Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "History of science and technology"
History of science and technology
Shebyrova L.G. - Life and scientific work of Sergei Ivanovich Metalnikov in France pp. 12-27


Abstract: Based on the archive and published documents, this article examines the details of biography and scientific work of the Russian emigrant scholar Sergei Ivanovich Metalnikov during his life in France, after 1919. This period is extremely important for the social history of science and history of biology. The goal of this work is to reproduce the new details of Metalnikov’s biography, which pertain to his scientific and social activity. The author conducts a historical-scientific analysis along with systematization of the scholar’s scientific works, archive and published documents that reveal the facts of his personal and professional path, as well as his views. The author thoroughly examines and determines the main directions of Metalnikov’s scientific work during within this timeframe, including the research on correlation between the immune system and nervous system, immunology and pathology of the insects, and biological methods of pest control. A number of new archive documents from the scholar’s epistolary heritage are being introduced into the scientific circulation. The author also reveals Metalnikov’s active participation in social life of the Russian scientific emigration, as well as his civil position, political views, and the given by Metalnikov scientific explanation.
Aleksandrova I.N. - Connecting youth to the scientific and technological achievements in the late 1950’s – early 1960’s pp. 53-67


Abstract: This article is confined to the 100th anniversary of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (Komsomol). The author examines the role of Komsomol in realization of the state youth policy aimed at connecting of young people to the scientific and technological achievements of the late 1950’s – early 1960’s. Documents of the Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History, as well as the collections of regulations” sealed as “top secret” compiled the main group of sources for this research. Komsomol is viewed as a distinct Soviet “ministry of youth”, a linking point between the state and youth. The system of value orientations is presented as a generalized index of the direction of interests, demands, social position, and level of spiritual development of the generation. The article demonstrated the dynamic actions of Komsomol with regards to the establishment of a positive attitude to knowledge among the youth through introducing the most recent achievements of science and technology. Two opposite trends were noticed the within the overall practice of implementation of state youth policy: one was aimed at enhancing the ideological component, while the other was of high pragmatism considering the changes in the country and worldwide, associated with the scientific and technological progress and actual economic needs.
Fat'yanov I.V. - Regularities of genesis and functioning of the experimental activity in Russia pp. 114-137


Abstract: The subject of this research is the regularities of emergence of the experimental activity within law. The author points out on the existence of certain regularities within law which should be paid attention to in lawmaking. During the course of this work, the author simultaneously addresses two problematic areas: firstly, practical question of the functioning of the experimental activity in Russia – the activity of competent constituents, when takes place the approbation of the proposed innovations aimed at testing the theory; and secondly, a specifically scientific problem on the concept of the notion “regularities of the experimental activity” and the determinants which substantiate it. The object of this research is the public relations emerging in experimental activity. The author gives attention to the causes of experimental activity associated with the establishment of the local self-governance, and its improvement after the adoption of the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation. The author suggests an original definition to the notion “regularity of genesis and functioning of the experimental activity”, as well as detects certain determinants of the experimental activity within law.
Zharova E.Yu. - The Laws on the Awarding of Academic Degrees in the Russian Empire as the Reflection of Differentiation in Biological Sciences pp. 236-272
Abstract: The process of formation, development and differentiation of biology sciences in the Russian empire is considered in terms of the laws on the awarding of academic degrees. Changes of the legislation in this area reflect not only the system of scientific certification, but also the formation of various branches of biology as the science that developed in the XIX century. 
Kozhevina M.A. - The preconditions of the genesis of the Russian juridical science as a social institute pp. 430-459


Abstract: The article covers the problems of Russian juridical science as social institute. The author exposes and analyses factors, which influenced the genesis of the Russian juridical science using the institutional approach as the main mean of research. The author underlines the necessity the only criterion of periodization of the Russian juridical science. In the article, the period of XVIII century reforms was considered as time of formed preconditions for the genesis of Russian juridical professional and scientific communities and for the development of Russian law education.
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