Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "Beliefs, religions, churches"
Beliefs, religions, churches
Koroleva L.A., Korolev A.A., Mol'kin A.N. - Youth Policy of the Russian Orthodox Church in Modern Russia: Problems and Perspectives pp. 53-59

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2014.3.11021

Abstract: The article reviews one of the most important parts of the Russian Orthodox Church’s activity as a meaningful institution of the Russian society – working out and realization of the youth policy.From the second half of the 1980s the state lived through a rise of interest to the religion. And the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) aspired to use the new opportunities at maximum to widen its influence, extend and even inculcate the Orthodox spiritual values among young people. The Russian Orthodox Church pays special attention to the youth because it is the youth that makes the future of the Russian society’s development.In 1991 the All-Church Christian Youth Movement (ACCYM) was created at the congress of the Orthodox youth. On the order of the Holy Synod (January, 30-31, 1991) the Moscow Patriarchate Department for the Religious Education and Catechetesis was founded under the chairmanship of hegumen Ioann (I.N. Economtsev). In 1994 the first meeting of rectors of religious schools was conducted by His Holiness Alexis II Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia.In 2000 the Synodal Department for the Youth Affairs was opened with the goal to start missions among young people and make the youth more active. Since 2001 eparchial Departments for the Youth Affairs began to open on the canonical territory of the ROC. Since that time the annual All-Russia meeting of the Orthodox youth have been conducted. In 2002 the All-Russia Orthodox Youth Movement and the children’s organization “The Fellowship of the Orthodox Pathfinders” were created.The methodological basis of the research consists of objectivity concepts, concepts of historism, system, full consideration of social and subjective in the subject of the research and the maximum possible neutrality in the researcher’s attitude to the interpretation and estimation of the material.  Where possible, the principle of social and psychological approach have been used as well as the principles of tactfulness in the estimation of facts because the specificity of the confessional practice of the ROC were strong moral and ethical characteristics of its participants. The scientific novelty is based on the attempt to analyze the youth policy of the ROC under the present-day condition.   The reality shows that the priesthood in general accepted the ideas of the Orthodox youth service and felt its taste. And though the Church does not have enough experience in tangible embodiment of such ideas (and that makes it difficult to realize the ideas), its position about the youth service becomes more clear year by year. Giving its general support to the constructive endeavours of the Russian Orthodox Church in the youth upbringing, the government must strictly follow the norms of the Confessional Law not to violate the rights of other religions and the irreligious people of the Russian Federation.
Arapov A.V. - The Main Tendencies of Faith in Christ (Religious Essay) pp. 61-69

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2013.4.491

Abstract: The article is devoted to one of the movement in Russian religious sectarianism that is usually called 'faith in Christ' or 'Khlyst's movement'. The author of the article describes the main sects that are usually related to the 'faith in Christ' movement including 'God's People', 'Postniks', 'Old Israel' and 'New Israel'. The author gives an insight into their religion and history. Each movement was created based on the preceding movement. Most of the followers started to follow the new movement but the old movement also continued to exist. The author gives examples of their religious literature and describes the main forms of their mystic practices. The 'Faith in Christ' movement is viewed as the expression of the two tendencies typial for the Russian religion. Firstly, it is the focus on emotions when emotional mystic experience takes the central place and the internal state of mind and spirits is more important than the ritual. The second feature is the desire to see Christ in a new human (a spiritual leader). Of course there are not the only tendencies in Russian religion. There have been some opposing tendencies as well but they have been practiced by other religious communities. 
Korolev A.A., Koroleva L.A., Gar'kin I.N. - Islamic Religious Leaders of the Middle Volga Region in 1940 - 1980 pp. 62-77

