Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "History of science and technology"
History of science and technology
Shebyrova L.G. - Life and scientific work of Sergei Ivanovich Metalnikov in France pp. 12-27


Abstract: Based on the archive and published documents, this article examines the details of biography and scientific work of the Russian emigrant scholar Sergei Ivanovich Metalnikov during his life in France, after 1919. This period is extremely important for the social history of science and history of biology. The goal of this work is to reproduce the new details of Metalnikov’s biography, which pertain to his scientific and social activity. The author conducts a historical-scientific analysis along with systematization of the scholar’s scientific works, archive and published documents that reveal the facts of his personal and professional path, as well as his views. The author thoroughly examines and determines the main directions of Metalnikov’s scientific work during within this timeframe, including the research on correlation between the immune system and nervous system, immunology and pathology of the insects, and biological methods of pest control. A number of new archive documents from the scholar’s epistolary heritage are being introduced into the scientific circulation. The author also reveals Metalnikov’s active participation in social life of the Russian scientific emigration, as well as his civil position, political views, and the given by Metalnikov scientific explanation.
Bagaev A.B. - Modernization of small arms of Ossetians of the last quarter of XIX century pp. 52-56


Abstract: The subject of this research is the small arms of Ossetians of the last quarter of XIX century. This topic remains insufficiently studied but is important in studying the military art of Ossetian people. Within the indicated timeframe, Ossetia faced the modernization processes in the area of small arms: the old armament, especially rifles, was actively replaced with the new, more improved. The author thoroughly examines the two systems of breechloader that were widely spread in Ossetia during this time. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that this question is subjected to extensive analysis for the first time. The results of this research covered the previously insufficiently studied question about the systems of rifles that comprised the inventory of Ossetians of the late XIX century. The author determined the time of replacement of the muzzle-loading flintlocks with the breechloaders. The article also describes the impact of the Russian military culture upon modernization processes in the area of armament of Ossetians.
Aleksandrova I.N. - Connecting youth to the scientific and technological achievements in the late 1950’s – early 1960’s pp. 53-67


Abstract: This article is confined to the 100th anniversary of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (Komsomol). The author examines the role of Komsomol in realization of the state youth policy aimed at connecting of young people to the scientific and technological achievements of the late 1950’s – early 1960’s. Documents of the Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History, as well as the collections of regulations” sealed as “top secret” compiled the main group of sources for this research. Komsomol is viewed as a distinct Soviet “ministry of youth”, a linking point between the state and youth. The system of value orientations is presented as a generalized index of the direction of interests, demands, social position, and level of spiritual development of the generation. The article demonstrated the dynamic actions of Komsomol with regards to the establishment of a positive attitude to knowledge among the youth through introducing the most recent achievements of science and technology. Two opposite trends were noticed the within the overall practice of implementation of state youth policy: one was aimed at enhancing the ideological component, while the other was of high pragmatism considering the changes in the country and worldwide, associated with the scientific and technological progress and actual economic needs.
Kochedykova M.M. - Collaboration of explorer of the Bolshezemelskaya Tundra A. V. Zhuravsky with the Russian Geographical Society in the early XX century pp. 61-68


Abstract: The subject of this article is the history of science in the European Northeast of Russian of the early XX century. The object is the research activity of A. V. Zhuravsky in the field of geology over the period of 1903-1914 covering the territory of Bolshezemelskaya Tundra. The author examines the key directions in joint collaboration of Zhuravsky and the Russian Geographical Society on exploring the Bolshezemelskaya Tundra. Thanks to the expeditionary and collecting activities of Zhuravsky, was established the first scientific institution in the European Northeast of Russia. The author’s main contribution lies in using as the source base of the unique expeditionary reports and publications of A. V. Zhuravsky, reports of the department of Mathematical and Physical Geography of the Russian Geographical Society, as well as the correspondence between its members. The sources are preserved in several archives and museums of Russia. A conclusion is made that the collaboration with the Russian Geographical Society in the Bolshezemelskaya Tundra in the early XX century led to the beginning of the systematic explorations, which pioneer was A. V. Zhuravsky. The process of joint activity resulted in acquisition of the new knowledge that allowed clarifying the importance of the immense territory. The interested in Zhuravsky’s exploratory work Russian Geographical Society tried to gather the documents on this region in their archives. The scientific novelty consists in author’s discovery that Zhuravsky’s activity on exploration of the Bolshezemelskaya Tundra was comprehensively supported by the directorate of the Russian Geographical Society, including finding opportunities for compensating the expeditionary costs and supply with instruments for conducting the topographic surveys.  
Brovina A. - Scientific research of the territory of the European Northeast of Russia in the XX century: information potential of personal funds of the scientists of Komi Scientific Center of Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences pp. 82-101


