Genesis: Historical research - rubric History of regions of Russia
Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "History of regions of Russia"
History of regions of Russia
Popov A.D. - Boxer Rebellion in China in perception of the Siberian common people (based on the materials of Tomsk and Irkutsk newspapers) pp. 1-8


Abstract: This article reconstructs the perception of the “Boxer Rebellion” in China (1898-1901) among the common people of Siberia. The research is based primarily on the materials of Tomsk and Irkutsk private newspapers. Altogether, the author examined approximately 20 correspondences from the cities and villages of Western and Eastern Siberia (Irkutsk, Tomsk, Yeniseysk, Omsk, Ulan-Ude, Kokshetau, and others). The author also provides a brief description of the key events of “Chinese revolt”, as well as demonstrates the general historiographical background of the explored topic. The work is structured according to the principles of historicism and objectivity. The scientific novelty first and foremost consists in the introduction of the new circle of sources on this problematic into the scientific discourse (as a rule, in analyzing the “vox populi” regarding the Yihequan uprising, the historians used to refer to the Moscow or Far Eastern mass media). The conclusion is made that the events of 1898-1901 aroused great interest among the “ordinary” Siberians, as well as were widely discussed in cities and villages. However, the lack of information about the events taking place in the neighboring country substantiated the formation of a tense atmosphere in the region, which resulted in a number of tragic incidents.
Azarenko I.S. - Change of status of the serfs of Kaluga Province in 1859-1862 in the context of implementation of the Serfdom Abolishment Manifesto pp. 1-8


Abstract: The object of this research is the aspects of socioeconomic status of peasants in the Russian Empire in second half of the XIX century until the adoption of Emancipation Manifesto of 1861 and as a result of its implementation. The subject of this research is the peculiarities of the change of status of the serfs in Kaluga Province in 1859-1862 due to the Emancipation Reform. Based on the studied materials, the author provides the data on peasants’ life until the reform of 1861 and specificities of their dependent status. The author examines the specificity of conversion of peasants in Kaluga Province into the status of the temporary obliged; as well as analyzed the precise examples of conflict situations emerging in the post-reform period between peasants and landowners in the region. The scientific novelty lies in analysis of the previously unused archival documents from the State Archive of Kaluga Oblast that allowed considering the new factual material regarding the status of serfs in Kaluga Province during the indicated timeframe. A conclusion is made about the insignificant changes of serfs’ status with proclamation of the Manifesto of 1861, which mostly affected the civic-legal status rather than land relations. It is determined that in overall discontent with the terms of liberation, the declaration of the provisions of peasant reformed was met by the peasants loyally due to the mediate policy of the governor general of Kaluga Province V. A. Artsimovich
Tatarnikova A.I. - Everyday life of peasants in extreme conditions of migration to Siberia (late XIX early XX centuries) pp. 1-13


Abstract: The subject of this research is the everyday life of peasant migrants, who in the course of their migration got into extreme circumstances substantiated by the immediate move to new lands, as well as the need for economic, sociocultural, psychological and physiological adaptation at the new places of settlement. The author takes into account the problems of transportation, natural and climatic, socioeconomic and other factors and circumstances that determine the extremeness of everyday life of the voluntary migrants. The work is founded on the procedural and modernization approaches. The first interprets the everyday life as ordinary, mundane existence of people; while the extremeness is associated with certain emergency, anomaly, standards of living that changed under the influence of certain factors, accustomed mindset and behavior. The second approach represents an interdisciplinary model of examination of society, its transition from the traditional to contemporary type, accompanied by destruction of the traditional values and mental perceptions. For the first time the everyday life of peasants is characterized in the extreme circumstances. A conclusion is made that migration was a factor that affected the sociocultural transformation of Siberian society. Extremeness of migration manifested in the most severe circumstances of adaptation of the migrants in new lands: unsanitariness and transport failure, mass gatherings of migrants at migration points, unsatisfactory financial situation, food, high incidence of disease and death, etc. The migrants were forced to change their value orientations, find the ways of interaction with autochthonous population, use new life experience.
Baranov E.Y. - Peasantry, social transformations and famine in the USSR during the early 1930s (on the materials of Ural Region) pp. 1-16