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2014.1.10346

Abstract: The subject matter of the research is the structure of Muslim clergy (age criterion, an education level, etc.), activity of attendants of an Islamic cult (the organizational device, religious practice, elements of modernization of a cult, etc.), the main directions of the Soviet state and religious policy concerning Islam in the 1940-1980th at regional level - on the average the Volga region. Multinational and polyconfessional Central Volga Area was typical regional formation of Russia. The main tendencies in activity of confessional associations, as a whole, Muslim, in particular, foldings and developments of the relations of the state and religious formations in scales of all country were rather accurately traced on the example of multinational Central Volga Area, having thus the specifics. As a teoretiko-methodological basis of research the principles were chosen: a) objectivity; b) historicism; c) systemacities, d) the objective account social and personal in an object of research and the most possible neutralization of the subjective relation of the researcher at an assessment and interpretation of the facts. Novelty of research is that for the first time the special massif of archival sources which earlier wasn't demanded owing to the various reasons is introduced into scientific circulation; the main directions and forms of activity of Muslim clergy in the USSR in the 1940-1980th on the example of Central Volga Area are revealed. Conclusions.The Muslim clergy of Central Volga Area was characterized by the high age qualification and a low education level, as the general, and spiritual. In some villages in connection with small number of priests of Islam of their duty foreign persons or old men-babai carried out. The mullah, especially in rural areas, enjoyed indisputable authority that was expressed and in a material form. The Muslim clergy developed vigorous activity, applying the most various methods of work among the population. The most important element of religious practice of an Islamic cult was the sermon. The Muslim clergy of the Middle Volga region was guided by the maximum adaptation of ideology of Islam and activity of religiousness of associations to conditions of socialist society, modernization of religious doctrines of the Koran, rapprochement of the social and moral principles of Islam and communism, religion and culture. Mullahs, being in the main weight tolerant concerning the Soviet power, nevertheless sometimes entered open opposition, as on fundamental questions of belief (mainly, in Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and Kuibyshev area), so sometimes and from mercenary motives.
Romanovskaya L.R., Ostroumov S.V., Fomichev M.N., Solov'ev S.A. - Protection of Religion in Western European Countries During the Early Middle Ages pp. 82-95

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2015.1.13959

Abstract: The purpose of the present article is to define the place of protection of state religion in the domestic policy of different countries since ancient times till the early middle ages, in particular, in the Roman Empire, Ancient Judea and early medieval kingdoms: Frankish Kingship, Ostrogothic Kingdom, Kingdom of Burgundy, Kingdom of the Lombards, etc. The subject of the research is the religious crimes (violation of sacred places, violation of sacred times, idolatry, blasphemy, bewitchery, perjury, defiling of graves and dead bodies, heresy) and their dependence on and relation to different factors of social and political life of those times. In their research the authors have applied the following methods: dialectical method as a general philosophical method, general scientific methods such as systems analysis, synthesis, deduction and induction and particular legal methods such as methods of comparative law, historical law, legalistic method and others. The main conclusion of the research is that protection of state religion was an important function of government both in the early middle ages and ancient times. That policy allowed to ensure the domestic security and keep the ideological integration of the society. 
Koroleva L.A., Korolev A.A., Mol'kin A.N. - Islamic Religious Workers in the USSR in 1940s (on the Materials of Tatar ASSR, Penzenskaya, Ulyanovskaya and Kujbyshevskaya Regions) pp. 95-119

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2014.4.11951

Abstract: The article researches the Islamic clergy of the Middle Volga Region (Tatar ASSR, Penzenskaya, Ulyanovskaya and Kujbyshevskaya Regions) in the 1940s: the age, level of education, nationality, social position of the Islamic religious workers, forms and methods of their confessional practice (organization, religious practice, elements of the religious modernization), relations with the Soviet power representatives (with the representatives of the Religion Affairs Council). The mosques of the Middle Volga region are reviewed as a material basis of the social consolidations of the Muslims, spiritual centers for the Muslim population. The following principles were takes as a theoretic and methodological basis: a) objectiveness; b)historism; c) systematicity; d) objective measurement of the social and personal in the subject of the research and the most possible counteraction of the subjective attitude of a researcher when estimating and interpreting the facts.    The following special historical principles have been used in the research together with the methodological ones: historical comparative, actualization, problematic chronological, diachronic. Also, general scientific principles have been used: structural systematic, statistical, classification. All of the principles let analyze the evolution of the relation between the State and the Islam, view the Soviet/Russian Muslims in the set of their constituents, analyze and compare different data to find out the main peculiarities and existential characteristics.  During 1940s the number of mosques in the Middle Volga region remained more or less constant. Most mosques were situated in the countryside, in Penzenskaya and Kujbyshevskaya Regions in the regional capitals mosques did not function. The number of the Muslim religious workers remained on the same level (corresponding to the number of mosques) after an increase during the period after the war. The Islamic religious workers in the Middle Volga region were mullahs and muezzins. In some villages there were no imams and muezzins because of a very small number of Islamic religious workers. Sometimes there duties were performed by other people or old men – babajs.   The Muslim religious workers were quite active in working with the local people. The most important element of Islamic religious practice was a preach.  The Muslim religious workers of the Middle Volga region were characterized by high age limit and low level of education, both general and religious. The imams were rather old and some of them did not often preached, especially in Penzenskaya region. In the middle of 1940s the Soviet government allowed the Soviet Muslims to go on journeys to Mecca. A mullah, especially in the countryside had great authority. The main Muslim ceremonies in the Middle Volga region were janazah, nikah, isim, sunnet.
Babich I.L. - Evolution of the Orthodox Church During the Period of the Bishopric of Ignatius Bryanchaninov pp. 96-137