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the historical role of the scientific community in the cognition and development of the northern territories of Russia. The object is the information potential of personal funds of the scientists in the context of scientific development of the northern territories of Russia in the XX century. The author examines the documentary heritage of scientists of the European Northeast of Russia in the XX century, preserved in the funds of the Scientific Archive of Komi Scientific Center of Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Particular attention is paid to the funds that reflect the development of the key scientific areas for studying the northern territories – the history of geological, biological and humanitarian research. Examination of the personal funds of scientists of a particular region is a relevant trend in studying the archive funds, which is associated with keeping the modern documentary systems in the archives that allow preserving the knowledge of an individual of a specific historical era, as well as capturing mental peculiarities of the society. The conducted analysis is of great interest for the historians of science for studying the major milestones of life and creative path of the scientists, as well as contribute into the development of Russian science. Author’s special contribution lies in the introduction into the scientific circulation of the vast documentary complex of personal origin that indicates the input of the scientific community towards cognition and development of the northern territories of Russia. It is determined that the personal funds of scientists may differ in quantitative and conceptual indexes, but always retain the typical structure usually presented in list of information blocks: science, teaching, organization of science, epistolary style, visuals. It manifests as a certain model, which through a particular set of documents on one hand is an example of a person with his interests, hobbies, life stages, career; while on the other – a slice of a specific historical period of the era itself.  The unique materials of the funds cover the history of scientific study of the Northern territories of Russia; provide an opportunity to assess personal contribution of the scientists into the scientific community and development of academic science in the Russian North in the XX century.
Fhilippova T., Simakova S. - Documentary scientific heritage of the geologist V. A. Dedeev pp. 102-109


Abstract: The subject of this research is the history of establishment and development of geological science in the territory of the European North of Russia in the XX century. The object is the scientific activity of one of scientists who dedicated is entire life to development and studying of geology of the European North, the Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical sciences Vladimir Alekseevich Dedeev (1931-1997). On the basis of the archive documents that remained in funds of the Scientific Archive of Komi Republic of the Scientific Center of Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the author examines the details of scientific biography and activity of the scientist associated with studying of the prospects of petroleum potential of the northern territories. The goal of this work consists in demonstration of value of the preserved documentary scientific heritage for studying V. A. Dedeev’s scientific activity and history of the development of geology throughout this timeframe. In conclusion, the author underlines that the documentary sources, preserved in the State Archive of Komi Republic, allow familiarizing with the academic results of the works of V. A. Dedeev. The modern petroleum, geology of the territory of European North in many aspects leans on the results of his research and scientific conclusions. The geologist’s works also contributed into the fuel and energy development of the northern region.
Fat'yanov I.V. - Regularities of genesis and functioning of the experimental activity in Russia pp. 114-137


Abstract: The subject of this research is the regularities of emergence of the experimental activity within law. The author points out on the existence of certain regularities within law which should be paid attention to in lawmaking. During the course of this work, the author simultaneously addresses two problematic areas: firstly, practical question of the functioning of the experimental activity in Russia – the activity of competent constituents, when takes place the approbation of the proposed innovations aimed at testing the theory; and secondly, a specifically scientific problem on the concept of the notion “regularities of the experimental activity” and the determinants which substantiate it. The object of this research is the public relations emerging in experimental activity. The author gives attention to the causes of experimental activity associated with the establishment of the local self-governance, and its improvement after the adoption of the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation. The author suggests an original definition to the notion “regularity of genesis and functioning of the experimental activity”, as well as detects certain determinants of the experimental activity within law.
Zharova E. - The Laws on the Awarding of Academic Degrees in the Russian Empire as the Reflection of Differentiation in Biological Sciences pp. 236-272
Abstract: The process of formation, development and differentiation of biology sciences in the Russian empire is considered in terms of the laws on the awarding of academic degrees. Changes of the legislation in this area reflect not only the system of scientific certification, but also the formation of various branches of biology as the science that developed in the XIX century. 
Kozhevina M.A. - The preconditions of the genesis of the Russian juridical science as a social institute pp. 430-459


Abstract: The article covers the problems of Russian juridical science as social institute. The author exposes and analyses factors, which influenced the genesis of the Russian juridical science using the institutional approach as the main mean of research. The author underlines the necessity the only criterion of periodization of the Russian juridical science. In the article, the period of XVIII century reforms was considered as time of formed preconditions for the genesis of Russian juridical professional and scientific communities and for the development of Russian law education.
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