Genesis: Historical research
Journal Menu
> Issues > Rubrics > About journal > Authors > Requirements for publication > Editorial collegium > The editors and editorial board > List of peer reviewers > Review procedure > Policy of publication. Aims & Scope. > Ethics > Legal information
Journals in science databases
About the Journal

MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "Social history"
Social history
Boltaevskii A.A. - “They Work Like a Good Warsaw Elevator: From Morning till Deep Night”: Child and Teenager Prostitution in the Russian Empire and the USSR in the Late XIX – Early XX centuries. pp. 14-21

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2014.4.13050

Abstract: For the last quarter of century the average of prostitutes lowered to 14-15 years old. But serious talks about child and teenager prostitutions began in the end of XIX century. The article reviews historical experience of fighting this phenomenon, which is also important for a present-day situation. The author compares the expansion and fight against child prostitution in the Russian Empire and the USSR, showing drawbacks and mistakes of the State power bodies and public organizations.  The researcher reviews this difficult and long time concealed topic in the basis of statistical data, publications and contemporary researches. Child prostitution spreads in the conditions of family values crisis, the absence of a working lawful basis of punishments of pimps and the consumers of such services. A big increase of this social deviation appeared during the First World War because of bad economic conditions and an increasing number of refugees from Western regions.  During the period of NEP many street children were involved in prostitution. The Soviet state changed the situation not only with the help of repressive measures, but also with strong attention to motherhood and childhood.
Nikulin V.V. - Social and Legal Aspects of Anti-Corruption Enforcement in the Soviet Russia (the 1920th) pp. 24-61

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2014.1.749

Abstract: The author of the article investigates the experience of fight against corruption in the Soviet Russia in the 1920th years against the developed new economic relations (New Economic Policy) and the analysis of legislative and law-enforcement actions of the power counteracting. The main attention is paid to counteraction to bribery, as to the most characteristic manifestation of corruption. Various aspects of manifestations of bribery and specific actions of the authorities on its minimization are considered. It is claimed that experience of fight against corruption in the 1920th years testifies that, despite drastic legislative measures, corruption in the form of bribery appeared the unbeaten phenomenon of the Soviet-Russian reality, remaining the most essential component of nomenclature crime. Is shown that corruption changed and continued to exist. The bribe during strengthening of fight against it becomes latent, sophisticated, with attraction of the whole chain of intermediaries and use of the hidden methods of receiving. The conclusion that corruption was in many respects generated by the system is drawn and "military and bureaucratic dictatorship" generated them. Dictatorship promoted development of psychology of impunity of the nomenclature, aggravated with system of its withdrawal from punishment, destruction morally - moral principles of society that led to elimination of constraining motives of behavior. The situation was aggravated with low cultural level in the mass of the Soviet officials, the mutual responsibility reigning in the nomenclature environment, negative attitude to the law and confidence that received material benefits from a held post – deserved remuneration of the winner. Without having before revolution in what Russia - or especially recognized high situation, Bolsheviks, having come to the power, reached the highest position in the Russian society. Is shown as the consciousness of own exclusiveness easily turned into permissiveness. Situation was aggravated with lack of independent judicial system that generated low efficiency of national vessels, corruption of judges didn't allow to use the most important principle of punishment – its inevitability, to use all legal potential of the prevention and bribery eradication. The author comes to a conclusion about need for fight against corruption of application of a package of measures of legal, economic, moral character is constant and precautionary influencing potential corrupt officials.
Iminokhoev A.M. - The city of Verkhneudinsk/Ulan-Ude in 1930: demographic processes and size of population pp. 25-32

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.3.22285

Abstract: In the presented article, the author examined the channels and mechanisms of population formation in Verkhneudinsk / Ulan-Ude under conditions of large-scale socialist industrialization of the 1930s, when radical changes in the growth rates and the structure of the city's population took place. Based on the archive materials, special attention is paid to migration flows from other regions and rural areas of the republic, which was the main source of urban population growth during the examined the period. The author analyzes the important problems, which aggravated due to the massive influx of migrants, such as urban infrastructure, housing crisis, and growth of social diseases. The methodological basis of the research includes the fundamental principles of historical science: the principle of historicism, which requires considering historical events and processes in their development and interrelationship; the principle of scientific objectivity and systemic nature that allows carrying out an objective analysis, give assessment to the facts related to the topic in their combination. The main conclusions of the study lie in the thesis that the formation of urban population of Verkhneudinsk/Ulan-Ude during the 1930's was affected by a number of socioeconomic and demographic processes characteristic to the entire county, among which are industrialization, collectivization, and demographic transition..
Fadeev L.A. - Problems of Competitive Practices at Engineering Enterprises During the First Five-Year Periods pp. 51-75

