Space Research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Space Research" > Contents of Issue 01/2017
Contents of Issue 01/2017
Astrophysics
Zhang L., Zhao R., Ma M. - Black hole entropy in the Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter model pp. 5-9

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2017.1.21538

Abstract: The paper studies the development of the macroscopic methods of high-energy physics analysis. The authors consider the evolution of black holes within the phenomenological approach, analogous to classical thermodynamics, in which the black hole area determines its entropy, and the surface gravitation, correspondingly, - the temperature, in the framework of the relativist cosmological model (de Sitter universe). The research subject is the ways of calculation of effective thermodynamic properties of black holes. To calculate a black hole entropy, the authors apply the event horizon and cosmological horizon interdependence hypothesis. To accomplish the research task, the authors apply the system and structural-functional approaches, the methods of cosmology, relativistic mechanics and Einstein’s geometric theory of gravitation, in particular, the exact solutions of the Einstein field equations with the cosmological constant for the Reissner- Nordström metric for the space-time description. The authors find the analytical solution for the calculation of the total entropy of a spherically symmetric charged black hole in the Reissner- Nordström model for de Sitter universe. The paper shows that the expression for entropy includes not only the sum of entropies of the event horizon and cosmological horizon of the black hole, but also the additional term, taking into account their entanglement. The obtained results of black hole thermodynamics extend the analogy with the first law of thermodynamics, thus broadening the applicability of the approach to the cosmological studies. 
Keywords: Black holes Physics, ReissnerNordström metric, de Sitter space, General relativity theory, Cosmology, Theoretical Physics, Event horizon, Cosmological horizon, Entropy, Surface gravity
Earth Science
Storm M., Stevenson G., Hovis F., Gavert W., Dang X., Darab A., Chuang T., Burns P. - Lidar and Laser technologies for NASAs Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS) basing on the International Space Station (JEM-EF)

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2017.1.21601

Abstract: The paper studies the methodological approaches and evaluates the possibility to use the technology of acquiring and processing information about the location, composition and distribution of aerosol clouds, water suspensions and other particles in Earth’s atmosphere using active optical instruments (lasers and photon counters). The research purpose is the analysis of the prospects of creation of the new generation of high technology measurement instruments using the external company services, including the space and land-based components, analogous to NASA’s lidar Cloud Aerosol Transport System, basing in the Exposed Facility of the Japanese Experimental Module of the International Space Station. To solve the research task, the authors apply the system and structural-functional approaches. The authors use the general methods of physics and engineering methods, particularly, the methods of astrometry, spectrophotometry, optoelectronics, laser technology and engineering design. The technology components and the space measurement complex, including two 25W multiwave solid-state impulse lasers and 32 avalanche multichannel photodetectors, had successfully worked for more than 300 hours in outer space during February 2016 and helped collect practical information about the characteristics of aerosols and some gases in Earth’s atmosphere. The authors demonstrate practical possibility to involve a small group of engineers of the private Fibertek, Inc. company for the fast and cost-competitive creation of the new generation of space lidars, including such high-technology operations as construction and design, creation of an operational product, its testing and deployment in space. 
Keywords: Lidar, Laser detection system, Atmosphere of Earth, Pollution, Cloud Aerosol Transport, International Space Station, NASA, Solid-state laser, Avalanche photodetector, Optical Engeneering
Science, Engineering and Design of Spaceflight
Gladkov I.A. - New technologies of aircrafts flight parameters measurement in a non-query mode

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2017.1.21576

Abstract: The author develops the theory elements and the methods of measurement data presentation and the definition of the flight parameters of launch and space vehicles. The research subject is the system of trajectory measurements, defining the flight parameters of aircrafts in a non-query mode during the rocket and space machinery units field testing. The parameters of a signal, received from the on-board transmitter, are functionally connected with the object’s flight parameters. This connection is expressed as the Doppler frequency shift and used for the measurement of orbits of spacecrafts and other flying objects. Besides, the received signal bears the information about the distance to the object, which can be calculated using the signal lag, proportional to the radio-wave transmission time. The purpose of the study is to define the conditions for the extension of a spacecraft state vector and the distance measurement in a non-query mode. To accomplish this task, the author applies the modernized morphological analysis as a basis for the generation of new ideas, the formation of the system of models and the search for patterns via the systematized generalization of knowledge on different levels, and the system and structural-functional approaches. The author uses the methods of linear algebra, mathematical modeling of stochastic processes and computer methods of measurement data processing. The author solves the practically important problem of increase of flight parameters defining accuracy via the non-query method using additional measurement functions. The analysis shows that the application of the state vector extension theory allows not only increasing the validity of the analysis of flight parameters of the tested aircrafts, but also reducing the number of test launches during the rocket and space units field testing. 
Keywords: Confusion matrix, Phase methods, Doppler systems, least squares method, Information-measuring system, Flight characteristics, Rocket and space machinery, Inverse matrix, Partial derivative matrix, Information processing
Space Policy
Pindják P. - Strengthening the EU's positions in space: on the adoption of the Space Security Concept

