstract: The article discusses the role and importance of computer modeling in the reconstruction of historical and cultural monuments in Kyrgyzstan's part of the Great Silk Road. Due to a number of objective and subjective causes all monuments of ancient and medieval ages of Kyrgyzstan demonstrate that the abundant historical and cultural heritage has either not been preserved or has been partially or fully renovated thus resulting in its changed appearance. The authors have tried to carry out a 3D reconstruction of Koshoy-Korgon settlement on the basis of former practices aimed at reconstruction of fortification complexes, ancient settlements and historical landscapes. This settlement dates back to the 10th-12th centuries and was the nomadic and administrative center of the At-Bash Valley in the Karakhanid State. The process of Koshoy-Korgon virtual reconstruction was accomplished by stages on the basis of historical and archaeological studies with the help of  such programs as ArchiCAD, Photoshop CS3, Unity3D, Autodesk 3D Max, 3DWorldStudio. 3D virtual reconstruction of disappeared monuments of Northern Kyrgyzstan traditionally considered a region of nomadic cultures  will allow us to take a fresh look at architectural features of monuments along the Great Silk Road and scrutinize social, economical, cultural and political aspects of historical objects. 3D  reconstruction based on comparative analysis will provide for drawing parallels to find out the interpenetration of architectural styles of states along the Great Silk Road in Central Asia.
Kartashova M. - Localization of Home Crafts in the Russian Empire in the Late 19th Early 20th Centuries (Spatial and Statistical Analysis) pp. 63-85


Abstract: The article studies home crafts of the Russian Empire. The territorial framework covers the Russian Empire as a whole including the central guberniyas, Asian Russia, the Caucasus, the Kingdom of Poland and Finland. The study was carried out on the territorial basis. The author analyzes statistics and reveals the home craft distribution level throughout gubernyas and oblasts using localization indices. At the second stage of the study home crafts are analyzed according to groups and types. Guberniyas and centers with prevailing home crafts are identified. The author employs interdisciplinary approach, localization indices, MS Excel statistical, spatial and statistical analysis in the MapInfo geoinformation system. It is the first time in history when home craft localization indices are used within the frames of the whole empire and indices are compared in relation to home craft population and factory workers. The data obtained allowed the author to identify 4 groups of guberniyas. The first group (Kamchatskaya Oblast) totally lacked home crafts. The second group covers 35 regions with the low home craft level scattered throughout the empire. The third group with the medium level of home craft localization includes 21 regions that are also scattered. The fourth group counts 9 guberniyas located in the northern and the central industrial parts of the empire, Tobolskaya Guberniya and Semipalatinskaya Oblast. More than half of the 32 guberniyas and oblasts understudy had low indices of the factory industry localization thus casting doubts on wide-spread conclusions about the decline of home crafts throughout the empire before the First World War. 
Vladimirov V., Krupochkin E.P., Sarafanov D.E. - A Subject-Oriented Historical GIS (the Example of Barnaul Infrastructure in the Late 18th Early 20th Centuries) pp. 66-80


Abstract: The article studies the infrastructure of Barnaul city in the second half of the 18th - early 20th centuries. The study aims at acquiring new systematic knowledge about the way the infrastructure of West Siberian cities developed, the influence of infrastructural objects on city ecology, the correlation of demographical and ecological factors influencing the city development and urban population reproduction. The study rests on an extensive source database including written, cartographic and photo documents stored mainly in the state archives of Altai Krai and Tomskaya Oblast as well as a number of published sources. The methodological basis of the work is the systemic and interdisciplinary approaches, the general scientific as well as traditional historical research methods. Geoinformation analysis based on the subject-oriented historical geoinformation system created is used as the main way to obtain new information. The article analyzes spatial aspects of the city infrastructure and ecological factors of its development and demonstrates changes in the disposition of infrastructural objects in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. The article concludes that the negative impact of ecologically unfriendly city objects was exerted mainly through aggravating sanitary environment and ecosystems.
Trishin I. - Creation of Software on the Basis of Unity 3D Game Engine to Reconstruct Facades of the Saint George Cathedral in Yuriev-Polskiy (Vladimirskaya Oblast) pp. 68-74