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2015.1.13968

Abstract: Rerformations of the government and economy that took place in the Caucasian Region in 1860s involved religious reforms, too. The present article is devoted to the history of religious reformations in that region. The blossom of Orthodoxy in the Caucasus is mostly associated with a public and religious figure of Russia of the XIXth century, the bishop Ignatius Bryanchaninov. He had lived and worked in the Caucasus since 1858 till 1861. This is the period the present article is devoted to. The author of the article bases the research on the two types of sources, archive materials taken by the author from the two funds of the Russian state historical archive, Holy Synod and Caucasian Committee, and the published letters of Saint Ignatius to his brother Petr Alexandrovich, the Governor of Stavropol, and Nikolay Nikolaevich Muraviev-Karssky, an outstanding military and political figure. The article is also based on the chronological principle and covers the following points: consecration of the archimandrite Ignatius to the position of Bishop of the Caucasus, Ignatius Bryanchaninov's plan on what needed to be done in the Cauasus, the nature of Ignatius' communication with the civil authorities in the Caucasus, measures undertaken by Ignatius to change the borders of the Caucasian bishopric, retirement of Ignatius Bryanchaninov and, finally, consecration of a new bishop. The results of the research evidently show that even though Ignatius Bryanchaninov had been a Bishop of the Caucasus and Black Sea Region for not such a long period of time, he made a great contribution to the expansion and promotion of Orthodox beliefs and style of life in the North Caucasus. 
Korolev A.A., Mol'kin A.N., Vazerova A.G. - Activity Performed by the Soviet Evangelican Christians and Baptists in the Second Half of the 1940 - 1960th (the Case of the Penza Region) pp. 106-119

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2014.2.10321

Abstract: Object of research is the functioning of the religious organizations of evangelical Christians and Baptists andinteraction between the government and associations of the Evangelican Christians and Baptists Union in the second half of 1940 - 1960 in the Penza region.Territorial framework of research is defined by the Penza region, typical regional formation of the Central Russia. The main tendencies in activity of confessional associations, as a whole, evangelical Christians and Baptists, in particular, foldings and developments of the relations of the state and religious formations in scales of all country are rather accurately traced on the example of the Penza region, having thus the specifics. Besides, this territorial framework corresponds to borders of the modern Penza region. As a teoretiko-methodological basis of research the principles of objectivity were chosen; historicism; the systemacities, the full account social and subjective in an object of research and the greatest possible neutralization of the prejudiced relation of the scientist at interpretation and an assessment of the facts. The principles of social and psychological approach and the principle of a correctness and tactfulness in an assessment of the actual material as feature of religious practice of evangelical Christians baptists I was rather strong moral and ethical a component of its participants were as far as possible applied. Novelty is that activity of religious associations of evangelical Christians and Baptists in the Penza region in the 1945-1960th in various directions - involvement of new believers is for the first time studied, increases in commission of cult ceremonies, improvements of personnel structure of presviter, expansions of material base of communities, activization of administrative practice, etc.; the mechanism of relationship of power structures and groups of evangelical Christians and Baptists in a sotsioistorichesky foreshortening is studied.Conclusions:- activity of religious groups of evangelical Christians and Baptists of the Penza edge reflected the characteristic regularities inherent in confessional practice of the USSR in 1945-1960: strengthening of social and material positions during the post-war period, deterioration of position of evangelical Christians and Baptists in the late fifties, etc.;- regional religious communities of evangelical Christians and Baptists in all measure felt on themselves pressure of state and church policy during the studied period – a rigid regulation of activity of religious associations, large-scale scientific and atheistic work, control of observance of performance of the legislation on cults, restriction of financial activity of religious groups, etc.
Koroleva L.A., Korolev A.A., Mol'kin A.N. - Relationship between Government and Orthodox Church in the USSR During 'Reconstruction' (the Case of the Penza Region) pp. 120-130

