Genesis: Historical research
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History of ethnicities, peoples, nations
Orbodoeva M.V. - Buddhism translation activity in China during the Western Jin period pp. 20-24

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.21547

Abstract: This article is dedicated to one of the most important stages of spread of Buddhism in China – activity of translators and establishment of translation tradition. The expansion of Buddhism in China is closely related with translations of Buddhist literature from Sanskrit onto the Chinese language. Therefore, the work of Buddhist missionaries became an imperative component of the spread of Buddhism. The ruling period of Western Jin is the crucial time in establishment of Buddhism in China. This period is signified by translation of the canons.  The article caries out the analysis of translation activity in Chine during the period of Western Jin based on the translations of works of the Chinese scholars. The author thoroughly describes the activity of Buddhist texts translators into the Chinese language. The work introduces multiple new names of the translators, which are rarely mention in Russian literature. It is also determined that during the period of Western Jin, main attention was given to the translation of Buddhist text.
Zurnachyan A.S. - The Lawcode of Mxit'ar Gosh as a Source of Armenian Law pp. 25-49

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2015.2.14027

Abstract: The subject of the present research is the Lawcode of Mxit'ar Gosh created in the late XIIth - early XIIIth centuries, in particular, legal provisions regulating criminal law and civil law relations and rules of judicial proceedings. Special attention is paid to the principles of legal proceedings and principles of imposition of punishment for commission of crime. The author also examines the process and conditions for imposing death penalty. The author also touches upon the questions of the legal regulation of all kinds of treaties, the procedures of hereditary succession and testamentary succession that were effective in Armenia in the middle ages. The author has applied geneal research methods and special research methods such as historical-legal, comparative-historical, comparative-legal, formal-logical and system methods. The main conclusion of the research is that Mxit'ar Gosh was the first one to introduce the concept of natural law, natural right, natural beginnings and humanism long before European philosophers of the Enlightenment. The rules established by the Lawcode were quite progressive for those times and created the basis for the formation and development of Armenian law. 
Khotko S.Kh. - Inclusion of the Northwest Caucasus under the range of influence of the Ottoman Empire, 1475-1520 pp. 29-41

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.3.19308

Abstract:   The subject of this research is the establishment of the Ottoman control over the western areas of the Northwest Caucasus throughout the period of the late XV – early XVI centuries. After the Ottoman occupation of the Genoese Caffa (1475) and first invasion into Circassia (1479), the ethnopolitical history of the Northwest Caucasus has marked the beginning of a long era, the content of the events of which to a certain extent were determined by the character of relationships with the Ottoman Empire. In order to conquer the country of Circassians, the Ottoman government used a powerful military resource of the vassal Crimean Khanate. At the same time, the Ottomans were making efforts to prevent the spread of the Khan authority in Circassia, and encouraged the direct vassal ties of the Circassian dukes with regards to the sultan. All of the key events in the history of Ottoman- Circassia relations are examined on a broader scale of events associated with the Ottoman conquest of Crimea, Balkan Peninsula, and the Near East (Syria-Egypt Empire of the Mamluks), as well as the influence upon Circassia from the Crimean Khanate and Russian state. The author made the following conclusions: 1) clarification of the institutional character of the Ottoman dominance in the Northwest Caucasus; 2) inclusion into the scientific discourse of the problematics of the Cirkassian presence in Mamluk Egypt, which affected the vector of the Istanbul- Circassia relations; 3) influence of the Ottoman military-political presence in Crimea and Caucasus (Caffa  vicegerency)  upon the character of Crimea- Circassia connections.   
Bugai N.F., Chebotareva V.G. - Chapters of History of German Peasantry in Russia pp. 70-128

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2013.1.603

Abstract: The article reveals certain chapters in history of German peasantry in Russia, from involvement of German labour resources pursuant to the Manifesto of Ekaterina II (in 1973) until events of the XX century. Based on the analysis of documents, the authors of the article study participation of German peasants in the land development at the Volga Region and Novorossiysk Region during the XIX century and development of land resources in Kazakhstan during the XX century. Special attention is paid at active participation of Soviet germans in developing economy of the Soviet Union during 1940 - 1980. Previous articles were mostly devoted to forced migration of Soviet germans but in this article the authors focus on their life style in Siberia and Far North as well as Kazakhstan and Middle Asia. The authors describe their role and contribution to development of the economic potentials and spirits in the region. The authors provide names of Germans who were involved in different fields of industrial production, agriculture, state management, education, health care and sport. 
Zurnachyan A.S. - Legal Position of Peasants in East Armenia in the XIXth Century pp. 78-95