Abstract: The goal of this research is to determine the changes in social behavior of peasantry in the conditions of escalation of the food problem and famine during the 1928-1934 (on the materials of Ural Region and Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic). The author examines the factors and behavioral characteristics, giving special attention of the analysis of evolution in the actions of Ural peasants as the situation worsened. The relevance of this work is substantiated by the attempts to have a more detailed perspective on the scale of social disruption in the agrarian sphere and rural community in the USSR during the 1930’s. The descriptive method allows characterizing the changes in peasants’ behavior in terms of worsening of the food situation. The historical-genetic method allows viewing the changes in peasants’ actions at the initial stages and escalation of famine, determine the cause and effect links between the growing food crisis and changes in behavior of the rural population. The scientific novelty consists in conducting a special research on the social behavior of Ural peasantry in the conditions of famine in the early 1930’s, which has not previously become an independent subject of study. It is demonstrated that initial cause of peasants’ protest was the procurements, and then the focus shifted towards the indignation over famine. During the 1932-1933, the collective demonstrations, escape to cities, and looting were mostly justified by filling their need in food. Escalation of famine also led to manifestation of social deviations. In 1933, the rise in mortality created a threat to reproduction of the rural population, which in the Ural Region was more evident than in Bashkir ASSR.
Tatarnikova A.I., Churkin M.K. - Agrarian colonization of Western Siberia and Governor-Generalship of the Steppes in the sociopolitical discourse of the late XIX early XX century pp. 1-9


Abstract: The subject of this article is the content and channels of representation of sociopolitical discourse on agrarian colonization of Western Siberia and Governor-Generalship of the Steppes in the late XIX – early XX century. The article gives characteristics to sociocultural, sociopolitical and economic contexts of resettlement movement to Western Siberia and Governor-Generalship of the Steppes, which became the basis for discourse on the key questions of agrarian colonization with regards to imperial understanding of the causes and results of incorporation of Trans-Ural territories into Russia. Methodological foundation contains approaches recorded in the scientific research practices of the “new imperial history”, which allow determining the way that the authorities and Russian society “pictured” and structuralized the imperial space, developing the adequate projects and implementing the practices of incorporation of suburbs into the imperial domain. Based on the extensive circle of published sources, the conclusion is made, according to which the actualization of agrarian question in the European governorates of Russia became an objective condition for the formation of grounds of sociopolitical discourse on agrarian colonization. The current political events in suburbs of the empire, which invoked diametrically opposed response of the liberals and national conservatives in the discourse, became the background of bringing the topic into discussion.
Kattsina T.A., Marinenko L.E. - Change of the model and practices of solution of the problem of child neglect in the early XX century (on the materials of Yeniseysk Governorate) pp. 9-19


Abstract: The article is dedicated to examination of the model and practical activity of the local leadership of Yeniseysk Governorate in solution of the child neglect problem during the period of 1917-1925. The chronological framework of the research capture the term of establishment of the Soviet authority in the country, as well as the first reforms in the area of protection of childhood. The study of the aforementioned issue on the materials of Yeniseysk Governorate allows formulating an idea about what events took place in the region and the entire country. The scientific novelty consists in introduction into the scientific discourse of the new archive materials that have never been published earlier, which allowed reconstructing the practice of implementation of the Soviet model of solving the problem of child neglect on the example of Yeniseysk Governorate. The conclusion is made about the changes made in providing help to the street children during the first years of Soviet government, when the private initiative of separate individuals was replaced by the state centralized system. The article gives the analysis of the system of government measures on the struggle against neglect in the region; determines and systematizes the factors which formed the children homelessness during the stated historical period; and presents the assessment of the efficiency of work of the local self-governance in solution of this problem.
Nagornov V.P. - Economic modernization of Russia of the middle of XIX the beginning of XX century in the history of mining factories of Ryazan Province pp. 9-18