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2013.5.9348

Abstract: In article evolution of the state and confessional relations at regional level - on the example of Russian Orthodox Church in the Penza region in 1985-1991 is analyzed. The state religious policy of this period continued to adhere to the Lenin principles concerning religion: the religious outlook admitted a prejudice, tasks of strengthening of atheistic work of the authorities were staticized. The representative of Council for the Penza region continued the activity in a former format; atheistic literature was issued. In the Penza region active work on replacement of religious holidays and ceremonies from the Soviet life was still carried out. In the region activity of the commissions of assistance to control of observance of the legislation on religious cults considerably amplified.At the same time in the state and orthodox relations some moments of liberalization were traced. Procedure of registration of the religious organizations was simplified. And though in the Penza region the number of orthodox churches and houses of worship until the end of the 1980th remained a constant, but the number of the registered priests of an orthodox cult gradually increased. The number of believers increased, their educational level, as well as at local orthodox clergy increased. Some temples were returned to the Penza diocese. Certain changes in the plan of liberalization of the state and church relations were traced, but as a whole the deideologization current went to the USSR very roughly, the Soviet management had no accurate program and as a whole understanding of essence and the mechanism of democratization of the country.
Mol'kin A.N. - Some Aspects of the 'Revival' of Islam in Russia (the Case of the Penza Region) pp. 120-130

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2014.2.10335

Abstract: Object of research - the reasons and prerequisites (internal and external), forms of manifestation of a phenomenon of Islamic "revival" in the USSR / Post-Soviet Russia (activization of confessional practice of Muslims - increase in ceremonialism, growth of number of petitions from believers in various instances, etc., restoration of mosques, training of new shots of attendants of an Islamic cult, formation of system of Islamic education and education, etc.) at regional level - in the Penza region in the late eighties - the 1990th. As a teoretiko-methodological basis of research the principles were chosen: a) objectivity; b) historicism; c) systemacities, d) the objective account social and personal in an object of research and the most possible neutralization of the subjective relation of the researcher at an assessment and interpretation of the facts. Except the methodological principles in work the special and historical principles were used: comparative-historical, updatings, problem and chronological, diakhronny; also general scientific principles: structural and system, statistical, the classifications, allowed to analyse evolution of the state and Islamic relations to consider советско / the Russian Moslem in a complex of its components, to analyze and compare various data for determination of the main features and intrinsic characteristics.New sources have been introduced in science and and that allowed to draw the following conclusions:- process of basic changes begins with the middle of the 1980th in the USSR in a context of reorganization in the relations between the state and church, limits on activity of the confessional associations, operating for many years that created conditions for active involvement of believing citizens and their religious organizations in social and economic and spiritual life of the country were gradually lifted. In the second half of the 1980th considerable surge in religiousness in the country, caused, first of all, by crisis of the Russian society - social, economic, political and moral was observed. Besides, a certain role in this phenomenon was played by discredit and withdrawal pains dominating in the society of socialist ideals and values. Change of a vector of cultural and moral reference points in mass consciousness of the population promoted revaluation of a role and a religion place in society, positioning it, first of all, as a phenomenon of world and national culture, as a moral support of society. Serious value had also crash of system of atheistic education. However deideologization process in the country went very roughly, the Soviet management had no accurate program and in general understanding of democratization of the country. Contacts of the state and confessional associations, including Muslim, often had spontaneous character, were under the influence of tactical political situations and sometimes personal interests.- from the 1990th the process of Islamic "revival" that was expressed, first of all, in growth of religious consciousness, active revival of Islamic ceremonialism, increase in quantity of mosques, folding of system of religious education, etc. began. The impulse to the Islamic Renaissance was external and was a consequence, first of all, activity of the secular authorities, on the one hand, and weakening of the central power in the years of reorganization, with another.
Korolev A.A., Koroleva L.A., Mol'kin A.N. - Pentecostal Movement in the USSR. 1950 - 1980 pp. 125-131