Abstract: The study aims at 3D reconstruction of the Saint George Cathedral facades (Yuriev-Polskiy) on the basis of white-stone décor by means of special software creation. The article discusses the creation of such a program which provides for reconstructing minute objects when merging their full-size models. The program is sure to be of interest both to scholars reconstructing cultural heritage monuments and readers who are interested in innovations in this field of history. The main methods are photogrammetry (digitization of stone reliefs) and programming of Unity 3D work C# environment. The author’s main contribution to this study is the creation of his own software designed for a user with minimum PC skills. As far as there are no specialized programs to reconstruct objects, the author hopes to help those who study the Saint George Cathedral and stimulate further ideas of software development in the sphere of historical and architectural studies. The result of this study is the program that is now being modified and tested.
Grishin E. - Spatiotemporal Technologies and Technique in Special Historical GIS-projects pp. 74-84


Abstract: The article studies a technique and technologies of dynamic historical GIS-projects development and the employment of spatiotemporal analysis to study historical processes. The study covers geoinformation systems, the use of cartographical method in history, electronic cartography, historical process modeling. The author pays special attention to a heuristic work with a historical GIS-map as well as regularities by searching for synchronized and consecutive alterations of attributive and metric data of map objects. The main method employed is a comparative one. The comparison is drawn between historical and mathematical GIS-projects. Historical geoinformation systems at hand have also been compared to analyze and search for more preferable variants. The research novelty is an attempt to set up basic principles of spatiotemporal analysis when working with historical GIS-projects. The author presents his own variant of a dynamic geoinformation system allowing for historical process modeling. The article concludes that historical geoinformation systems are a particular class of GIS-format projects demanding specific methodical and technological approach as well as development of specific functions for spatiotemporal analysis..
Frolov A., Golubinskii A., Kutakov S. - Web-GIS Drawings of the Russian State of the 16-17th Centuries (http://rgada.info/geos2/) pp. 75-84


Abstract: The study aims at a web-GIS that has been publicly-accessible since the early 2017.The article describes the sources used, the algorithm of their processing, the software, the structure of GIS-project attribute table, the ways to geocode digital copies of drawings as well as the methods of closer linking of drawing’s image to a location. Web-interface is characterized as well. It lets a user work with the resource through any browser with the help of scaling and navigation tools, text search, reading of selected object attributes, variation of raster transparence and choice of cartographic underlay. The article also describes the possibilities to address the initial attribute table and its lookup and view undeformed (not geocoded) large-scale drawing image (including the possibility to scale, move and rotate an object). In spite of different techniques of drawings execution as well as their different purpose and origin, the drawings studied are rather good at describing historic reality. This provides for considering a set of drawings as a document complex that can undergo general procedures of online publishing. The technologies used are mainly based on the employment of “open” software (from creation of desktop version of GIS-project to spatial libraries used to visualize web-versions). Optimization of web-GIS work mainly relates to minimization of traffic between a server and a client. To do this the work is organized so that downloading of all raster and most of vector objects starts only after the client’s computer sends a user query for a definite object to the server. The main result of the study is a free Internet access to the complex of Russian drawings of the 16th-17th centuries. The number of cartographic drawings totals 1000 and most of them have good images. 49 drawings have been found that had been left out by V.S. Kusov’s catalogue. Over 700 drawings have been linked to a locality and 140 have not been localized yet. An original method to localize a territory shown on the drawing on the map has been developed.
Borodkin L., Mironenko M., Chertopolokhov V., Belousova M., Khlopikov V. - Virtual and Augmented Reality Technologies (VR/AR) to Reconstruct Historical City Building System (the Example of Moscow Strastnoy Convent pp. 76-88