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2014.4.12056

Abstract: In article features of legal status of peasants in East Armenia, the characteristic of their property and non-property rights, as during the period before accession of East Armenia to the Russian Empire (the first quarter of the XIX century), and after entry of the Armenian lands into structure of the Russian Empire are considered. Foundations of division of peasants on various groups on which depended not only a set of the rights and duties, but also a procedure for payment of taxes and other obligatory payments are analyzed.Change of the state accessory of the Armenian lands entailed serious changes in its social, economic, politichny order and legal system. The indicator of these changes, undoubtedly, position of the population and, first of all, the most numerous estate – the peasantry which left about 90 percent of the Armenian population is. The state (state) peasants made the vast majority of them about 80 percent. The others lived on landowners' estates and were called as landowner peasants. In article the adopted acts directed on definition of the rights and duties of peasants in system of the new power are analyzed. In work the following general methods of research - the description, analogy, the analysis and synthesis, logical and historical modeling are used. For the analysis of various points of view on development of legal status of peasants and its separate elements the dialectic method of knowledge was used. When writing article such special methods, as historical and legal, comparative-historical, comparative and legal, formal and logical, system were used. Application in total of the specified methods allowed to solve in a complex set the purpose and the tasks. The author of article for the first time systematized all acts, archival data, and also the main researches of the pre-revolutionary, Soviet and modern periods concerning legal status of peasants in East Armenia in the XIX century. Entry of East Armenia into structure of the Russian Empire and acceptance of a number of legal acts led to a certain systematization of legal status of the peasantry. Though, it should be noted that the adopted acts often contained the measures which had "vague" character in this sphere. It is connected with that the state policy of the considered period, in the most part, was directed on support of estate of land owners as they were a support of the government on places. Some attempts to carry out a full-fledged peasant reform weren't finished. However, despite all shortcomings, the carried-out transformations allowed to include Armenia and to its population in the process of creation of the capitalist, commodity-money relations which captured almost all empire.
Gaikin V.A. - Korean Diaspora in Japan, Quasi-Labour Union of Soai-Kai and the Great Earthquake in Kanto pp. 89-142

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2013.2.453

Abstract: Since 1916 when Japan experienced the industrial boom caused by the First World War a growing number of immigrants had been coming to Japan to work at factories and plants. In 1916 the Korean Diaspora consisted of 5624 people and in 1920 it reached 298000 people. Most of those people were simple workers with low competence and skills.Korean massacres after the Great Earthquake in Kanto in 1923 when thousands of Korean people had been murdered became some kind of a milestone in the history of the Korean Diaspora. It caused immigrants to establish their own social organizations and develop the quasi-labor union Soai-Kai and Zenko communist labor union. The present article is the first work in Russian historiography devoted to the Korean Diaspora in Japan. The author of the article also provides a complex analysis of activities performed by the quasi-labour union Soai-Kai that was created and managed by state and police authorities.
Bezgin V.B. - Russian village in the late XIX - early XX century: the verges of peasants’ deviant behavior (Part 1) pp. 120-167
Abstract: The article presents a research on the deviant behavior of Russian peasants in the era of modernization of Russia in the late XIX - early XX century. The author studies the problem of suicide among the peasants and the attitude of rural population to the facts of euthanasia. On the basis of archival materials author analyzes the dynamics of rural suicide, describes methods and motives of farmers’ suicide. The article clarifies the attitude of the rural population towards alcohol and determines the cause and extent of alcoholism in the village environment.Mental illnesses in a Russian village were not common, mental disorder was seen as a phenomenon that violates the usual rules and can potentially be dangerous. The article determines the level of spread of such crimes as infanticide and abortion in the Russian village, discloses its causes, nature and motives. The article brings the analysis of deviant behavior of Russian peasants in intimacies, disclosure the patterns of premarital and marital behavior and the attitude of the villagers to the deordination of the rules of marriage. The author describes reasons and forms of rural prostitution as well as the attitude of Russian villagers to fornication and adultery. The article shows different types of sexual crimes among Russian peasants, the motives and the extent of their expansion. The author describes the criminal laws of the Russian Empire and the legal views of rural residents in respect of such crimes. The article shows the examples of sexual inversions among the peasants and the reaction to it by the local population.As the result of this study the author finds deviant behavior of Russian peasants to be a result of the modernization processes in the country in the late XIX - early XX century. With the influence of the city, migratory fisheries, social mobility of residents of the village the accustomed relations, community and family foundations and patriarchal customs were destroyed and therefore the various forms of peasant deviance reinforced.
Bezgin V.B. - Russian village in the late XIX - early XX century: the verges of peasants’ deviant behavior (Part 2) pp. 149-190
Abstract: The article presents a research on the deviant behavior of Russian peasants in the era of modernization of Russia in the late XIX - early XX century. The author studies the problem of suicide among the peasants and the attitude of rural population to the facts of euthanasia. On the basis of archival materials author analyzes the dynamics of rural suicide, describes methods and motives of farmers’ suicide. The article clarifies the attitude of the rural population towards alcohol and determines the cause and extent of alcoholism in the village environment.Mental illnesses in a Russian village were not common, mental disorder was seen as a phenomenon that violates the usual rules and can potentially be dangerous. The article determines the level of spread of such crimes as infanticide and abortion in the Russian village, discloses its causes, nature and motives. The article brings the analysis of deviant behavior of Russian peasants in intimacies, disclosure the patterns of premarital and marital behavior and the attitude of the villagers to the deordination of the rules of marriage. The author describes reasons and forms of rural prostitution as well as the attitude of Russian villagers to fornication and adultery. The article shows different types of sexual crimes among Russian peasants, the motives and the extent of their expansion. The author describes the criminal laws of the Russian Empire and the legal views of rural residents in respect of such crimes. The article shows the examples of sexual inversions among the peasants and the reaction to it by the local population.As the result of this study the author finds deviant behavior of Russian peasants to be a result of the modernization processes in the country in the late XIX - early XX century. With the influence of the city, migratory fisheries, social mobility of residents of the village the accustomed relations, community and family foundations and patriarchal customs were destroyed and therefore the various forms of peasant deviance reinforced.
Bleikh N.O. - The causes of emergence and transformation of military democracy among the nations of North Caucasus pp. 181-189