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2013.2.665

Abstract: The article deals with socialist competition at the Soviet machine-building enterprises in days of the first five-years periods as to one of the major elements of labour relations. The analysis of the hard-powered work practices on various on the size and structure enterprises of one branch allows to track the influence of the scales of factory and a role of competitive practices in system of labour relations of the enterprise.
Kenya I.A. - Female Charity as a Special Element of Russian Charity in the XIXth - Early XXth Centuries pp. 53-77

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2014.5.12462

Abstract: Object of research are motives, features, the main directions of female charity in Russia in XIX - N of the XX centuries. Activity of women's charitable societies is studied on the example of charitable societies of the empress Maria Fiodorovna and activity of society "Ladies' contempt poor" S. S. Shcherbatova. Examples of charity of wives of governors, merchants, businessmen are given. Charity of the countess A.D.Bludova and S.V.Panina is considered. In article it is featured charitable, educational and philanthropic activity of the princess M.K.Tenisheva. Research methods are used: comparative-historical, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction. Motives of female and man's charity are defined by methods of psychology. Scientific novelty of research consists in identification of valuable installations and synthesis of motives of female charity in Russia in XIX - N of the XX centuries. The difference of motives and manifestations of female and man's charity is revealed. One of conclusions is representation of female charity as self-realization of an inner world of the woman. This conclusion is confirmed with concrete examples of activity of famous philanthropists of S.V.Panina, M. K. Tenisheva, etc.
Slezin A.A., Vanin V.A. - The evolution of the ideological and educational work of the Komsomol in the mid-1950s pp. 68-119
Abstract: Based on the materials of Tambov Region the author identifies the key areas of political and educational work of the provincial Komsomol Organizations in 1953-1957 and their contradictory impact on the public consciousness. The author evaluates the practical implementation of the current policy groups, groups by industry membership. It is shown that the political and educational activities of the Komsomol were romanticized and was built on the principle of the unity of education in the revolutionary traditions of the past, the heroics perception of the present and of the communist ideals of the future. Debunking the Stalin personality cult, which included the condemnation of the old methods of ideological and education activities, included calls for an end of embellishing present time involved a new turn in social strengthening of the cult of Lenin. Many of the noble appeals turned out to be propaganda and had little to do with reality. The realities of the mid-1950s have proved once again that the Soviet ideology, which by chance is sometimes identified with the Soviet religion, was constantly build on the cult of a leader. According to the authors, the system of political education still does not so much test the political beliefs but copies normative samples of politicized behavior.
Zagoruiko M.V. - State Symbols of the Republic of Azerbaijan: History and Meaning pp. 78-92

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2014.5.13515

Abstract: The history of the young state of Azerbaijan goes to depth of centuries, closely intertwining with thousand-year history of such great powers as Persia, the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, left an indelible trace in the Azerbaijani culture Today Azerbaijan harmoniously fits into the world community and, being the independent state, independently conducts foreign and domestic policy. In the early nineties the state symbolics was chosen as the people of Azerbaijan: flag, coat of arms, anthem. In this work an attempt to interpret a semantic component of the coat of arms and a flag of Azerbaijan in close connection with history of their creation, and also to estimate their relevance now is made. In research the historical approach showing the political phenomena and preferences of the republic Azerbaijan was used. Along with a historical and genetic method, and also a method of mathematical comparison of statistical data, the main reperny points of research allowed to define a historical and comparative method. It should be noted that after events of 1917, the heraldry was buried in oblivion for this reason, there are a lot of mistakes and inaccuracies meets in the coats of arms of various regions and even the sovereign countries now. Many states of the former Soviet Union approved the state symbols, roughly breaking not only strict dogmas of heraldry, but also historical experience of own earth and the people.  It is possible to claim that the coat of arms of the republic Azerbaijan abounds with disputable symbols. It is possible to correct current situation, it is worth rethinking the main state symbols of the state. Haste of their acceptance at the beginning of the XX century led to a number of mistakes. It is necessary to take for a basis of the coat of arms and a flag of the republic or the irano-Persian symbolics – symbolics of the first homeland of the Azerbaijani people, or symbols which were used in this territory during its entry into structure of the Russian Empire. Today it is the only symbols of Azerbaijan having the historical, dogmatic and ethnographic bases fixed by earlier acts that can't be told about "remake" of the beginning of the XX century.
Kenya I.A. - Charity By Russian Tzars in Russian Province pp. 104-119

