Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "Issues of war and peace"
Issues of war and peace
Khotko S.K. - Circassia in the Ottoman–Safavid War of 1578-1591 pp. 1-11


Abstract: The subject of this research is the process of Circassia’s involvement into the sphere of the military-political influence of Ottoman Empire throughout the XVI century. The highest level of integration of the Circassian political space into the Ottoman Empire was achieved during the 1570’s. In the long Ottoman–Safavid War (1578-1591), Circassia appeared as a regional ally, by providing the Ottoman Empire with its territory, manpower and material resources. The author underlines that during this timeframe there was a noticeable political convergence between the Circassian principalities with the Ottoman Empire and Crimean Khanate. Such phenomenon was a result of the Russia-Circassia military-political alliance (1552-157), which in turn was caused by the Crimean Khan Sahib I Giray’s military campaigns (1539, 1545, and 1551). Among the main conclusions of this research are the following: 1) a rapid decrease in intensity and political significance of the connections between the principalities of the Western Circassia and Moscow after the year 1562, and Eastern Circassia in 1570; 2) the Ottoman–Safavid War of 1578-1591 became an important milestone in establishment of the Ottoman sovereignty over Circassia.
Mikheev D.V. - English expeditions Strait of Magellan just before the Anglo-Spanish War of 1585-1604 pp. 1-8


Abstract:  This article examines the questions of Anglo-Spanish maritime rivalry in the second half of the XVI century. The subject of the research is the English attempts to invade the East Indies and Pacific Ocean domains of the Spaniards during the ruling period of Elizabeth Tudor through the Strait of Magellan, which was scarcely used after the first circumnavigation expedition (1519-1522). The chronological framework of the research capture the period just before the Anglo-Spanish War of 1574-1585. The source base contains the journals of the participants of expedition, English and Spanish reports. Methodological base lies in the historical-genetic method that allows tracing the evolution of English projects of using the rout through the Strait of Magellan during the indicated period. Successful outcome of the expedition of Drake and incomprehensible response of the Spanish authorities, convinced the English government in possibility of using the “South route” independent from the Spaniards, for trading with the Eastern countries. Only the actual Spanish presence in the Strait could impede the trade and predatory English expeditions. Regular attempts of the Englishmen to repeat the expedition of Drake served as an additional destabilizing factor prior to the Anglo-Spanish War.  
Boltaevskii A.A. - Sarajevo Crisis: Lessons of the First World War pp. 37-52


Abstract: It has been one hundred years since the beginning of the First World War and both historians and all who concern about the past are again interested in the lessons of the First World War. Despite the well known opposition of the two military alliances, the war was quite unexpected by most of regular population. Yet, the war was first perceived as something elated or grandiose. The murderer of the heir presumptive to the Austria-Hungarian throne Franz Ferdinand followed by the Sarajevo crisis led to the global conflict and the crisis of all European civilizations. Based on the memories of the eyewitnesses, feature materials and archive documents, the author of the article re-enact circumstances that led to the murderer in Sarajevo and event afterwards. According to the author of the article, the spiritual crisis of the European civilization was the true reason of the world conflict. The society was inevitably coming to that and encouraged by military and political leaders. Almost all governments of the leading European countries were interested in Franz Ferdinant's death. They wanted to change the situation in the world but need an official reason to take actions. 
Zalietok N. - British women in the First World War pp. 50-65


Abstract: The study of the peculiar position of British women and their involvement in the military campaign during the First World War are of great interest to scientists in the context of a large-scale struggle for the women’s emancipation that covered Britain in the early XX century. Activities of British women as members of the women’s auxiliary services and rear workers largely predetermined their future position in the society. The goal of this article is to analyze the main types of employment of British women during the military campaign of 1914-1918, as well as their attitude towards the war through the prism of social stereotypes. In the course of the study a historical-comparative method, a problem-chronological method, an analytical and psychological method, a statistical method, as well as methods of analysis and synthesis were used. The author concludes that in the period of the First World War, due to the conscription of a large number of men in the army, the list of jobs available to the female population significantly expanded. This case concerned members of the women’s auxiliary services as well as women rear workers. In addition, in this period women were active participants of campaigns that represented polar ideological directions – from pacifism to direct appeals to men to join the army. Traditional gender views on the role of women in this period, due to the military situation, were slightly diminished. At the same time, along with admiration for isolated examples of women's sacrifice, the majority of ordinary British women – members of the women’s auxiliary services and rear workers – were often subjected to condemnation by the society.
Bondareva V.V. - Discipline of the 431st Tikhvin Infantry Regiment during 1915-1916 pp. 80-86


