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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Space Research" > Contents of Issue № 03/2017
Contents of Issue № 03/2017
Astrophysics
Serga E.V. - On the perfect vacuum theory: transmission of electromagnetic and gravitational waves

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2017.3.24579

Abstract: The research subject is the space (perfect) vacuum as a material medium. The research task is search for the grounds to the development of a consistent scientific explanation of the set of observed vacuum effects in microphysics and macrophysics – a unified vacuum theory. The presented vacuum theory is the continuation of the views of vacuum as a material medium formed in the works by I. Newton, M. Faraday, J.C. Maxwell and H.R. Hertz with account for the recent scientific research. The key premises of the study are the ideas about the symmetry of gravitational interactions as a physical reality and about the unity of the vacuum theory in microphysics and cosmophysics. To solve the research tasks, the author uses general scientific methods and methodologies (generalization, analysis, synthesis), the methods of formal logic, hypothetico-deductive method and modeling. Special attention is given to the explanation of the mechanism of transmission of electromagnetic and gravitational waves in vacuum. To develop the theoretical model of vacuum and explain its application using these processes, the author accepts the effect of occurrence of “particle-antiparticle” pairs in vacuum as a root idea. Theoretically determined spectra of electromagnetic waves in various diapasons conform with the observed values. The author formulates the new theoretical definition of possible gravitation speed which, according to the calculations, is about 1018 speed of light. 
Keywords: Vacuum effect, Quantum fluid, Anti-gravity, Speed of gravity, Gravitational wave, Electromagnetic wave, Aether theories, Physical vacuum, Vacuum pair, Compton wavelength
Life Sciences in Space
Wheeler R. - Agriculture for Space: People and Countries Paving the Way

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2017.3.24840

Abstract: Agricultural systems for space have been discussed since the works of Tsiolkovsky in the early 20th century. Central to the concept is the use of photosynthetic organisms and light to generate oxygen and food. Research in the area started in 1950s and 60s through the works of Jack Myers and others, who studied algae for O2 production and CO2 removal for the US Air Force and NASA. Studies on algal production and controlled environment agriculture were also carried out by Russian researchers in Krasnoyarsk, beginning in 1960s. NASA initiated its CELSS Program ca. 1980 with testing focused on controlled environment production of some plants. Related tests with humans and crops were conducted at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in the 1990s. The European Space Agency MELiSSA Project began in the late 1980s and pursued ecological approaches for providing gas, water and materials recycling for space life support, and later expanded to include plant testing.As a result of these and other (Japan, Canada, China) studies for space agriculture novel technologies and findings have been produced. The theme of agriculture for space has contributed to, and benefited from terrestrial, controlled environment agriculture and will continue doing so into the future.
Keywords: Waste recycling, Algal production, Controlled Environment Agriculture, Photosynthesis, Advanced Life-Support, Vertical Farming, Bioregenerative, Space crops, Agriculture for Space, Space
Science, Engineering and Design of Spaceflight
Yin Z., Qiang Z. - The Capturing of Space Debris with a Spaceborne Multi-fingered Gripper

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2017.3.24667

Abstract: With the massive launching of spacecraft, more and more space debris are making the low Earth orbit (LEO) much more crowded which seriously affects the normal flight of other spacecrafts. Space debris removal has become a very urgent issue concerned by numerous countries. In this paper, using SwissCube as a target, the capturing of space debris with a spaceborne four-fingered gripper was studied in order to obtain the key factors that affect the capturing effect. The contact state between the gripper fingers and SwissCube was described using a defined contact matrix. The law of momentum conservation was used to model the motion variations of the gripper and SwissCube before and after the capturing process. A zero-gravity simulation environment was built using ADAMS software. Two typical kinds of capturing processes were simulated considering different stiffness of fingers and different friction conditions between fingers and SwissCube. Comparisons between results obtained with the law of momentum conservation and those from ADAMS simulation show that the theoretical calculations and simulation results are consistent. In addition, through analyzing the capturing process, a valuable finding was obtained that the contact friction and finger flexibility are two very important factors that affect the capturing result.
Keywords: Robotics, Design and Development, Contact Friction, Flexibility, Capturing process, Multi-fingered Gripper, Space Debris, Virtual Prototype Development, Low Earth orbit, SwissCube
Space Policy
Yanik A.A. - Space programs and the problems of estimating societal impact of the Big Science projects

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2017.3.24860

Abstract: The research subject is the activities of innovatively developed countries in the development of theoretical models, metrics and mechanisms helping to estimate societal impact of large-scale research projects (Big Science) as, consequently, manage the current and long-term impact of the development of science and innovations on socio-economic progress. Special attention is given to the need to estimate societal impact of expensive space programs. The purpose of the research is to determine the experience that could be used in Russia and to elaborate recommendations for its using. To solve the research tasks, the author uses general theoretical and empirical methods and interdisciplinary approaches. Though the positive impact of the Big Science projects on social development seems obvious, the newest scientific works don’t provide any evidence based proofs of this thesis. In the context of increased public attention to the quality of national resources management, it becomes extremely important to develop scientific instruments helping analyze the presence of interdependence between the increase of expenditures for large scale scientific projects and the growth of innovativeness of changes. In the Russian Federation, this sphere is at the initial stage of formation. It seems reasonable to activate such projects within the Scientific and Technological Development Strategy of the Russian Federation for 2017 – 2019. 
Keywords: Societal Value, Social impact, Societal impact, NASA, Large-scale research, Big Science project, Space Program, Space, Assessment Methods, Science Policy
Space Law
Lozhkovoi P.N. - International responsibility for remote sensing of the Earth: legal realia

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2017.3.24431

Abstract: Remote sensing principles, as well as the 1967 Treaty on Outer Space, require the state to be internationally responsible for space activities. The author analyzes the current international legal instruments regulating this sphere. The author supposes that the peculiarities of international space law in general are applicable to the responsibility for remote sensing. The responsibility covers both space activities and its consequences on the Earth. The author studies the issues of property responsibility of the subjects of international law and analyzes the practice of the bodies of international justice in this sphere. The research methodology includes the dialectical method of cognition. The author also uses general scientific methods, such as comparison and analysis. Besides, the author uses specific methods of jurisprudence (comparative-legal and technical-legal). The scientific novelty of the study consists in the fact that the author outlines the essential need to broadly interpret the provisions of international space law determining the nature of both international and civil responsibility for such space activities. The author emphasizes poor specification of the concept of damage caused by remote sensing of the Earth in the doctrine of international law. 
Keywords: international organizations, UN, space, space activities, international responsibility, The Treaty on Outer Space, remote sensing, international justice, space law, international law
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