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2013.5.9136

Abstract: The article is devoted to different directions of charity activities by the Romanov dynasty both at the levels of Russia and Russian provinces based on the example of Bryansk Region in the Orlov county. The author describes the main forms of charity by the royal dynasty in Russian province such as donations to monasteries and churches, donations to citizens, support of schools and orphanages. The author provides historical facts about visits of the royal family to the Bryansk Region. The article describes visits of the Peter the First and Alexander the First to Bryansk and Nicolas the Second to Bezhitsa and how these visits were reflected in the cultural monuments. A special part of the article is devoted to Mikhail Romanov's estate and his charity activities. Much attention is paid to the relations of famous donators of the Bryansk industry I. S. Maltsev, P. I. Gubonin, S. S. Mogilevtsev and M. K. and V. N. Tenishevs with the governors of the Russian Empire. 
Oleinikova E.G. - Social Situation in Stalingrad During the Periods of the Great Patriotic War and Post-War Reconstruction pp. 106-124

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2013.6.9492

Abstract: The article is devoted to the social history of Stalingrad during the period of the Great Patriotic War and the first decade after the War. The author of the article analyzes a number of sources: archive documents and periodical press. Many of these sources are introduced in science for the first time. The author studies the phenomenon of development of the Soviet social model, in particular, formation of a special kind of social policy based on the principles of paternalism. The new policy guaranteed the priority role of the government in realization of social interests and personal needs. The all-encompassing influence of the government covered not only the sphere of production but also the sphere of allocation and consumption of social benefits. The author describes the social activities performed by the government before and during the defence of Stalingrad including the guidance over the evacuation processes, social protecton of evacuated population and citizens and raising funds to support the national defence. The author defines and describes stages of reconstructon of the social infrastructure of Stalingrad as well as special features of the reconstructive policy. She makes conclusions about the significance of social and historical researches in the process of formation of the social welfare state in the Russian Federation.
Bezgin V.B. - Unnatural vices within the peasant environment (second half of the XIX – beginning of the XX century) pp. 108-120

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.2.17918

Abstract: Based on the archive materials, the author examines the facts of sexual inversions (incest, sodomy, and zoophilia) in the Russian village of the end of XIX – the beginning of XX century. According to the existed criminal legislation they qualified as crimes against public morality, and the villagers considered them as vice and contradicting the human nature actions. The article presents an analysis of the court cases associated with the sexual actions of criminal character, which involved the peasants. The author determined the level of expansion of these crimes within the rural environment, explores the reaction of the villagers to the cases of sexual perversions, as well as studies the legal precedents with regards to such cases. As a hypothesis, the author suggests that the manifestations of sexual inversions among peasants were linked to the peculiarities of the rural lifestyle, as well as the negative consequences of the modernization process of the Russian society. The unnatural vices in the village were most common to the rural marginals. On the contrary, the male villagers became victims of sexual perversions on the city from the side of local sodomists. Based on the archive materials, the author examines the facts of sexual inversions (incest, sodomy, and zoophilia) in the Russian village of the end of XIX – the beginning of XX century. According to the existed criminal legislation they qualified as crimes against public morality, and the villagers considered them as vice and contradicting the human nature actions. The article presents an analysis of the court cases associated with the sexual actions of criminal character, which involved the peasants. The author determined the level of expansion of these crimes within the rural environment, explores the reaction of the villagers to the cases of sexual perversions, as well as studies the legal precedents with regards to such cases. As a hypothesis, the author suggests that the manifestations of sexual inversions among peasants were linked to the peculiarities of the rural lifestyle, as well as the negative consequences of the modernization process of the Russian society. The unnatural vices in the village were most common to the rural marginals. On the contrary, the male villagers became victims of sexual perversions on the city from the side of local sodomists.
Boltaevskii A.A., Pryadko I.P. - Establishment of the Soviet political elite: from Lenin’s death to Stalin’s triumph pp. 115-134