Abstract: The article puts forward a new approach to the development of virtual reconstruction of historical and cultural heritage objects that is based on the advanced 3D modeling technologies and addresses the issues of historical urban science. Along with sociocultural significance and architectural importance of the lost cultural heritage objects (convent complex in this case) for virtual reconstruction tasks, an important criterion for their selection is the preservation rate of the source base. The article focuses on the use of virtual and augmented reality technologies in historical reconstruction tasks. As an additional opportunity to “plunge” into the historical past, the authors propose the creation of historical panoramas to use them in pads or smartphones. The article also studies the technology associated with the use of VR HMD. 3D modeling, digital sculpting, photogrammetry of monuments, layer projection technologies form an important part of methods used in this work. The article is the first in Russian historiography to address the practical use of virtual and augmented reality technologies to reconstruct the lost objects of the historical building system (by the example of Strastnoy Convent). The authors test the software module that validates / verifies the results of virtual reconstruction as well as enhances representation and visualization opportunities of these results. The authors simulate the augmented reality within the virtual reality and thus overcome limitations of AR. 
Lemak S., Chertopolokhov V., Kruchinina A., Belousova M., Borodkin L., Mironenko M. - Optimization of Interface Elements Order in Virtual Reality (Virtual Reconstruction of Bely Gorod Historical Relief) pp. 81-93


Abstract: The article sets a problem focusing on how to optimize the order of 3D user interface for virtual reconstruction of Moscow historical center landscape in the 16th-18th centuries. To work with the interface a virtual reality headset, a motion tracking system and an eye-tracker were integrated. Spatial representation of the historical reconstruction is accompanied by a specialized interface that allows one to access the source database. The authors introduce a criterion that provides for estimating the optimum order of interface elements in the virtual space. The problem is handled in case there are unknown factors such as the size of user's hands, deviations in the position of an interactive object and restrictions related to the disposition of interface elements. The article sets the general problem and solves some internal problems related to the construction of acceptable multiple dispositions of interface elements and the modeling of eyesight movement from one interface element to another. The article is the first to suggest an algorithm to numerically optimize the interface in 3D virtual space modeling the relief and historical buildings in the center of Moscow. It provides for user’s movement and gives access to historical sources which are the basis for virtual reconstruction of the heritage understudy.
Chibisov M.E., Vladimirov V.N., Krupochkin E.P. - Development of Historical GIS to Study the Clergy and Parishes of Altai (Gornyi) Okrug in the Late 18th Century Early 20th Century. pp. 85-95


Abstract: The article studies the issue of historical GIS development and offers methodical approaches and technological solutions realized by means of MapInfo and ArcGIS geoinformation systems. The key problem studied is the development of GIS-project “The Clergy of Altai Gornyi Okrug in the Late 18th c. – Early 20th c.” Special emphasis is laid on issues related to the development of a unified mathematical and cartographic basis for the GIS. A technological scheme have been developed and tested that includes operations with raster data and a group of operations with a set of vector data (GIS-layers). An important tool of the project is an opportunity to analyze GIS-statistical data on parishes and other territorial units by means of interactive maps creation. This basis provided for mapping parish population structure, settlement occurrence, church objects distribution, etc. The data sets gained as a result of the procedures employed allow for covering any attributive information and any spatial data irrespective of time. This provides for retrospective GIS-modeling and studying cause-and-effect relationship both in time and space.
Ivakin Y.A., Potapychev S.N. - Development of Geochronological Tracking Information Technology for GIS-Based Historical Studies pp. 85-94