Abstract: The object of this research is the 431st Tikhvin Infantry Regiment of 108th infantry division. The 431st Tikhvin Infantry Regiment was created from the militia troops on June 11, 1915 (regiment of 3rd class). The subject this research is the discipline in the regiment during the first year of its existence. The goal is to characterize discipline in the 431st regiment, name the types of offences committed by the lower ranks, establish their causes, consider the problem of discipline of the officer corps, determine the factors that affected discipline in the regiment. The research is based on the analysis of documents of the 431st regiment (F. 2980) preserved in the Russian State Military Historical Archive, as well as the materials of corps court of the 43rd army corps (F. 16142). The materials of the 431st Tikhvin Infantry Regiment are revealed for the first time. The author is firs to set a task for studying the discipline of militia based on its genuine documents. The types of offences committed by the lower ranks, such as absence, disposition of property, desertion, and their causes are analyzed. The problematic of examination of discipline of the officer personnel of the regiment is demonstrated, so are the factors that affected the discipline. The research materials can be used in the generalized work on the history of Russian Army during the World War I.
Kuchumov I.V. - The impact of evacuation of population and factories from western regions of the USSR upon socioeconomic processes in Bashkiria during the Great Patriotic War pp. 84-93


Abstract: The subject of this research is the role of Russian population in the socioeconomic processes of Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) during the Great Patriotic War. This event let to substantial quantitative and qualitative changes in socio-demographic composition of population of the Bashkir ASSR, which affected the economic potential of the region, as wells as had direct or indirect influence on the role of Bashkortostan in political space of the country. Reminiscence of those years define the specificity of ethnic, social, economic and to a certain extent political development of Bashkortostan at the present stage. The article applies the comparison of statistical data on demography and economics with the records derived from the narrative sources. The article demonstrates that despite the severe economic and humanitarian losses, the Great Patriotic War led to a surge in the economic regard, including influx of the evacuated workforce and acceleration of urbanization. Dwelling of the evacuated academic, university and engineering-technical personnel in Bashkiria contributed to significant economic and cultural progress of the region. Thus, in the beginning of 1990’s, the region became one of the initiators and leaders of the “sovereignty parade”, influencing the character of political processes in post-Soviet Russia. Moreover, the formed during the wartime industrial capacity of the republic allowed partially compensating the difficulties, caused by the transition to market economy in the 1990’s.
Okhota V.S. - Organization of the food service for civilians of a base city during the wartime (on the example of Krasnoyarsk) pp. 138-143


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the questions of organization of public food service in Krasnoyarsk. The period of Great Patriotic War marked the intensification of centralization in planning, allocation of state resources, expansion of food service for the workers. However, the sphere of public food service has experienced certain problems. The subject of this research is the analysis of organization of food service for civilian of a base city during the wartime on the example of Krasnoyarsk. Special attention is given to the emerging problems and methods of their resolution in the indicated sphere. Methodological foundation is the theory of modernization transition. The review of archival documents demonstrated that the provision of food product and durable goods to the population, as well as organization of public food service of a base city during the wartime, turned out to be a task of immense complexity, thus required immediate solution. As a result of analysis, it was determined the for solution of the aforementioned problem were established the allowance rates; government structures, production companies, nongovernmental organization, and population itself were enlisted in organization of provision. Besides the already existing canteen facilities for employees and dietetic refectories, were added the canteen facilities for civil servants, children, students, families of war veterans, evacuated civilians, and disabled veterans of the Great Patriotic War. The conducted research underlines that the experience of different countries marks the intensification of government intervention into the economy at the time of social instability during the war. The distributive form of relationship between the government and population has established in the country. Action of the local government authorities on expanding and improving the public food service chain during the war period, played an important role in prevention of mass famine.
Skripnik A.N. - Social life aspects of the problems of labor discipline in the Soviet defense companies pp. 142-158