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2013.6.9378

Abstract: In article the provision of a pyatidesyatnichestvo in the USSR in the 1950-1980th is analyzed. In 1944-1945 Pentecostals were combined with baptists, but the part the pyatidesyatnicheskikh of communities refused to obey to this "project".The geography of distribution of Pentecostals in the USSR covered Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Kyrgyzstan, Georgia.Some Pentecostals followed the doctrine "nonresistance to the evil" and refused to take in hand the weapon, for what were exposed to persecutions in the USSR.From the second half of the 1960th fight for emigration becomes the main content of oppositional activity of Pentecostals. Till 1974 the Soviet management at all didn't consider the application of Pentecostals on emigration as there were no calls and visas. Pentecostals used in the fight as the main means, - appeals to the international organizations, to specific officials; besides - hunger strikes, press conferences, unauthorized penetrations into foreign embassies, attempts of illegal emigration, etc. However it should be noted that unlike baptists, activity of Pentecostals didn't meet a wide resonance in the West. The Moscow human rights activists tried to give real help to Pentecostals.In 1979 in the USSR "Council of churches of Pentecostals" was created. In 1980 the human rights group of evangelical Christians Pentecostals of RSFSR was formed.Since the end of the 1980th in the state and confessional relations there is a change. Now on the territory of Russia operate the Russian church of Christians of Evangelican Faith;  United Church of Christians of Evagelical Faith and Russian Union of Christians of Evagelical Faith. 
Baksheev E.S. - 'Two Deaths' in Japanese and Ryukyu (Okinawa) Cultures: Two-Stage Funeral Ritual in Traditional Societies as a Historical and Cultural Issue (in Terms of Asian Pacific Region's Cultures) pp. 129-191

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2013.1.470

Abstract: The author of the article offers a concept of the 'two-stage funeral ritual'. The author of the article was the first one to introduce this term to Russian academic community. The two-state funeral ritual includes a whole set of funeral and commemorative traditions an customs. The phenomenon of such rituals used by traditional societies is viewed as a historical and cultural issue based on the example of Japan and Ryukyu (Okinawa), China and other Asian Pacific cultures. Based on the ideas of such famous European scientists as R. Herz, Arnold van Gennep and Lucien Lévy-Bruhl, the author of the article uses reseaches of Japanese philosophers and his own pilot researches carried out in Japan and Ryukyu. The author of the article iews the period between preliminary (temporary) and permanent (final) funerals as the most important element in the structure of individual life cycle and society functioning. It is shown that in traditional societies of the Asian Pacific region (Japan, Ryukyu, China and others) one's body and relics are presented as symbols of cultures of these societies. The author of the article makes a hypothesis that such a two-stage funeral ritual is not an exception but known behavior in many traditional cultures and societies. This allows to define new approaches to studying these cultures. The article is illustrated by the photographs made by the author himself. 
Arapov A.V. - External Acts of Worship in the Voronezh Region During the Khrushchev's Persecutions and Afterwards pp. 132-137

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2013.6.9622

Abstract: One's religious beliefs is a very personal business. To investigate an interior not easy. But in case of Orthodoxy the task is facilitated by that in it there is a set of forms of external expression of internal religious feelings. Such sacraments and ceremonies as a baptism, communicating and burial service are obligatory for each orthodox Christian. In the 1960th - the 1980th years Representatives of Council for affairs of Russian Orthodox Church and, then, Council for affairs of religions collected data on the main religious ceremonialism in temples of the Voronezh region, special sociological researches were conducted. It is possible to find a lot of valuable information on these questions in the State archive of the Voronezh region. Unfortunately, detailed data contain only for 1960-it – 1980-its N. S. Khrushchev, as we know, carried out the aggressive antireligious company. The task of full eradication of religion and church was set. This company included both administrative measures, and massive atheistic promotion. Unfortunately, there is no opportunity to determine number of baptisms and burial services at the time of the beginning of Khruschev's board. At this time in temples of the obligatory accounting of baptisms it wasn't conducted, and representatives had no right to demand exact figures from priors and other church officials. Probably, any statistics gathered state security bodies, but to it access at the moment isn't present. Such figures as absolute burial service of the dead in three regions of area, growth in 1963-1965 of number of burial services on area for 10% and a baptism more than a half of the been born children in six areas in 1965 in itself tell about a failure of the antireligious company. At L.I. Brezhnev heat of antireligious fight significantly decreased. Atheistic promotion was conducted, but had considerably formal character. As a whole the administrative norms accepted during the previous period, however, pressure upon church structures from government bodies considerably kept the force decreased. It agrees given above given from 1965 to 1985 religiousness gradually, small rates I decreased. It is possible to assume that the main role in this process was played not by atheistic promotion, and the general secularization of the life, coming to the end transition from agrarian to the modernized society.
Babich I.L. - The fates of Orthodox monasteries in the Soviet time (1916-1929) pp. 133-146

