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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Space Research" > Contents of Issue 01/2016
Contents of Issue 01/2016
Life Sciences in Space
Ichijo T., Yamaguchi N., Tanigaki F., Shirakawa M., Nasu M. - Four-year bacterial monitoring in the International Space Station - Japanese Experiment Module Kibo with culture-independent approach pp. 1-14


Abstract: Studies on the relationships between humans and microbes in space habitation environments are critical for success in long-duration space missions, to reduce potential hazards to the crew and the spacecraft infrastructure. We performed microbial monitoring in the Japanese Experiment Module “Kibo”, a part of the International Space Station, for 4 years after its completion, and analyzed samples with modern molecular microbiological techniques. Sampling was performed in September 2009, February 2011, and October 2012. The surface of the incubator, inside the door of the incubator, an air intake, air diffuser, and handrail were selected as sampling sites. Sampling was performed using the optimized swabbing method. Abundance and phylogenetic affiliation of bacteria on the interior surfaces of Kibo were determined by quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing, respectively. Bacteria in the phyla Proteobacteria (γ-subclass) and Firmicutes were frequently detected on the interior surfaces in Kibo. Families Staphylococcaceae and Enterobacteriaceae were dominant. Most bacteria detected belonged to the human microbiota; thus, we suggest that the bacterial cells are transferred to the surfaces in Kibo from the astronauts. Environmental bacteria such as Legionella spp. were also detected. From the data on bacterial abundance and phylogenetic affiliation, Kibo has been microbiologically well maintained; however, the microbial community structure in Kibo may change with prolonged stay of astronauts. Continuous monitoring is required to obtain information on changes in the microbial community structure in Kibo.
Keywords: Swabbing method, Bacterial monitoring, Kibo, International Space Station, Space Studies, Environmental Sciences, Microbiology, Space habitat, Bacterial virulence, Long space missions
Science, Engineering and Design of Spaceflight
Gladkov I.A. - Error models in a hyperbolic system pp. 15-21


Abstract: The subject of this research is the complexes and means of navigational positioning, as well as multi-parameter phasometric systems of trajectory changes, which contain channels capable of safely measuring the angular coordinates and the rate of changes of the angular coordinates of moving objects. The downside to such systems is the fact that the lines of positioning on which the object is located are considered to be linear. Thus, the acceptable precision of the measurements of angular coordinates is preserved only when the distance to object is several times greater than the base of measurement. This article explores an important case, when the length of the measurement base is equal or even greater than the distance to the object. The research was conducted on the possibility of transitioning towards the hyperbolic system of trajectory changes (or a system of changes when the lines of positioning on which the moving object is located are hyperbolas). The achieved analytical dependencies of precision of determining the angular coordinates in arbitrary distances to the moving objects in the presupposition that the line of positioning is a line of intersection of two hyperboloids of rotation formed by two mutually perpendicular bases. These analytical dependencies allow us to not only a priori assess the precision, validity, and reliability of receiving navigational parameters of the moving objects, but also calculate the scientifically grounded limitations of the work of the complexes and measuring means.
Keywords: Phase measurement system, Accuracy of measurements, Location error, Measurement error, Radio navigation parameter, Line of position, Trajectory measurements, Space navigation, Hyperbolic measurement system, Functional analysis
Space Policy
Yanik A.A. - Innovations in management of space technologies development in the United States: analysis of the NASA experience pp. 22-35


Abstract: The object of this research is the methods of state management over the development of science and innovations in the area of space exploration. The subject of this research is NASA’s experience in development and refinement of priorities of the scientific-technological development in the conditions of the rapidly changing world. In addition to assessment of the more significant changes in the institutional legal bases of NASA’s function as a whole and the space industry in particular, a special attention is given to the analysis of the technological roadmaps of NASA (implemented in 2010) and the results of the 2016 arrangement of technologies based on their level and priority. The author notes that the modern national innovative system of the United States has an advanced network structure, which allows it to potentially realize a full innovative cycle, ranging from scientific research to formation of the corresponding market. The elements of this system are in a state of constant development and improvement with consideration of the realities of the rapidly changing world. A conclusion is made on the progress of the scientific capacity of the state policy of the United States in the area of development of space technologies. The NASA experience demonstrates the efficiency of the flexible decentralized solutions for management of technological development in the context of new challenges.  
Keywords: NASA, USA, Technology Priorities, Technology Roadmaps, Space Technologies, Science Policy, Space Policy, Innovations, Disruptive Technology, Space Studies
Space Economics and Business
Paison D.B. - The phenomenon of the SpaceX as a challenge to the international space market pp. 36-50


Abstract: This article is devoted to the research of the latest changes taking place on the international space market, as well as the new challenges emerging before its major players, including U. S. and Russia. The main attention is given to the analysis of the peculiarities of the strategy and work of one of the most unusual “players” in the modern space economy – a private American corporation SpaceX, which not only sort of challenged the current tradition in this area, but also actively influences the process of its institutional renovation. This work assesses the influence of the “SpaceX phenomenon” upon the institutional environment of the space economy on the national (United States) and global scale, upon trends of development of the global space activity, and national space “agenda”. Although the examined phenomenon is an endemic product of American system and the experience of SpaceX is unlikely to be transferred in an unchanged form into other national jurisdictions, the work of the corporation is objectively becoming the drive of development of the space market as a whole. The new U. S. model of relations between the state and the private sector in the space sphere is currently significantly ahead of any analogues of the Old World, and thus, this experience requires meticulous studying for the purpose of transferring valuable results.
Keywords: SpaceX, Elon Musk, Commercial Launches, NASA, USA, Space Policy, Space Market, Space Economics, Public-private partnership, Strategic Planning
Space Law
Popova S.M. - U. S. commercial space legislation of 2015 and the questions of modernization of the international space law pp. 51-65


Abstract:  This article is dedicated to the analysis of the situation that emerged in the international space law due to the U. S. November 2015 legislation on commercial space launch competitiveness. This work analytically generalizes the key expert opinions and legal positions of the lawyers from various countries, formulated into an answer to the new law passed by American legislators, in order to assess the possible impact of this national bill upon the status and prospects of modernization of the current system of international space law and its basic principles. The author concludes that due to its historical nature the basic principles of international space law, established between 1960’s-1980’s, cannot always give an unambiguous answer to the new questions and challenges that emerge in regards to the drastic changes in the world as a whole, and the global space activity in particular. This is indirectly confirmed by the abundance of legal discussions pertaining to interpretation of various general principles for the purpose of implementing them in the new historical context. The increase of technological capabilities in space exploration and growth in the number of competitive players of the “space race” leads to the need to reform the international legal regulation in this sphere.  
Keywords: Moon Agreement, Outer Space Treaty, Commercial Space, USA, International Law, Space Studies, Space Policy, Space Law, Asteroid Mining, Celestial Bodies
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