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the impact of capitalist modernization of Russian of the second half of XIX – the beginning of XX century upon the development of metallurgical industry of Ryazan Region. The object of this research is the infrastructure of metallurgical branch of Ryazan Province, trade-industrial and financial institutions that participated in financing of manufacturing, factory personnel, dynasties of the factory owners. Major attention is given to the dynamics of performance indicators of the factories, development of the new centers of metallurgical industry in Sapozhkovsky, Kasimovsky and Ryazansky districts, and transformation of the output structure of the factories. The research is carried out on the basis of modernization approach and principle of historicism, with application of system analysis, problem-chronological, logical, and historical-comparative methods. The results can be valuable in development of the modernization programs for Russian industry. The article introduces into the scientific circulation the new facts that reflect the specificity of entering of the Ryazan mining factories into the system of the commodity and financial market. A conclusion is made that despite the fragmentary nature and instability of the modernization tendencies in development of the Ryazan metallurgy, its structures have played an important role in diversification of the economy and evolution of the social space of Ryazan Krai of the post-reform era.
Tatarnikova A.I. - Hygiene and sanitary conditions of educational environment and health of schoolchildren of Western Siberia in the late XIX early XX centuries pp. 10-24


Abstract: The object of this research is the students of educational establishments of Western Siberia at the turn of the XIX–XX centuries; the subject is the hygiene and sanitary conditions of their educational environment and physical health. The author gives characteristics to the technical, hygiene and sanitary state of school buildings; determines the most widespread illnesses; traces their link with the hygiene and sanitary conditions of educational environment; analyzes the actions of government, pedagogical and medical personnel, social organizations aimed at prevention and counteraction of school illnesses. Research methodology leans on the complex and interdisciplinary approaches, as well as considers separate provisions of modernization theory pertinent to the change of public consciousness under the influence of economic and sociocultural transformations fell on the late XIX – early XX centuries. The author analyzes the stance of the officials, pedagogues and physicians on school as a social institution, and its impact on the students’ health. Based on the extensive volume of sources, including the unpublished, the author describes the state of school buildings, and provides statistical data on the technical, hygiene and sanitary conditions of educational environment. Negative influence of school environment upon students’ health is demonstrated. The conclusion is made on the changes in relation of the government and society to school overall. Among the positive changes are named: the strengthening of hygiene and sanitary control over educational establishments, implementation of annual medical examinations of schoolchildren, supply with first aid kits, conducting lectures for pedagogues on school hygiene and prevention of highly contagious illnesses, organization of hygiene and sanitary education for the young generation, etc.
Zagorodnyuk N.I. - Life of inmates of the Tobolsk maximum security prison (1924-1929) pp. 12-22


Abstract: The subject of this research is the living conditions of inmates in the only maximum security prison in Western Siberia. This implies the pattern of daily routine for satisfying physiological needs of a human. The article examines the following questions: dynamics of the number of inmates and related to it and other factors living conditions; peculiarities of funding and providing prisoners with food, clothes and living essentials; rendering of medical aid; and acquisition of spiritual wealth. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that the history of Tobolsk maximum security prison became the subject of special research. The introduction into scientific discourse of archival documents allows circumstantiating the elements of daily routine of inmates, set of methods and approaches, as well as vies these processes from the standpoint of understanding the severe everyday life. The conclusion is made that the organization of the inmates’ dality routine of Tobolsk maximum security prison had the same flaws as the penitentiary system of the 1920’s overall: weak financial base, number of prisoners that exceeds normative indexes, unsatisfactory provision with food and living essentials, low level of medical services.
Seleznev A. - Establishment and problems of operation of the Krasnoyarsk branch of All-Union Society for the Dissemination of Political and Scientific Knowledge (1947-1949) pp. 16-34