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.2.17827

Abstract: The growing interest towards the defining moments in Russian history takes place under the conditions of establishment of Russia’s independent course. The object of fierce discussion, similar to the period of Perestroika, becomes the activity of J. V. Stalin, as well as the peculiarities of formation of the Soviet political system over the period of 1920’s – 1930’s. Some people see Stalin as a dictator, but other consider him a prominent government leader. At the same time, the interests to his persona causes the occurrence of various tendentious and falsified materials. The authors lean on a broad range of sources: documental materials, testimonies of political and military leaders, works of Russian and foreign experts, as well as use the comparative-historical and problematic-chronological methods. An average Russian believe that the great in Stalin’s era consists in increase of the political-military power of the country, success in industrial expansion, and most importantly – victory in the Great Patriotic War. All of these events overshadow the negative manifestations, such as mass repression, persecution of church alongside the academic and cultural figures, as well as devastation of peasantry during the process of collectivization. Depending on the sociopolitical situation in the country, the historical memory of our citizens will reproduce certain events of the period of 1920’s – 1950’s, which obscures the facts that contradict the established conjuncture. Stalin’s activity can be viewed as the creation of new political elite, which is capable of withstanding the internal and external challenges.
Kenya I.A. - Public charity in central Russia in the second half of XIX - early XX centuries and its features pp. 122-134

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.6.21279

Abstract: The subject of this research public charity in the Russian Empire in the second half of XIX - early XX centuries and its features. The different types of charities vertical: national, provincial, district and horizontally: educational, parish, professional and other peculiarities of forming the system of organized public charity. Comparative analysis of the development of philanthropy in the territory of Orel, Smolensk and Vladimir provinces. Trends, the features of the development of charity in provincial and district towns. The study used methods of statistical analysis, comparative-historical method, historical legal method, logical-analytical and socio-cultural method of the study the Main conclusions of the study are :public charity in Russian Empire in second half XIX - n. XX centuries. was formed under the patronage of the Royal family of the Romanovs- the formation of a by n. XX in the system of organized public charity, which had its legislative framework- the appearance in the provincial offices of the Russian cities and provincial charities- charitable society in the province became the successors to the philanthropists- low initiative of the population was replaced by the municipal authorities in the establishment of charitable societiesThe novelty of the study is the first analysis of the emergence and development of the charitable societies on the example of Vladimir, Orel and Smolensk province.
Mezit L.E. - Establishment of the institutions of civil society in the early XX century (on the materials of Yeniseian Governorate) pp. 167-171

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.3.21911

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the examination of work of the public organizations of Yeniseian Governorate in resolution of the questions of universal education. The chronological framework of the research capture the period after the adoption of law of Provisional Government of March 4, 1906 “Temporary Rules about Societies and Unions” and until the Revolution of 1917. Examination of the question at hand using the materials of Yeniseian Governorate allows forming the perception about which events took place in the regional life, as well as country as a whole. Analysis of the work of s public organizations in the studied period clarifies the level of comprehensiveness of the civil society institutions in pre-revolutionary Russia. The scientific novelty is defined by introduction into the academic discourse of the new, previously unpublished archive materials, which allowed reconstructing the activity of public organizations in the field of education using the example of Yeniseian Governorate. The article provides analysis of implementation of the system of social measures on distribution of education in the region, as well as gives assessment to the level of efficiency of local public organizations in addressing this issue.
Tverdyukova E.D., Prokhorova E.V. - Food substitutes in the daily diet of citizens of the Soviet Russia during the Civil War (1918-1921) pp. 195-205