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.1.20415

Abstract: The subject of this research is the Soviet history of one of the male monasteries – Ascension of David Desert during the first two decades after the establishment of Soviet government (1920-1930’s). The author demonstrates the relationship between monastery and Soviet authorities in the 1920’s – the time of depletion of the monastery, when Soviet government started to limit the monastic life. A noticeable place in history of David’s Desert of the 1920-1930’s hold the repressions towards the monks of the monastery: many of them suffered for their beliefs, and some were executed by a firing squad. Only some of them have lived to old age. The article is prepared based on the collected by the author and introduced for the first time archive material; using the method of historical reconstruction, the author reviewed the Soviet history of one of the male monasteries of Moscow Region – Ascension of David Desert. As an additional source, the work attracts the data from the conducted field ethnographic surveys of the native residents of local villages of Chekhov District. The scientific novelty first and foremost is defined by the application of new archive material on the history of Orthodox monkhood in Russia during the first decade of the Soviet government, including investigation cases of the period of clergy repressions in the 1930’s. The author meticulously describes the previously unknown period of the history of the Ascension of David Desert monastery, as well as concludes that the monks were able to preserve the monastic life until the late 1920’s.
Galibina-Lebedeva E.S. - Society of Jesus right before 500th anniversary of the Reformation pp. 135-157

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.6.22363

Abstract: The goal of this article consists in the attempt to prove that the Society of Jesus, which was created for the purpose of fighting the ideas of Reformation 477 year ago, did not lose its significance in modern world and continues to assert the Christian ideals and resolve new challenges faced by humanity in the XXI century, including the threat of a new world war, international terrorism, loss of moral and ethical values, lack of resources, and at the same time, reckless consumption, impose of the values of individualism and intense rivalry. The subject of this research is the ideology of the Society of Jesus and arising from it domestic and foreign policy of its successors. The article analyzes broad material regarding the life and activity of the Roman Catholic Church as a whole, and Society of Jesus in particular over the period of the late XX – early XXI centuries. Special attention is given to such issues as: struggle of the Society of Jesus against their ideological opponents - Masonic lodges, "Opus Dei" and liberalism; search for the allies for protection of humanistic ideals and a fair economic system, among different political powers and traditional religions, as well as atheists – the supporters of the Communist values and Marxist ideology. The scientific novelty consists in the comprehensive examination of the modern political role of Society of Jesus in Vatican and internationally. The aforementioned questions become especially relevant due to the anniversary dates that fall onto the second half of 2017: the 500th anniversary of Reformation, 30th  anniversary of the Masonic Grande Lodge, and 100th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution.
Martynenko A.V. - Main tendencies in the development of the intellectual culture of Islam in the modern and contemporary history pp. 168-211
Abstract: The purpose of the article is to compare and analyze the Muslim concepts of modernism and Salafi Islam. This study is based on a civilizational approach. In this article the author analyzes both contemporary concepts of Islam (al-Afghani, Abduh, Gasprinsky, etc.), and Salafist doctrine (al-Wahhab, Sayyid Qutb). The scope of this work includes oriental studies, political science, religious studies. The main conclusion of the article: the modernist and the Salafi approach to Islamic traditions define the basic discourse of Muslim culture XVIII – XXI centuries.
Zhukova L.V. - Fraternal gatherings of military clergy and interdepartmental charity initiatives (late XIX – early XX centuries) pp. 172-190

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.3.21887

Abstract: The object of this research is the fraternal gatherings of military clergy in the late XIX – early XX centuries, while the subject is the charity initiatives suggested by arch-presbyter and regimental priests, which were discussed during such gatherings. The author examines the initiatives that have been adopted or rejected, as well as conducts their classification and traces the process of implementation, since the discussion to the beginning of work. The article reviews the new approaches towards charity, proposed by A. A. Zhelobovsky – structure of companies, which revenue can serve as the financial support of the interdepartmental charity. Analyzing the social importance of interdepartmental charity and its impact upon the consolidation of the institution of military clergy. The conclusion is made that the fraternal gatherings of military clergy during the arch-presbyterate of A. A. Zhelobovsky become a form of consolidation of the military priests, gradually capturing not only the St. Petersburg District, but also the remote suburbs. They allow taking into account the experience and difficulties in work of the priests, thus contributing into consolidation of the military clergy and improvement of the methods of work of the local priests. Fraternal gatherings also become an important form of organization of the interdepartmental work, steadily transitioning from the information about synodic and ministerial orders towards the discussion of questions namely pertaining to the military clergy. Therefore, despite the fact that decisions of the gathering did not carry a legislative power, they became a specific form of collegial administration of the department in the arch-presbyterate of A. A. Zhelobovsky. He put a lot of effort into improving the financial situation of the military priests, as well as contributed into social charity, helping the widows and orphans, which increased the prestige of military clergy alongside the number of candidates for the positions. This, in turn, allows gradually replenishing the staff of military clergy, by selecting the more educative and active applicants.
Kozlov M.N. - Late pagans of the Ancient Rus pp. 205-215