Abstract: The object of this research is the process of incorporation of Krasnoyarsk intelligentsia into the political and enlightenment organization, which major goal consisted in distribution of the political and scientific knowledge in USSR. The subject of this research is the establishment and problems of operation of the Krasnoyarsk branch of All-Union Society for the Dissemination of Political and Scientific Knowledge during the period when the indicated society forms and develops as an academic organization of the prominent scientific and public figures of the country, claiming a somewhat political-educational autonomy (1947-1949). The author introduces into the scientific discourse the previously unpublished archival documents that allowed compiling, systematizing, and analyzing the new factual material that provides a relatively full representation on the creation, operation, and educational activity of the regional All-Union Society for the Dissemination of Political and Scientific Knowledge in the period of 1947-1949. The author concludes that this organization was formed by the prominent scientific and cultural figures, who had ideological and organizational ties with the leading part – All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks. Majority of the organization committee members involved in creation of the Krasnoyarsk branch of All-Union Society along with such enrolled by 1948 were the lecturers of the three universities of Krasnoyarsk: Medical, Pedagogical, and Siberian Forest Engineering institutes. In the first year of its existence, the Krasnoyarsk branch of All-Union Society was not able to pursue the lecturing activities due to experiencing the organizational issues.
Ivlev N.N. - Financial education in Chelyabinsk Region in the conditions of Great Patriotic War pp. 16-26


Abstract: This article examines the system of training and advanced training of personnel for financial institutions of Chelyabinsk Region during the Great Patriotic War. It is determined that the system of full-time educational establishments that prepared specialist for financial sector was destroyed at the beginning of the war, was destroyed and failed to provide the region with personnel. There was not a single educational establishment for preparing financial specialists. Mass conscription into the army, transfer of employees to defense factories, led to human resource crisis and threat to plans for mobilization of financial means. The author conclude that the way out of crisis situation with regards to shortage of personnel was found within the framework of the system of lectures, seminars and individual traineeship. Intensive work of financial branches and regional authorities allowed overcoming the human resource crisis by 1943, as well as retain financial stability in the region.
Tatarnikova A.I. - Populated localities in Tobolsk Province: administrative and unauthorized ways of formation and peculiarities of development in the late XIX early XX centuries pp. 17-27


Abstract: The subject of this research is the populated localities in Tobolsk Province formed over the late XIX – early XX centuries by the government authorities or by the initiative of rural population without authorization. The article analyzes the actions of central and local authorities with regards to newly emerged “unplanned” settlements and their further development; gives comparative characteristics to the size of populated localities formed either by the administration or on the authority of peasants; analyzes their economic and sociocultural infrastructure. The article is structure on the bases of the “List of populated localities” of Tobolsk Province of 1868/1869, 1893, 1903, and 1912; reports of economic department of the Administration of Public Property on the unauthorized formation of settlements in Tobolsk Province; materials of the local periodical press pertinent to separate populated localities and their functioning. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that this article is first to reveal and compare the peculiarities of formation and development of settlements that appeared as a result of actions of the local administration or upon the initiative of population. The conclusion is made on the strengthening of administrative control over the newly emerged populated localities, policy tightening with regards to settlements formed without authorization, significant underrun of the latter by the level of social development. The settlements formed upon the initiative of population were characterized by their small size, weak infrastructure, and shorter existence.
Starikov I. - Historical experience of constitutional structuring of the unrecognized state (on the example of the Far Eastern Republic Constitution of 1921) pp. 18-30


Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical experience of constitutional structuring under the conditions of civil war and foreign intervention of the unrecognized state of Far Eastern Republic (1920-1921). The author examines the process of establishment of the state and development of Constituent assembly of the Main Law (Constitution) by the constitutional commission. The article analyzed the impact of Soviet and bourgeois principles upon the content of main provisions of the Far Eastern Republic Constitution of 1921. The system of supreme and local authorities of the Far Eastern Republic, as well as main directions, forms, and methods of their work are being studied. The author notes the consolidation of the new economic policy in the Articles of the Far Eastern Republic Constitution of 1921. The article underlines the absence within the Soviet and modern historical legal scientific literature of the comprehensive research that are able to determine the specificities of the Main Law of the Far Eastern Republic in comparison with the Constitution of the Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic of 1918. The conclusion is made that the Far Eastern Republic Constitution of 1921 could become the legal foundation of the future democratic legal state and justly holds a special place in the country’s constitutional history.
Sevostyanova E., Skobina E.A. - Delimitation of the China-Russia border since the XVI century until 1917 pp. 19-31