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.21249

Abstract: The authors investigate the role of nutrition in the organization of the social life of people in 1918-1921th yrs. The chronological framework of the study covers one of the crisis periods in the Russian history - the Civil War. The paper presents in details the everyday practices of food consumption and the state attempts to make up for the disastrous shortfall of the food market by authorized use of substitute goods, the study of which was put on a scientific basis in this period.An interdisciplinary approach to the research (that is located at the cross–disciplinary of history, social nutrition and physiology) is because of using of the systematic analysis of food practices of the nation as a social problem. The comparative analysis is used for the retrospective characteristics of the consumed food substitute across the country. The Scientific novelty of the research is determined by the fact that based on the analysis of a large source base (archival documents, statistical publications, materials of periodical press and diaries described the events of contemporaries records) it is concluded that in the first post-revolutionary years the changing of eating habits affected both urban and rural inhabitants. Faced with starvation death people consumed everything: substitutes foods that were on the rise but the quality of surrogates became worse; all the second-rate, rotten, foul hit on the consumer’s table. «Starveling» diet resulted in serious consequences: massive gastrointestinal diseases, anemia and mental disturbance of the citizens.
Bezgin V.B. - Suicide among peasant youth (the end of the XIX – the beginning of the XX century) pp. 198-204

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.3.19039

Abstract: Based on the archive sources, primarily the police reports, this work examines the problem of juvenile suicide of the late XIX – early XX century. The object of this research is the villages of the governorates of the European part of Russia. The subject of the study is the suicide cases among village children and teenagers. Special attention is given to the determination of the motives of a voluntary departure from life of the peasant youth. During the course of this work the author establishes the ways of committing suicide, as well as determines the gender peculiarities of suicide among peasant youth. The methodology of this research is based on the interdisciplinary approach, which allows considering this problem as a manifestation of social deviation of peasantry of the end of the XIX – the beginning of the XX century. The main conclusion consists in the fact that the growth in the number of suicide among the village youth is justified by the influence of modernization process, namely by the events that accompanied it. Breaking down of the familiar way of life resulted in the feelings of fear and despair; the children became the most vulnerable part of the village in such situation.
Shitova A.A. - Organizational growth of Komsomol as a way of antireligious propaganda and fight for the new society (based on the materials of North Caucasus Krai) pp. 205-233

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.3.17438

Abstract: This article examines the formation, development, and change of the Soviet State youth policy in the late 1920’s associated with the antireligious struggle in the North Caucasus Krai. The foundation for this research became the materials of mass media, Russian State Archive of Sociopolitical History, Stavropol Krai State Archive of Contemporary History, published materials of partisan and Komsomol sessions and conferences, as well as the works of the modern scholars in this field. The author reviews Komsomol as a sociocultural phenomenon, determines the factors of its multi-directional influence upon the society, and attempts to generalize the positive and the negative experience. Based on the conducted analysis of the antireligious policy, the author formulates the following conclusion: due to the political events of the 1920’s, taking into consideration the local peculiarities and specific conditions of the North Caucasus Krai, one of the most efficient ways in the fight against religion alongside the political control over youth, became the mass involvement of the youth into formal social groups – voluntary communities, and especially Komsomol.  The involvement into such groups allowed distracting the youth from the traditional activities and religion by decreasing the portion of their free time; and what is most important, it allowed supervising their behavior through public efforts and obligatory communication within the framework of the organization.
Yakimov K.A. - Public moods among youth during the period of mass political repressions of the late 1930’s pp. 234-251

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.3.18907

Abstract: This research is dedicated to the problem of examination of the public moods specificity among the Soviet youth throughout the years of mass political repressions of the late 1930’s. The article thoroughly explores the components of Komsomol propaganda during the years of the “Great Purge”, analyses its influence upon the consciousness of young men and young ladies, as well as reveals the causes of mass participation and support of political repressions by the youth. The relevance of this topic is justified by a number of circumstances: firstly, the necessity for a comprehensive study of the experience of formation of peculiar features of public consciousness among youth during the period of totalitarian regime, including the years of the “Great Purge”; secondly, the importance of understanding of the historical role of Komsomol and Komsomol propaganda in the process of transformation of public moods of the young generation. Scientific novelty is substantiated by the fact that for the first time the study of the influence of political repressions upon the character of public moods among youth in the late 1930’s is conducted based on the materials from the State Archive of Sociopolitical History of Tambov Oblast. The author demonstrates that the atmosphere of overall suspiciousness encouraged the distortion of the actual moral and ethical values, but nevertheless, comes to a conclusion, that the youth was far from being monolithic. The article illustrates the multiple examples of defense of one’s opinion.
Romanovskaya V.B., Kvachadze O.B. - Political Foundation of a Legal Status of a Person according to the Medieval Law of the Cities of Ancient Russia and Western Europe in XI-XIV: rather-legal analysis pp. 255-279

