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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Space Research" > Rubric "Space Economics and Business"
Space Economics and Business
Payson D.B. - The phenomenon of the SpaceX as a challenge to the international space market pp. 36-50


Abstract: This article is devoted to the research of the latest changes taking place on the international space market, as well as the new challenges emerging before its major players, including U. S. and Russia. The main attention is given to the analysis of the peculiarities of the strategy and work of one of the most unusual “players” in the modern space economy – a private American corporation SpaceX, which not only sort of challenged the current tradition in this area, but also actively influences the process of its institutional renovation. This work assesses the influence of the “SpaceX phenomenon” upon the institutional environment of the space economy on the national (United States) and global scale, upon trends of development of the global space activity, and national space “agenda”. Although the examined phenomenon is an endemic product of American system and the experience of SpaceX is unlikely to be transferred in an unchanged form into other national jurisdictions, the work of the corporation is objectively becoming the drive of development of the space market as a whole. The new U. S. model of relations between the state and the private sector in the space sphere is currently significantly ahead of any analogues of the Old World, and thus, this experience requires meticulous studying for the purpose of transferring valuable results.
Keywords: SpaceX, Elon Musk, Commercial Launches, NASA, USA, Space Policy, Space Market, Space Economics, Public-private partnership, Strategic Planning
Payson D.B., Popova S.M. - Innovative development of the rocket and space industry in Russia: challenges and potentialities pp. 36-45


Abstract: The research subject is the peculiarities of innovative development of the rocket and space industry in the Russian Federation. Based on the complex analysis of external and internal challenges and the institutional and legal context of this sector reforming, the authors detect the obstacles to quantitative changes in the development of one of the key sectors of Russia’s economics. The study shows that in the context of the new challenges, the improvement of adaptive capacities of the rocket and space industry of Russia and its capacity for internal changes and transparency is of a prime importance. To accomplish the research tasks, the authors apply the system, structural-functional, comparative-historical, comparative-legal, formal-logical and other research methods. The authors conclude that in terms of the peculiarities of the goals and tasks of the “Roscosmos” company, it is becoming a unique institution, according to its scale and complexity, working in the sphere of development of a specific sector of Russia’s economics, though its institutional status and the related functions haven’t been formally legalized in the federal legislation. The authors note that the successful modernization of the rocket and space industry determines the possibility for Russia to remain the leader in the field of space exploration.  
Keywords: Meso-economic analysis, Public-private partnership, Open innovation, Innovative development program, Development institution, Rocket and space industry, Roscosmos, Research and Development, Innovation cluster, Technology platform
Yanik A.A. - Peculiarities of commercialization of the results of private research and development for NASA: the experience of the Small Business Innovation Research Program


Abstract: The research subject is the analysis of the specificity of NASA’s interrelation with small and medium businesses in the sphere of scientific research and development. The research is based on the results of NASA’s public-private partnership programs in the sphere of space activities, primarily the long-term Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Special attention is given to the methods used for the evaluation of the progress of commercialization of the results of small businesses’ R&D for the aerospace agency. To solve the research tasks, the author uses general scientific research methods – formal-logical, comparative, transition from concrete to abstract, analysis, synthesis and others. Based on the results of the regular effectiveness audit of the SBIR program, conducted by national academies of sciences of the USA, the author concludes that the development of NASA’s management systems, including the level of its adaptability, ability to transform, and transparency, is a necessary condition, but it is not enough for the improvement of the research intensity of the related economic sector. The author concludes that within NASA’s area of responsibility, including its key state partners, general contractors, the academic community and other participants of scientific and innovation activities, the models of evaluation of the level of commercialization in terms of common economic activities (for example, the volume of sales or gross proceeds) have limited applicability. The main criteria are the broadening of the total volume of technological knowledge in space and missile sector, and the potential commercial value of R&D results, even if they haven’t entered the market yet. Another criterion is the development level of the information infrastructure of the sector, which is also the key instrument of functioning of the modern system of space activities. 
Keywords: Research and Development, Innovation, Space Policy, Science Policy, Small Business, economics of space activities, Public-Private Partnership, Space Activity, Commercialization, NASA
Uvarov V.B. -


Keywords: International Space Station, ISS, Space Economy, Space Activity, Commercialization, US Orbital Segment, Russian Orbital Segment, US National Laboratory, NASA, Kibo
Yilmaz S. - Space and Turkey


Abstract: Around the world, increasing numbers of developing countries are investing in space-related technologies, seeking partners for space projects, and even constructing launch facilities. Those countries must overcome many hurdles to benefit the space independently for their own security and to make significant contributions to peaceful activities, even if they use the advantage of turning up late in space studies. To see the concern between science and technology and space science and its technology within a country, it is sufficient to take a look at Research and Development investments supported by realistic policies. Incipient countries must consider the importance of international cooperation to share the risk and cost and to create synergy, rather than following and copying the initiators in discovery of space, they should be able to develop new technologies and creative solutions with increasing international actors and projects, and be prepared for future with flexible and sensational plans. Turkey took important steps within the last 20 years but these efforts could not attain desired results yet. Turkey gained a position as satellite and satellite sub-system developing country in the world classification of active countries with initiated space projects. Besides not having sufficient space industry within the country, most important obstacle towards Turkey is undeveloped social consciousness in this field.
Keywords: Turkey, Turkish Space Agency, Space Studies, Space Systems, Satellites, Space Industry, Space Security, Military Space, Space Policy, Research and Development
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