Abstract: This article examines the key landmarks in delimitation of the China-Russia border since the XVI century until 1917, as well as its peculiarities. Russia and China are the two state that historically never had any serious armed clashes, and most questions regarding delimitation and demarcation were settled peacefully, despite the geopolitical and economic frictions, as well as territorial disputes. Regardless of difficult negotiations and an attempt of unilateral denunciation, both parties searched for a compromise and recognized the line of demarcation. Based on the chronological and problem-historical method, the article analyzes the key landmarks in delimitation and demarcation of the borders. A conclusion is substantiated on the existence of an objective need for factual establishment and legal formalization of the borderline. The legal formalization of the border lagged behind its factual establishment because on one hand, both parties did not have the required resources, while on the other – both empires had the concealed colonization plans. The delimitation took place in the territories that belonged neither to Russian or Chinese empires, but were of same importance for both countries. Their legal status has been changed accordingly. Delimitation not only considered the existing natural barriers – rivers and mountain ridges, but for the first time established the artificially determined landmarks. Legal aspect of agreement execution was improved by establishing jurisdiction for border violators, determining the legal regime of border checking, formalizing the border markers by protocols. The difficulties with the demarcation are already confirmed by the fact that the legal arrangement of 1689 continued into the XXI century.
Azarenko I.S. - Country healthcare system in Kaluga Governorate during the 1864-1871 pp. 24-30


Abstract: The object of this research is the social sphere of the Russian Empire in the late XIX century as a result of implementation of Zemstvo Reform in 1864. The subject of this research is the peculiarities of changes in organization of healthcare system in Kaluga Governorate during the 1864-1871, occurred due to Zemstvo Reform. Based on the studied materials, the author provides data on the situation in medicine prior to the reform of 1864 in the region; as well as analyzes particular examples of such transformations related to implementation of new regulations of Zemstvo Reform in the area of healthcare. The scientific novelty consists in examination of the previously unused archival documents of the State Archive of Kaluga Oblast, which allowed the new factual material on conducting Zemstvo Reform in Kaluga Governorate during the viewing 1864-181 and its implementation in healthcare. It is concluded that even though the Kaluga Governorate provided significant aid in country healthcare and solutions to the number of issues in medicine, they did not have freedom in decision-making and spending for this paramount component of life of the county.
Mikheev M.V. - Problems of the demilitarization of the Urals industry afte rthe Great Patriotic War pp. 25-35


Abstract: The article highlights the problems of reevacuation and the demilitarization of the industrial enterprises of the Urals in the post-war period. The object of research is the post-war recovery and development of the economy in the Soviet Union. The subject of the study is reevacuation and demilitarization measures, which took place in the industrial Urals since 1945. Particular attention is paid to the implications of these processes for the future economic development of the region. To find out their features, along with studies of precursors the author used documents of the central and regional archives.In the study, the author used principles of objectivity, historicist determinism, systematic approach, the method of quantitative data and comparative-historical method.The novelty of the work is proved by entering into a scientific revolution has not previously studied archival documents reflecting how all-union and regional aspects of the post-war demilitarization of the Soviet Union. principles of organization of reconversion at the plant Uralmash described in detail. States the problems of functioning pozdnestalinskoy command economy on the example of the processes of demilitarization and re-evacuation of the Urals. Showing organizational difficulties demilitarization of Soviet industry, the associated loss of income and productivity in the Ural enterprises. It is concluded that maintaining the Urals industrial facilities evacuated here during wartime.
Ulchitckii O.A. - Bolshekaraganskaya Valley a Proto-Indo-European boundary of ancient civilization pp. 28-38