Abstract: The article addresses logical and functional features of an applied geochronological tracking information technology. From the viewpoint of its applied aspect, this information technology is scientific methodological and program tools to automatize certain historical issues related to biographical and geographical data merge on the basis of geoinformation systems and corresponding geoinformation technologies. It is an example of a specific information technology developed to help historians employing geographical interpretation of their subject domain when solving research problems. The methodology bases on the object-oriented approach to modeling within GIS domains and ontologies widely used in modern programming and complex software systems development. The novelty of the solution proposed is the principles of biographical and geographical data integration for humanities. The article studies qualitatively new opportunities provided by such a GIS tool as software application of geochronological tracking which it acquires in the process of its development.
Ivakin Y.A., Potapychev S.N., Ivakin V.Y. - Testing of Historical Hypotheses on the Basis of Geochronological Tracking pp. 86-93


Abstract: Information technology of geochronological tracking is a total of processes that accumulate and integrate data on geographic relocation of historical figures for a given time interval and represent the results as a generalizing graph in GIS. Hypotheses about stable migration trends are represented as subgraphs of the graph. To test such hypotheses is to search and evaluate statistical significance of relevant graph isomorphism. The article describes these qualitatively new opportunities provided by such an approach as well as relevant mathematical and algorithmic tools. Methodology of the study grounds on graph theory, probability theory, mathematical statistics and statistical accuracy and stability evaluation methods.Information technologies of geochronological tracking form the methodological and program apparatus for automation of selected class of historical tasks, connected to fusion of biographical and geographic data based on GIS. The novelty of the study is a new class of methodical tools for historical studies addressing geospatial social and political processes on the basis of geoinformation systems and relevant technologies. The main theoretical conclusion is the applicability of mathematical tools of confidence figure evaluation when making a decision in historical studies on the basis of geochronological tracking net structures.  
Zhurbin I.V. - Complex Studies of Archeological Sites and Geoinformation Analysis of Interdisciplinary Data pp. 89-105


Abstract: Modern approach to the study and preservation of archaeological sites is based on the complex application of natural-science and archaeological methods. The development of archeological site study algorithm (aerial photography, geophysics, soil examinations, etc.) is a topical research trend. An effective tool to compare different data is a geographic information system which contains not only traditional cartographical and thematic layers, but also transformed maps (which result from the application of operators to initial maps) and interpretation layers (which result from the comparative analysis of the transformed maps). The article addresses the Kushmanskoe settlement dated 9th-13th centuries AD. It was one of medieval Finno-Ugrian settlements in the basin of Cheptsa river (the northern part of the Udmurt Republic). To interpret the interdisciplinary data complex the author offers informative markers to estimate the preservation state of the cultural layer and decision rules to recognize the areas with characteristic properties. As a result, the author has determined the boarders of the settlement parts with different preservation state of the cultural layer: that with transformed surface and a substituted one. He has also found a part of “household periphery” Uchkakara – a boarder of the cultural heritage object. The analysis of mutual alignment of geophysical anomalies related to local underground objects let the author reconstruct proper layout of the settlement.
Borodkin L.I. - Virtual Reconstruction of Historical Urban Landscape of Bely Gorod pp. 90-96


Abstract: The article addresses methodological and methodic issues concerning the study of historical urban landscape. The methodological basis of the work is a concept suggested by UNESCO. It is a developing field of contemporary historical urban science. Its methodic and technological basis is digital technologies, primarily 3D-modelling and 3D GIS. The article describes foreign and Russian studies reconstructing historical landscapes with the help of modern technologies. The research subject is a virtual reconstruction of Bely Gorod’s landscape in the 15th-18th centuries – a historical site in Moscow’s center. The author describes the interdisciplinary research project, its source base including different sources as well as technologies of their analysis and synthesis. The sources and methods used provide for the first virtual reconstruction of the landscape and the main objects of Bely Gorod which 3D models are “introduced” into the historical landscape being reconstructed throughout its three centuries of evolution. Additionally, laser scanning and digital aerial survey technologies providing for building 3D models of objects at their later time slices are used in the study.
Entin A. - Application of Geoinformational Technologies to Reconstruct and Analyze Historical Relief Surfaces pp. 97-107