Abstract: The World War II determined the crucial importance of industrial economies in conducting warfare. War became a competition of the economies. Efficiency of operation of the companies during the wartime in multiple ways depended on the labor discipline, which indexes in turn, were influenced by the of social life aspects, living and working conditions of the employees. A difficult situation with housing, food, and clothes throughout the period of 1941-1942 significantly affected the low indexes of labor discipline, as well as led to the fact that many staff members of the Soviet industrial companies were wilfully leaving their workplaces. The subject of this article is the correlation between the factors of social life and indexes of labor discipline. The problem is studied using the new archive data, with consideration of the existing research on related issues. The author determined the most prone to the violation of labor discipline categories of Soviet workers, as well as the key types of such violations. The main violators of the regime are the graduates of the job-industrial training and trade and factory schools, who have been conscripted into the plants. The article provides an explanation to this situation, as well as the main causes.
Boltaevskii A.A. - Salonika Battle Front During the First World War pp. 143-162


Abstract: The article shows the role and important of Salonika battle front during the First World War. The author of the article describes the nature of military actions and diplomatic discussions. Russian literary sources still focus rather on the Western and Eastern fronts. At the Salonika front the Entente forces consisted of English, French, Italian, Russian and later Greek people. Therefore, it would be interesting to study historical experience of cooperation of allies as a coalition. Personal interests of coalition participants interfered with their strategic cooperation. The author of the article also shows the influence of the Russian February Revolution and the phenomenon of 'brotherhood' in 1917. In 1918 in the Salonika front the 'Entente Cordiale March' was created to celebrate the withdrawal of Austrian-Hungarian forces (the main ally of Germany). 
Sogdanova Z.G. - Periodicals about the harm inflicted by German Fascist occupants pp. 149-156


Abstract: During the first days after the liberation from German Fascist occupation, the regional mass media published records on the sustained human losses and inflicted material damage. The provided data regarding all social spheres that suffered from the occupants carry an emotional tone justified by the human pain. The subject of this article is the periodicals of the Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and Stavropol Krai as the source of assessing the harm inflicted by the German Fascist occupants over the period of the Great Patriotic War. The key sources for writing this article became the periodicals from the National Archive of the Republic of Kalmykia and the State Archive of Stavropol Krai. Methodological basis is comprised by the dialectical and materialistic analysis of the historical events and facts published on the pages of periodicals during the post-occupational time. Thus, the periodicals, as the sources reflecting the events at the moment of their accomplishment, allow making a conclusion that policy of fascist conquerors carried mass character, and regardless of the regions and inhabiting peoples was standard, similarly rough, inhumane, barbarian, and ruthless.
Lysenkov S. - Organization of medical aid for the Red Army military personnel during the Great Patriotic War pp. 260-282


Abstract:  The object of this research is the organization of medical aid for the active duty military personnel in the conditions of wartime. The subject of this research contains the organizational legal aspects of providing medical aid to the wounded on the battlefield, in the frontline, during medical evacuation and in base hospitals. Special attention is given to the analysis of legal consequences of the expert outcome of injuries, as well as to the determination of the level of disablement of the invalids of the Great Patriotic War and possibility of their return back to duty of defending their Motherland.  The author examines the process of awarding the servicemen of the Red Army with a decoration for being wounded on the battlefield.  Scientific novelty of this work consists in the fact that for the first time in the Russian historical legal literature, the author attempts to conduct an objective analysis of a stage-by-stage organization of medical aid to the wounded active military personnel of the Red Army.  The previously unpublished documents and materials of the central and departmental archives of the Russian Federation are being Introduced into the scientific circulation; their content of allows a comprehensive study of the experience of the Soviet military medicine during the Great Patriotic War.  
Tret'yakova E. - National security and international law in the nineteenth century pp. 475-493


Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of issues related to national security in the context of their legal registration at the level of international law in the nineteenth century. The article investigates the category of national security, sovereignty, state territory, state border, customs and migration regime, the system of international security secure them in international law, it is determined the level of their formation within the specified period of time. The author has studied the international legal acts and relevant regulations of the Russian national legislation of the nineteenth century to regulate the relevant issues.In the study historical and legal analysis of the legal processing of issues directly related to national security, based on primary sources (international legal instruments and acts of domestic legislation adopted within the specified time period) and scientific papers on relevant issues are conducted.The novelty of the study lies in the historical-legal analysis of international legal regulation of issues related to national security in its relationship with national law.The main conclusions of the research are the following: national security began to take shape long before the advent of respective category, registration related issues occurred both at the level of national and international law; in the nineteenth century category sovereignty began to take shape legally , issues related to the state territory and state borders were regulated , customs and immigration regimes were expanded , forming system of international security started.
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