Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "History and Literature"
History and Literature
Gegamyan V.G. - To serve the Chief: The Role of Turkish Literature in the Representation of Power During the Presidency of I. Inonu (1938-1950) pp. 38-55


Abstract: After the declaration of the Republic of Turkey former unionists became Kemalists and started the implementation of many modenizational reforms. Though republican government was paying huge attention to the transformation of the society, the results were not the ones anticipated. Westernization touched only small part of the population. Meanwhile, the traditional Turkish society continued to live according to pre-republican socio-cultural settings. In this condition government transformed into an authoritarian regime. Until 1945 Turkish authoritarianism (with clear tendencies towards totalitarianism) stressed the role of the leader of the country. First two presidents - Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and Ismet İnönü – created personality cults in order to make the authoritarian system to work. The construction of the cult was part of communication between state and society. It was implemented through different mediums. One of them was literature. Verbal fabrication of the sacrality of president was a strong way to translate images of power to the masses. “National Chief” Inonu often used this for his cult. Literature mixed Western political art with Turkic/Islamic traditional iconography, which provided more inclusivity and publicity. Using the example of literature in service of National Chief as an illustration of construction of charismatic leadership in authoritarian regimes of non-western societies, this paper demonstrates some of its main features and evaluation. This is extremely important to understand modern day authoritarian tendencies in Turkey and wider Middle East, which use these mechanisms in a way, they did during authoritarian modernization in 20th century. We provided translations of the original literary works, accompanied with more large background.
Brykina Yu.Ya. - The early works of A. N. Ostrovsky as a historical source for study of the real world of the merchants (on the example of the merchant house) pp. 166-173


Abstract: The subject of this research is the description of the merchant house in the compositions of A. N. Ostrovsky of the pre-reforming period. The goal this work consists in establishment of the level of authenticity in description of the house and elements of the home interior in the early oeuvres of the playwright. Stereotype about the creative work of A. N. Ostrovsky as the literary pathfinder of the merchant class, formed during the playwright’s lifetime. His plays were perceived as the “image of life” of the tradespeople, which in the 1830-1850’s has existed in its own, hidden from the strangers’ eyes world. Even the very first works of Ostrovsky attracted the interest of the critics and audience. The acquaintance with the environment from inside, language, and artistic manner of Ostrovsky imparted his compositions with a specific believability. The comparison of description of the elements of the merchant house in the works of A. N. Ostrovsky with the similar facts from the memories of the representatives of this class allow establishing the level of authenticity in depiction of the realities of the merchants. The memoir heritage, which has records of the life of Moscow merchants of 1845-1860’s, is not quite large. The scientific novelty consists in the use of the dramaturgical compositions for examination of the real life of the merchant class. The relevance of the work lies in the fact that home interior can be viewed as a cultural code towards understanding not only of the characters of its dwellers in particular, but also social group which they belong to as a whole. The description of the house contains two parts: description of the interior and exterior. The research demonstrated that the plays do not depict the outside view of the merchant house. A. N. Ostrovsky just mentions the place of action. The memories of the merchant class representatives help to fulfill this gap in lack of information. As of the interior scenery, the comparative analysis of the works of A. N. Ostrovsky with the memoirs indicates the complete identity of the interiors pictured in the literary compositions and existed in reality.
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