Abstract: The article discusses an application of geographic information systems (GIS) to virtually reconstruct the historical landscape. The reconstruction of historical land surfaces is a necessary part of this big challenge. To solve this problem one has to use different and heterogeneous spatial data, interpolate heights on the basis of different geometries. Within the frames of geographic information analysis and mapping, algorithms and methods have been developed for creating digital elevation models (DEM) - digital representations of height fields which are considered to be relatively continuous (within a certain predetermined area). The paper considers the algorithms used to interpolate heights and create DEMs, the possibilities of two-dimensional and three-dimensional visualization as well as the solution of graphical and analytical problems. The author also considers the issue of comparing various sources of spatial information (archaeological and geological surveys) using GIS technologies and takes the case of the part of Bely Gorod ("White City") of Moscow (16th-18th centuries) as an example. He has demonstrated that the area understudy is characterized by a systematic difference in the surface heights of the natural ground as evaluated from these different sources. This factor, nevertheless, does not exclude the possibility of their joint use.
Grishin E. - Henry IVs Spatial Mobility in 1063-1073 as the Factographic Basis for Information Dissemination in Medieval Germany pp. 106-122


Abstract: The article studies spatial mobility and information dissemination within the medieval space. The research object is the factors of information conductivity such as geographical activity of the population and individuals as well as general spatial characteristics such as topographic conditions, population density and communication routes. The author pays special attention to the geographical outlook of the authors of narrative sources and their ability to remotely monitor Henry IV’s movements. Particular attention is paid to the influence of geographical imperatives that determine the content of sources. The author explains the distortion of localizations and inconsistencies of dates. The research method is the predominant application of the cartographic method followed by the space-time analysis. The research data were presented as a chronologically oriented geoinformation system. The research novelty is the topics raised. These are the information dissemination in a specific historical context and its influence on various aspects of historical processes. The author also stresses the importance of regular spatial activity of the population for studying historical geography of the region and potential and productivity of the information dissemination from the viewpoint of narrative sources analysis. From the viewpoint of methodology, the research significance is to demonstrate the capabilities of the complex geoinformation project for solving multiple problems. 
Malyshev A.A., Dryga D.O., Mochalov A.V., Moor V.V. - Digital Technologies to Reconstruct Anthropogenic Landscapes of Ancient Sindika pp. 108-121


Abstract: The article describes the results of the complex archeological studies in the northern part of historical Sindika which aimed at collecting and analyzing data on the elements of the ancient anthropogenic landscape in the region. The most importantsettlement in Sindika and Bosporan State was Semibratnee Gorodishche which developed and blossomed due to the proximity to navigable Kuban' River. Two kilometers away from the gorodishche there are Bol'shie Semibratskie Burial Mounds. To search for anthropogenic relief elements photogrammetry has been used. Site aerial photography provided for the necessary information about the relief. To get more precise and better data the authors carried out high-precision geodetic ties with the help of GPS receivers which provide for getting data on the plan and height location of objects with accuracy to centimeters. Digital aerial photography allows one to capture the modern landscape which changes in the region understudy are very rapid in the last decade. The effectiveness and the speed of archaeological research increases thanks to aerial photography. One can examine bigger objects within a short time period. At the same time, photogrammetry data processing provides for the demanded precision of work while the spatial super resolution attracts the researcher's attention to objects unseen during land surveys. Collection and visualization of data in GIS provide big opportunities to structure materials. Digital environment makes it possible to tie different and time heterogeneous sources thus often allowing a researcher to locate an object and its digital reconstruction within a lost historic anthropogenic landscape.
Shchekotilov V.G., Shalaeva M.V., Shchekotilova S.N. - Geographic Information Systems and Databases in Search of a Duty Area and a Death Place of the Missed in Action pp. 123-145