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.5.19338

Abstract: For the first time in Russian science, the subject of this research became the history of the late pagan communities of Ancient Rus (the end of the X-XII centuries), their socioeconomic structure and lifestyle. The author presented several dominant in the modern historiography antagonist theories associated with the problems of Christianization of Ancient Rus during the pre-Mongolian era. Based on the analysis of the written sources and data, the archeologist were able to trace the main directions of the escape of the population from the forced Christianization (the end of the X-beginning of the XI centuries), as well as demonstrate the types of the late pagan communities, and presence of pagans in multiple Russian cities of the early Christian epoch. On the example of the pagan community of the Zbruch cult center, the author carries outs a historical analysis of the socioeconomic structure of late pagans, and partially follows their lifestyle. The conclusion is made that a certain part of Eastern Slavic people did not accept Christianity, and under the leadership of the priests of the pagan cult migrated to the sparsely populated wooded regions of the Western, Northern, and Northeastern Rus. They were able to preserve a part of their pagan sanctuaries in many of the large cities and villages of Rus, as well as establish a major pagan complex in the territory of Galicia Province, which became a shelter for the highest representatives of the pagan cult headed by the ruling priest.
Tarasov Yu.S. - The system of eparchial administration of Voronezh and Tambov eparchies during the period of 1917-1937 pp. 207-229

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.4.22027

Abstract: The subject of this research is the system of eparchial administration in Voronezh and Tambov eparchies, as well as the processes of its transformation during the early Soviet period. The changes in the Church were taking place under the influence of Soviet authorities; therefore, they cannot be presented separate from the surrounding reality. The daily life of the Church (structure of ecclesiastical subordination, responsibilities of the archpriests, administration of the eparchy, clerical work, etc.) in that specific case should not provoke a feeling of closeness, because it is not isolated from the context of historical research the Church over the period of 1920’s – 1930’s, and in many ways completes them. In conceptual aspect, the author prefers the theoretical positions of the leading researchers of the Russian Orthodox Church M. V. Shkarovsky and archpriest Vladislav Tsypin with regards to the provided by them periodization of the state-ecclesiastical relations, key principles of state religious policy, and formulated essential components (theoretical-ideological and legal grounds, organizational-administrative sub-departments) of historical models of the state church policy. The article is based on the archive sources and represents the reconstruction of the system of ecclesiastical administrative authorities, including personal aspect. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that for the author is first to examines the question of transformations in the system of eparchial administration during the years of state cataclysms – wars, revolutions, changes in governorates’ administration.
Rozin V.M. - History of the formation of monasticism as a social institution pp. 212-263
Abstract: On the basis of the Western cultural history the article examines the process of monasteries and monasticism turning into a social institution. The author analyzes the social and cultural preconditions, the actual process of monasticism becoming a social institution, the rise and fall of this institution. The article presents the main hypothesis of monasticism – a special kind of mundane esoterism and a hypothesis of monasticism development – from the secular esoterism to the secularization of monasticism. The article characterizes the specifics of monasticism as a social institution.
Iryshkov A.V. - Literary heritage of William Penn pp. 216-230

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.5.20483

Abstract: This article summarizes the political-religious work of the leader of the Quakers movement William Pen, as well as offers their conceptual categorization. The author gives characteristics to each of the group of his work and provides examples and main emphasizing motives. The article also analyzes the essential and reference compositions of W. Penn, which reveal his innovative ideas of social structure and understanding of religious policy. The goal of the research consists in formulation of classification of the William Penn’s literary heritage, which is still absent in the Russian historical science, as well as compilation of a full list of the Quaker’s works. The methodological basis for this research is the principle of historicism, which is perceived as study of the object in question in its development. Applicable to this research, it suggest the examination of W. Penn’s literary heritage since his conversion into Quakerism until his death. Study of the ideological structures is impossible without framing them into a precise political context of its time. This can explain why only certain ideas have emerged and how they evolved. The scientific novelty lies in the review of the previously unknown works of W. Penn, their evaluation and classification. The conclusion and results can be useful in study of the history of Pennsylvania, Society of Friends, socio-political thought of England at the brink of the XVII and XVII centuries, as well as religious research regarding the establishment of Protestantism.
Babich I.L. - Archimandrite Paisios (Sokolov) as a hegumen of the Ascension Desert of St. David (middle of the XIX century) pp. 237-269