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2017.1.21602

Abstract: The recently unveiled EU Global Strategy on Foreign and Security Policy presents bold and ambitious plans in several increasingly important domains for Europe, including outer space. The EU has committed itself to securing an autonomous access to space, providing security for its space-based assets, and promoting the adoption of a voluntary code of conduct in space. With the evolving dynamics in astropolitics, space security has become an ever more important aspect of space activities. Clearly, the EU has a vested interest in space security, whereas space-enabled services form an important part of European economy and contribute to the effective implementation of its energy policy, migration, border control as well as domestic and international crisis management. Since the EU is currently in the process of drafting a European Space Strategy, it should seize the opportunity to take stock of its existing space programs and lay out a promising way forward. The research subject is the recommendations for the European Space Strategy projects based on the assessment of the existing space programs and the prospects of their modernization. The author applies the general logical methods and comparative analysis (comparative-legal and comparative-historical). The author also uses the methods of the general system theory, risk assessment and management, and prognostication of safety of space infrastructure objects. Besides reinforcing the existing Copernicus and Galileo programs and further developing the Governmental Satellite Communications (GOVSATCOM) project, the EU should make a significant investment in space security, particularly through boosting its Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) capabilities and actively working on the international fora to promote a responsible behavior in outer space that could be eventually transformed into a voluntary international code of conduct. Through a comprehensive space policy and by reinforcing its autonomy in outer space, the EU will not only strengthen its foreign and security policy, but also reconfirm its relevant role in global affairs.
Keywords: Space Surveillance, Copernicus, Governmental Satellite Communications, Galileo, Space Strategy, Space Security, Security Policy, Space Tracking, International code of conduct, European Union
Space Economics and Business
Payson D.B., Popova S.M. - Innovative development of the rocket and space industry in Russia: challenges and potentialities pp. 36-45

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2017.1.21536

Abstract: The research subject is the peculiarities of innovative development of the rocket and space industry in the Russian Federation. Based on the complex analysis of external and internal challenges and the institutional and legal context of this sector reforming, the authors detect the obstacles to quantitative changes in the development of one of the key sectors of Russia’s economics. The study shows that in the context of the new challenges, the improvement of adaptive capacities of the rocket and space industry of Russia and its capacity for internal changes and transparency is of a prime importance. To accomplish the research tasks, the authors apply the system, structural-functional, comparative-historical, comparative-legal, formal-logical and other research methods. The authors conclude that in terms of the peculiarities of the goals and tasks of the “Roscosmos” company, it is becoming a unique institution, according to its scale and complexity, working in the sphere of development of a specific sector of Russia’s economics, though its institutional status and the related functions haven’t been formally legalized in the federal legislation. The authors note that the successful modernization of the rocket and space industry determines the possibility for Russia to remain the leader in the field of space exploration.  
Keywords: Meso-economic analysis, Public-private partnership, Open innovation, Innovative development program, Development institution, Rocket and space industry, Roscosmos, Research and Development, Innovation cluster, Technology platform
Space Law
Popova S.M. - A new trend of space law: creation of favourable jurisdictions for space activities

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2017.1.21686

Abstract: The research object is national legislation, regulating space activities. The research subject is the changes, testifying the emergence of new trends in space law development. Based on the comparative analysis of statutory instruments of different countries, international organizations (particularly, the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs, etc.) and the positions of the world expert community, the author studies the fundamental approaches to the regulation of the regime of foreign companies, involved in space activities within national jurisdiction of other states. To accomplish the research tasks, the author applies the formal-logical, comparative (comparative-historical, comparative-legal) and other research methods. The author notes that the growth of the “space sector” of the economy objectively leads to the increase of the general level of innovative development of the country; it encourages other countries to attract foreign companies, involved in space activities, to their national jurisdiction. The author defines three ways to solve this problem; concludes about the emergence of a new trend in space law, aimed at the creation of “favourable jurisdictions” for space activities; describes the factors, influencing the formation of this trend, and the related challenges to the global space law system.  
Keywords: Russia, France, Luxembourg, Belgium, USA, Soft Law, Hard Law, Space Law, Turkmenistan, Ukraine
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