Abstract: The article studies the use of GIS and DB to analyze text and cartographic materials of the information systems “Memory of the People” and “Memorial” and non-digitized materials of the Defense Ministry’s Central Archive to identify soldiers accounting for inexact data and data about those missed in action (after being wounded). The key element of the studies is the adjustment of the Great Patriotic War archival maps of the portal “Memory of the People” and a resource of the American Association of Historians “Gutenberg” to functionally use them in GIS and geoportal. The research methodology is the following techniques: step by step studies starting from a supposition through data search to a hypothesis, its test with the help of specialists and individual search for supporting documents with the aim to further perpetuate the memory of the fallen. The scientific component is the creation of database complexes covering the Great Patriotic War maps and those of the prewar periods as well as geocoded data, the formation of the regiments’ configuration, the cross-matching of data of reports on those lost, documents specifying the losses, memory books, financial statements, etc. The research novelty is the complex use of data of the Great Patriotic War maps, both old and modern ones, as well as data of the database “Memory of the People” and “Memorial” and other documents stored in the Defense Ministry’s Central Archive with the application of GIS, DB and authors’ software for cross-matching. The main conclusion is the efficiency of GIS and DB in search of data of those wounded soldiers who are considered missed in action.
Vladimirov V., Frolov A. - All-Russian Scientific Workshop Geoinformation Systems in Historical Research: Integration Approaches pp. 128-132


Abstract: The article discusses a scientific workshop held in January 2018 at the history department of Lomonosov Moscow State University called “Geographic Information Systems in Historical Research: Integration Approaches”. The workshop discussed the achievements and problems of GIS usage in historical research. The central issue was the problem about the creation of historical spatial data repository as well as the way to integrate geodata collected by various research teams and individual researchers working in the field of historical geo-information systems. The authors analyze the viewpoints presented in the main reports and their argumentation and briefly describe the main reports during the round table. The problem of creating a historical geodata repository is new to the national historical science. It has not been completely solved by foreign researchers either. The professional community has recommended to further develop both domains of this problem field discussed at the workshop - accumulation of geodata and aggregation of metadata..
Grishin E. - A Fund of Historical and Cartographic Materials as a Means to Unify Historical GIS and Digital Cartography pp. 133-142


Abstract: The article studies the development of a technique of historical digital cartography and geographic information systems. The article substantiates the proposals for the creation and operation of a collection of historical cartographic materials and names forms of historical spatial data interaction and the possibility of their implementation. Of particular importance is the institutionalization of historical cartography which can solve problems of methodological support of spatially oriented research and achieve unification of historical geodata. The article also speaks about issues of the preparation of topographic bases for the construction of historical maps and cartographic support of historical research and enumerates the main requirements for historical and cartographic materials. The research method is based on a retrospective review of the development of historical cartography. A comparative method is widely used to compare the achievements of general mapping and geoinformatics with corresponding disciplines in the historical segment. The main conclusion of the article is the need to form an institutional core of historical cartography that could take on the functions of solving methodical problems and creating reference mapping solutions for historical research. The article is the first to formulate the main types of interaction of historical and cartographic materials. The basic requirements for the presentation of historical digital maps and the basic content of geographic information projects are defined.
Frolov A. - On the Way to the National Historical GIS of Russia: Two Approaches to Integrate Research Geodata pp. 143-151


Abstract: The article discusses two approaches to integrate historical geodata that have been created by various research teams and individual scholars with different goals and in different ways within the context of the general movement of historians’ community using geo-information technologies to the national historical GIS. The author believes that creation of a special fund accumulating geodata of different owners is not a good solution. Much more effective solution is metadata aggregation. The main difference between these two approaches is an answer to the question whether it is necessary to alienate geodata from their owners in order to provide access to interested users? The answer to this question determines the feedback between a user and the contents of a database. The organization of such interaction is of fundamental importance for the professional community of researchers. Some technical solutions recommended for organizing user access to geodata by means of aggregation are described in the article in more detail. The main conclusion is the relevant integration of various historical geodata by aggregating their metadata in a certain internet resource which must make some technical demands on data providers, be a mediator between a user and a database and delegate a user geodata access rights established by a geodata owner.
Ivakin Y.A., Potapychev S.N., Ivakin V.Y. - Rational Algorithm to Test Spatial Historical Research Hypotheses on the Basis of GIS Geochronological Tracking pp. 147-158