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2015.3.14807

Abstract: The given research is devoted to a rather-legal analysis of the basis of political rights of a person according to the Medieval Law of the cities of Ancient Russia (Novgorod and Pskov) and Western Europe in XI-XIV centuries. The problem of correlation of democratic institutions typical for the Russian and Western European societies is timely nowadays. The authors of the article perform a comparative analysis of the contents of the prototypes of political rights of the citizens that were fixed in the legal acts of the Russian and Western European cities in XI-XIV centuries. On the ground of using the methods of comparative analysis, context analysis, historical and legal, systematic and historical, technical and other methods of scientific research, the authors make a conclusion that the development of legal rights in Novgorod, Pskov and the cities of Western Europe led to different sorts of political consequences and to different contents of these rights.  Democratic institutions in the city’s administration and other municipal bodies in modern Western European countries and in Russia take their origin in Medieval history. 
Antropov R.V. - The social legislation of Germany in the second half of the XIX century: special features, evolution and the role in the history process pp. 280-291

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2015.3.15172

Abstract: The German social legislation of the second half of the XIX century or the so-called «social laws» were an attempt of responding of the first Reichschancellor of the German Empire Otto von Bismarck on disastrous situation of the working class during the industrialization in the past century. Scientific novelty of research consists in its issues, in the historical context of the times, in presenting topical issues of history of formation and development of social legislation in Germany based on the German legal and theoretical sources as research subjects. For assessment and analysis of the evolution of social legislation in Germany in the second half of the XIX century the author used general scientific and specific scientific methods of knowledge: a systematic analysis of the studied phenomena, synthesis of research results, historical-legal, comparative legal, formal logic and other methods. The application of these methods allows you to form a thesis that Bismarck made a political decision of explosive force aimed to overcome the extreme social contradictions and, most importantly, on the deprivation ofnutrient solutionfor unrest of social democracy. The founder of the German Reich failed to prove the young German nation, that the state can offer much more than just the representation of the working class in politics. With the use of new approaches Germany became world-renowned pioneer in the construction of the state system of social protection of working citizens on the principles of joint participation of workers and employers in the financing of social insurance. Bismarck created a model that was soon adopted by many other countries, and to this day forms the foundations of the modern social state. Arose mainly from the cold calculations the «social laws», along with the German unification, are the greatest political achievement of Bismarck and a unique example of European history of that time. Just so a modern historiography evaluates the services of the «Iron Chancellor».
Nesterova A.A. - DEVELOPMENT of EVENING AND CORRESPONDENCE EDUCATION IN THE EARLY SIXTIES: ROLE of KOMSOMOL pp. 423-433

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2015.4.14967

Abstract: The object of research is made by relationship of the Komsomol organizations with government bodies of national education, initial and average educational institutions, and also various categories of the population involved in processes of realization of reforms of school education, and also problems of general education in the early sixties. On materials of the Tambov region are shown as the huge efforts made by the state and the Komsomol organizations in development of evening education, and failure, a contradiction in activity of evening and correspondence schools of the region. For studying of historical and Komsomol problems the theory of nationalization of Komsomol became basic: the Komsomol is considered as peculiar Soviet "the ministry of youth", a link between the state and youth. Experience of activity of Komsomol is estimated from universal and state positions. Recognition of bases of the concept of education of viable generations of I.M. Ilyinsky also was of great importance for an objective assessment of a contribution of Komsomol in development of national education Considering that in general practice of national education didn't meet the ripened requirements, the author, nevertheless, notes high achievements in development of "schools for adults" and a major role of Komsomol in performance of the major economic task.
Other our sites:
Official Website of NOTA BENE / Aurora Group s.r.o.
"History Illustrated" Website