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.1.17513

Abstract: This article examines the activity of one of the prominent hegumen of the Russian monastery – Ascension Desert of St. David – Archimandrite Paisios (Sokolov). Being an educated nobleman he decided to dedicate his life to the Orthodox monasticism. He was influenced by the reputable Russian elder Makary Optinsky. Paisios contributed a lot into the prosperity of the monastery (increase the number of monks, improved their living conditions, level of ethics, financial situation of the monastery, as well as construction of the new buildings, particularly the bell tower). The research is based on the historical method, with attraction of the new archive materials extracted from the Moscow archives, and the important written sources such as the letters by Paisios Sokolov. Since his appearance in the Ascension Desert of St. David monastery in 1843, he conducted a number of reforms that allowed the monastery to reach prosperity; it is marked as a long period of modernization of the community, which has started back in the end of the XVII-beginning of the XIX centuries.
Nasonov A.A. - Emotional impact upon the believers during the process of distribution of Orthodoxy and Buddhism in the south of Western Siberia on the brink of the XIX – XX centuries pp. 243-249

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.21582

Abstract:  The object of this research is the process of distribution of world religions in South Siberia. The subject is the used strategy of emotional impact upon the believers of Orthodox Christianity and Buddhism during the spread in the south of Western Siberia. The article reveals the meaning of the emotional impact in realization of rituals from the perspective of the establishment of connection between the believers and the supernatural, as well as demonstration of the unity inside the religious congregation. Using the comparative-historical method, the author correlates the application of visual, audial, and sensible means emotional pressure upon the potential believers and neophytes by the Orthodox and Buddhist adepts. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that based on the specific historical material of the south of Western Siberia characterizes the tactics of emotional impact implemented by the ministers of the Altai Ecclesiastical Mission and the adepts of Burkhanism, as well as public forms of manifestation of the forming regional variation of Buddhism. The author makes a conclusion on the large variety and productivity of the tactics of emotional impact upon the believers of Burkhanism.  
Ioshkin M.V. - Unregistered religious congregations of Tambov Oblast: their influence upon youth (1958-1964) pp. 416-445

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2015.5.15787

Abstract: The fight for youth always had high priority among the political, as well as religious communities, because it was considered as the fight for their future. Thus, it would be interesting to study the influence upon youth of such communities as the Subbotnik Jews, Khlysts, Molokan, and other officially unregistered groups. Analysis of the activity of the devotees of the untraditional religions in Tambov Oblast during the period of so-called “Khrushchev’s campaign against the Church” is first and foremost based on the materials of the Scientific Research Center of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the authorized representative of the Religious Cults Council of Tambov Regional Executive Committee. Method of retrospective inquiry was used to determine the prime causes of the activity of the religious communities during the researched period of time. For the first time the spectrum of recently declassified documents from the State Archive of the Socio-Political History of Tambov Oblast is introduced to the scientific discussion. The author comes to a conclusion that barely surviving themselves, all of the small religious congregations were still trying to increase their influence upon youth. Members of the illegal congregations were using the extremist calls that carried anti-governmental and anti-social sentiment. The distinctive feature of these religious groups was their orientation towards the social transformation of public.
Golovushkin D.A. - Image of Renovationism and Renovationists in the Russian Literature of the 1920th pp. 458-474

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2015.4.14409

Abstract: Renovationism is one of the most complex and contradictory phenomena in the Russian Orthodoxy of the 1st half of the XX century which still remains not entirely comprehended and understood. Its organizational and ideological formation and development took place under various cultural and historical conditions and under the influence of various religious and philosophical ideas and concepts that naturally affected versatility of this phenomenon and diversity of its appraisal. A visible role here is also played by the fact that, being the intra-church opposition, the Renovationism in the 1920th was involved in the resolution of sharp ideological and intra-church conflicts, having been influenced by challenges and drawbacks of ideologization and mythologization. Their overcoming is substantially contributed to the contextual analysis. The image of the Renovationism and its leaders as it was depicted in the Russian literature of the 1920th allows to create their objective portrait. Addressing to the works of Ilya Ilf, Evgeny Petrov, Olga Forsh and Sergey Yesenin helps to understand the flavor of the historical era when the Renovationist movement of the 1920th developed as well as the Movement’s internal heterogeneity and inconsistency and the way the society perceived the Renovationism and the Renovationist Church.
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