Abstract: Information technology of geochronological tracking in history is a combination of processes which accumulate and integrate data about geographic relocation of historical figures for a given time interval and present the results as a generalizing graph in GIS. Hypotheses on stable migration trends are sub-graphs of this graph. To test such trends is to search and evaluate statistical significance of isomorphism (structural similarity) of corresponding graphs. Rationalization of algorithm is achieved by means of a reasonably chosen basic method searching for isomorphic embedding into geochronotrack graph basis. The basic methodological approach is a combination of representative and analytical methods of modern geoinformatics and graph theory. Full-featured development of computer interpretation of graph theory methods based on geochronological tracking provides for new quality of historical studies using modern GIS-tools. Namely, a researcher can use quantitative methods of a corresponding logical-analytical apparatus. The article addresses qualitatively new possibilities of such an approach and a corresponding algorithmic apparatus..
Shchekotilov V.G., Lazarev O.E., Lazareva O.S., Shchekotilova S.N. - Repository of Archival Maps and Geocoded Data: Goal-Setting, Audience, Structure and Functionality pp. 152-159


Abstract: The article addresses the formation of a repository of databases and computer programs in the field of archive cartographic materials of historical maps and geocoded data regarding goal-setting, audience, structure and functionality. The authors suggest that the object of storage be practical results of scientific research provided by authors, in particular those supported by grants. Databases of raster and vector electronic maps based on archival and historical maps, geocoded data, Internet navigators, websites can be repository objects. When forming the basic variant of a repository it is offered to use technologies of geographic information systems, databases and the Internet.  The research novelty is the offers to form the steady environment for accumulation, preservation and effective automated functional use of practical results of researches in the form of databases based on raster and vector electronic maps, geocoded data, information models of space-time objects and also computer programs in the form of Internet navigators, geoportals, programs for database inquiries.
Zherebyatyev D.I., Malandina T.V. - Virtual Reconstruction of the Interior of Nicholass I Small (Bottom) Study in the Winter Palace in 1850-1855 pp. 159-200


Abstract: Modern epoch of information and computer technologies provide new opportunities for solving the problem of cultural heritage preservation. Virtual reconstruction of historical interior is a task different from 3D reconstruction of monasteries, palace and park ensembles or historical urban buildings. Studies of great historical characters are conspicuous of their way of life, personal traits, activity and those internal changes which a person sooner or later transfers to everything around including the surroundings. The article thoroughly discusses a technique of virtual reconstruction of the interior of Nicholas’s I "Bottom" Study in the Winter Palace in 1850-1855 with the help of augmented reality and panoramic video technologies. The topic of historical interior virtual reconstruction often arises in the context of museum studies and is currently underdeveloped. However, the personal side of interiors is no less important for history than external architectural reconstruction.  
Vladimirov V., Krupochkin E.P. - About the Necessity to Establish and Develop a Fund of Spatial Historical Data pp. 160-168


Abstract: The article addresses the creation and development of a spatial historical data fund. Nowadays we can talk about the readiness of the community of historical geoinformatics specialists to cooperate in the field of data storage and use. The article discusses similar studies both in domestic and foreign historiography. The authors propose a way to create a system for managing spatial historical data, consider some problems arising herewith and make suggestions about possible solutions. The main message of the article is that the amount of studies based on geo-information technologies has clearly begun to outnumber the quality. The article uses descriptive and historiographic methods. The main conclusion is the creation of a historical geoportal which, together with a historical spatial data fund, can be integrated into the national spatial data infrastructure. It seems that the idea to develop a historical geoportal should ground on both the convenience of fund navigation and the ability to perform analytical operations.
Other our sites:
Official Website of NOTA BENE / Aurora Group s.r.o.
"History Illustrated" Website