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.5.19705

Abstract: The lifestyle and mentality of any nation form based on the geographical conditions, as well as economic, political, and sociocultural component of its existence. But they cannot always be consistent, and thus, depending on the living standards they vary, forcing people to adjust to the new circumstances. In this aspect, all native ethnoses of the North Caucasus were involuntarily subjected to a centuries-long challenge, because they often became an object of foreign attacks: Tatar Mongols, TImur, Iraq, England, etc. Namely under these conditions, an acute necessity for establishment of military democracy has emerged. The author concludes that the form of organization of authority characteristic to military democracy means that the power belongs to the leaders of the tribes. One of the external manifestations of the system of military democracy became the creation of the strong military organizations under the leadership of military chiefs, as well as plundering raids of the neighbors. Leaders for the campaign were chosen usually in a specially designated place. Within time, such democracy transformed from elected based on merits to inheritable, turning democracy into tyranny. This also bring changes into the system, content and forms of martial arts of the North Caucasian nations.
Kuchumov I.V. - Russians and Bashkirs in the processes of interethnic interaction in Southern Ural pp. 190-204

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.5.20855

Abstract: The subject of this research is the examination of the process of interethnic interaction between the Russian and Bashkirian population in Southern Ural for the purpose of its periodization. The history in relationship between Russians and Bashkirs begins during the period of early Middle Ages, which is testified by the language facts and archeological findings, and continues until today. We can observe the peaceful, as well as conflict stages during the course of this process. The period of interethnic conflicts coincided with the time of Russia’s economic assimilation of the Southern Ural, political integration of the region into the composition of the Russian Empire noted by the clash of two diverse in their origin cultures. The author determines the periods of interethnic interaction, as well as interethnic conflicts between Russians and Bashkirs. The work also involves the written sources and field materials, the information of which allowed describing the general picture of the Russian-Bashkir relationship. The scientific novelty consists in highlighting and characterizing of the stages of interethnic interaction from the first contacts of the two ethnoses until their modern status based on the formulated within the Russian science theories. The author concludes that the episodic interethnic collaboration between the Russian and local population existed in Southern Ural prior to accession of the region to Russia. Such interaction in its various forms contributed into consolidation of the local pro-ethnoses into the full-fledged ethnoses and ethnic groups.
Ryabkova O.A. - Siberian «Regionalists» (A. P. Shchapov, G. N. Potanin, N. M. Yadrintsev) On The Situation Of The Peoples Of Siberia In The Russian Empire pp. 252-259

