Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "Anthroposociogenesis and historical anthropology"
Anthroposociogenesis and historical anthropology
Markhanova T.F. - Population of China during the time of Sui dynasty (581-618) pp. 29-37


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the demographic policy of Sui dynasty. The goal of the work is to demonstrate the size of China’s population during the ruling of Sui dynasty based on the Chinese sources and Western-European literature. The author is first to examine the methods of calculation of the population base during the ruling of Sui dynasty and highlights three of them: maoyue (visual inspection), registration of households, and dynamic of population base. The system of taxation lied in the foundation of the centralized census of Sui dynasty. Similar official enumeration of the population was conducted for tax collection and realization of labor duty. Analyzing China’s demographic situation during the time of Sui dynasty, it is noted that the growth and decline in size of population of China were associated with the periods of development of the country, as well as socio-economic and natural-geographical factors. During the bloom of the dynasty, the author underlines a significant economic growth, which affected the increase of the size of population. However, during the crisis and wars, the situation with population changed to negative. The author comes to a conclusion that during the time of Sui dynasty in 609 A.D., with the help of three analytical methods, the population comprised 46 million registered people, which allowed forming a new tax base for the country.
Koroleva L.A., Korolev A.A., Mol'kin A.N. - Islamic Political and Informal Organizations of Russia During the 1990's (Based on the Example of the Middle Volga Region) pp. 76-88


Abstract: The authors of the article analyze the process of creation of Muslim political organizations in Russia at the federal level during so called religious Renaissance in the 1990's (All-Union Islamic Revival Party 'Nakhdat', Islamic Cultural Center, Social Movement 'Nur' ('Light'), the Union of Muslims of Russia, 'Ittifak al'-muslimin' (Muslim Union) and political movement 'Refax'). The authors also analyze programs carried out by these organizations, activities of their leaders, relations with political parties and etc. The process of formation of informal Islamic groups had the following peculiarities in the Middle Volga Region: more 'earthly' nature of units, close relations to usual Muslims, radical nature of those organizations and their activities, political neutrality and focus on the issues of national culture. The authors also study associated programs, targets, activities and documents ('Tatar kanun' - Constitution of Tatar People, 'Tatar mekhellese' and others) created by both radical and moderate groups such as Tatar Social Center, Tatar Party of National Independence 'Ittifak', Youth Union 'Azatlyk' and etc. The authors also describe the Muslim closed group 'Saf Islam' (Pure Islam). Even though Tatar national movements appealed to Islamic values, their programs and activities were mostly socially oriented.
Zubareva E.G. - The physical type of the population Vodyanskoe settlement of the Golden Horde period (on the materials of christianized part of the necropolis pp. 135-142


Abstract: Physical appearance of the population of the Golden Horde resulted from interbreeding of representatives of two big races, i.e. the Mongoloid and the Caucasoid. The presence of the Mongoloid component is to some extent manifested in the appearance of inhabitants of all the Golden Horde towns. Nevertheless, it is the Caucasoid features that prevailed in urban population. One of such places was Vodyanskoe settlement. This article presents the history of the antropological study of Vodyanskoe settlement during the Golden Horde period. The article includes craniological study of the Golden Horde population. The author provides a detailed description of the osteometrical series, conducts analysis of osteometrical material, as well as determines the anthropological type, which dwells on this land. The author’s main contribution consists in carrying out the osteometric research and introduction into the scientific circulation of the data about physical type of the Golden Horde population. Based on the craniological and osteological facts, the author was able to give almost precise description of appearance of the urban population of the Christian part of necropolis of the Vodyansky settlement.
Pererva E.V. - Pathological analysis of remains of impuberal individuals dating to late Bronze Age from the near Kurgan burials of Lower Volga Region and Republic of Kalmykia pp. 176-185


Abstract: This research is dedicated to the analysis of the pathological deviations that have been discovered on the remains of children from the burials dating to the late Bronze Age. The anthropological materials originate from Kurgan burials located in the Volgograd region and Republic of Kalmykia. In the course of this research, 62 individuals were examined under the age of 16. The bones were poorly preserved, and only various parts of scull fragments were discovered belonging to 52 children. Analysis was conducted on the pathological processes in form of hemorrhages, discovered on the inner surface of the bones at the top of the scull. Sides of anomalous structure on the bones of the scull and postcranial skeleton were also discovered. The age of the impuberal individuals was determined through dental examination, program developed by D. Ubelaker (1978), as well as the sizes of the diaphyses of the large bones of the skeleton and collar bones. It was determined that for the children of the late Bronze Age the characteristic pathologies were those that emerge as the result of lack of microelements in the organism, systematic malnutrition, and spread of infectious diseases.
Pererva E.V. - Paleopathological peculiarities of the impuberal adolescent population of the Middle-Sarmatian times buried in the Lower Volga Region pp. 206-220


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the paleopathological examination of the remains of impuberal individuals and adolescents of the Middle-Sarmatian times from the near Kurgan burials, territory of the Lower Volga and Lower Don. During the process of this research, the specificities of the age structure of the group were being assessed. The character of pathological deviations was studied on the dentition (tartar and enamel hypoplasia), scull bones (signs of porosis, markers of iron-deficient anemia, inflammatory processes), as well as the bones of postcranial skeleton. Overall, 21 individual was subjected to this study. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that this article is the first to examine the anthropological materials of impuberal individuals and adolescents of the Middle-Sarmatian times in the context of paleopathology. In the result of this study, it was determined that during this timeframe there were not many children buried in near Kurgan Region, which is likely associated with the existence of other type of burial ritual of the impuberal population. The children of the Middle-Sarmatian period had prolonged breastfeeding and specific diet, which was based on meat and dairy. Thus, the illnesses, which emerge because of the lack of minerals and vitamins in the body, were common to the children of this period.
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