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.3.18896

Abstract: This article explores the poinst of view of historians of the second half of the XIX century, representatives of the regional history" concept, pertaining to the status of the people of Siberia during its colonization and their inclusion into the population of the Russian State. The ideas of the Siberian "regionalists" on the status of Siberian residents as a part of the Russian Empire represent a great scientific interest. The foundation for the analysis consists of the works of A.P. Shchapov, G.N. Potanin, M.N. Yadrintsev dedicated to this topic. The article gives attention to the interaction between the Russian and Siberian ethnic groups, processes of assimilation, population decline, provision of civil rights to Siberian population, alongside their education. The author determines the role and significance of the Siberian intelligentsia in solution of the problems of  indigenous population. In this context, the positive and the negative impact of colonization policy of the Russian State upon the development of the population Siberia is being examined.
Zagoruiko M.V. - The symbols of Georgia - historical retrospective pp. 292-325

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2015.3.14534

Abstract: Object of research of this article are the coat of arms and a flag of Georgia, history of these symbols and their interpretation. The earth on which there is modern Georgia, remembers a set of the ancient states. On it there were Colchis and Iberian kingdoms. These lands were a part of Great Armenia and the Roman Empire, waged wars with Mongols, Byzantium, Iran, the Ottoman Empire, knew a great number of talented tsars and commanders, saw not one imperial dynasty on the throne. It is obvious that the heraldry of the Georgian lands is sated with heroic and sacral symbols, symbols which can't be forgotten, deleted or distorted. They as "charms" of this earth have to be present at the coat of arms and a flag of the state. Article shows, what symbols were considered in the coat of arms of modern Georgia and what are unfairly buried in oblivion. The history of creation of the modern coat of arms of the state that allows to understand the main errors of hasty "coat of arms made" is also described. In research the historical approach showing the geopolitical phenomena and prerequisites at creation of the coat of arms of the state was used. The historical and comparative method along with a historical and genetic method showed possibility of continuity of old symbols in the modern state. On the basis of methods of the analysis and classification, symbols of Georgia are compared with a political system of the state. All above methods allowed to define the main points of research.The main conclusion of article is that it is impossible to call the coat of arms of Georgia complete. He demands completion - participation in its creation not only artists and politicians, but also historians. Those symbols, those fundamental coats of arms about which Georgia forgot are shown, and after all it is centuries-old history of its lands and ruling dynasties. Deleting these symbols, the country risks to lose not only self-identity, but also own territories. And as the history shows, this process doesn't stop in the state since 1991. Series of color revolutions and senseless wars already separated Abkhazia and South Ossetia from Georgia. Many will tell that it is result of dull policy of Mikhail Saakashvili. Yes it is, but after all at it the real coat of arms of Georgia was accepted. Perhaps, time came is critical to look at the main symbols of the state.
Zurnachyan A.S. - Sudebnik of Sempad the Constable as a monument to Armenian law pp. 434-457

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2015.4.15534

Abstract: The subject of this research is the Sudebnik (Code of Laws) of Sempad the Constable, devised in the second half of the XIII century and used throughout the territory of Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, its norms in the spheres of criminal and civil law, as well as the issues of government administration and state structure. A special attention is given to the positions that distinguish the norms of this document from the text of the Sudebnik written by Mkhitar Gosh, which was used earlier in Cilicia and was considered to be the main source for Sudebnik of Sempad the Constable. The main conclusions of the work consist in the thesis that the Sudebnik (Code of Laws) of Sempad the Constable is an independent legal act, preparation and enactment of which were substantiated by the demand and conditions of development of the Cilician society. The Sudebnik represents a unique legal document and a substantial contribution to the medieval Armenian culture.
Zurnachyan A.S. - Code of Law of David, the son of Alavik as a landmark of Armenian law pp. 860-870

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2015.6.17142

Abstract: The subject of this research is the Code of Law and its content of David, the son of Alavik, devised approximately in 1130.  The article is focused on the questions of legal regulation of the secular relations due to the fact that this Code of Law became Armenian first secular legal act, and was not a result of the legislative work of the church. The Code of Law was unsanctioned by the present authorities of the conquerors (Turks and Arabs), but at the same time was put into practice, thus it is of a great interest for studying. David’s Code of Law is one of the most little-studied sources of Armenian law till the present times. Among the main conclusions is the fact that David developed the first secular Code of Law, in which he attempted to reflect the existed in reality norms of common law, and based on them create a normative foundation for regulating the civil, family, labor, criminal-legal relations for the purpose of ensuring the rights and liberties of Armenian people. Thus, the principle of mandatory pay for work and the purpose for marriage (birth of children) were enacted for the first time. Some of the rules established by the Code of Law later became the origins for the more famous and studied Armenian Codes of Law – Mkhitar Gosh’s legal code(XII-XIII centuries), and Sempad the Constable legal code (1265).
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