Abstract: The object of this research is the territory of formation of fortified settlements of the Bronze Age in Southern Ural – Bolshekaraganskaya Valley and adjacent territory within the Chelyabinsk Region. The subject of this research is the territorial-geographic complexes and historical-theoretical approaches towards studying the fortified settlements of ancient Ural in dynamics of their development. The author explores such aspects of the topic, as the formation of the center and core of resettlement of the Bronze Age in the basin of Bolshaya Karaganka River, which joins Ural River in southern part of Chelyabinsk Region, the territory also known as Arkaimskaya Valley. Special attention is given to localization and layer-wise fixation of the fortified settlements, as well as typology of their morphogenesis. Research methodology is built on the theory of historical-architectural comparativism and comparative analysis of patterns of the fortified settlements in their layer wise fixation. The main conclusion is defined by the most comprehensive review of the typology of fortified settlements of South Ural of the Bronze Age. The analysis of planning analogues determined the typological and morphological similarity of the objects, succession of construction traditions in territories with the advanced urban development systems of Middle Asia. The results of analysis provided certain clarifications in determining the unique morphology of the plans of fortified settlements related to multi-functionality of the objects, virtually first known in history at the moment of research, living and industrial fortified structures with the dominant metallurgical function. The research results allow suggesting the origin of Sintashtinsko-Petrovsky city-forming fortification system in compliance with the ancient architectural and urban traditions in Middle Asia at the early development stages of Indo-European states.
Bleikh N.O. - The origins of formation of martial art skills among North Caucasian peoples pp. 29-34


Abstract:  This article considers the specificity of formation of martial art skills among the ethnoses of North Caucasus. Particular attention is given to the history of genesis of mountain peoples, analysis of the external and internal factors of advancement of soldiery among them. It is noted that the origins of warrior skills among the locals, which aroused admiration of the contemporaries, emerged back in the ancient times thanks to the Scythian-Sarmatian-Alanian tribal alliances that developed a strictly outlined system of the military physical upbringing aimed at health strengthening, skills of weapon and horse possession, training of will, character and athletic skills. The article leans on the principles of historicism, objectivity, systematicity, which allows analyzing the events and facts of the past in a certain historical situation in accordance with chronological sequence. A conclusion is made that the ancient history of existence of the North Caucasian peoples deeply intertwined with the military art. It was associated with their nomadic lifestyle, which forced them to either protect or defend. Thus, is affected their mentality and spiritual culture, which up until the XIX century preserved its militarized foundation, permeated with martial spirit and saturated with warrior skills, inherited from the Scythians-Sarmatians-Alanians, the ancestors of the Ossetians.    
Dementev A.P., Kattsina T.A. - Social policy of the committees of general security and the Soviets in Yeniseisk governorate (March May 1917) pp. 31-42


Abstract: The current article deals with the measures taken by the committees of general security and the Soviets of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies in order to improve the living conditions of the citizens of Yeniseisk governorate in March – May 1917. The comparison of revolutionary organizations’ social policies is vital for understanding the causes of institutional shifts, which led to the Soviets getting citizens’ support. While the Soviets took the power in October-November 1917, the committees lost all their democratic potential. This issue has not been properly investigated in the historiography. The current objective research is provided with the help of systematic and comparative-historical approaches. The presented information concerning the social policy is based on the analysis of published and unpublished documents, as well as periodical press data. The analysis shows that the coalition nature of the committees caused the class compromise policy and evasion of discussion of the problems, which could have brought disagreement in the society. The main measures of their social policy were help to amnestied political and criminal exiles and welfare for the soldiers’ families. The committees’ revaluation of goods in the uyezds’ cities was conducted under the control and help of the Soviets. On the other hand, the Soviets, while being under pressure of workers' and soldiers' deputies, concentrated on populist measures, such as 8-hour work day and revaluation of goods in the governorate centre, which guaranteed them public support. The data presented in the paper specifies and extends the scientific knowledge of the organizations’ policy, creates new opportunities for further comparative-historical researches of Siberia.
Starikov I.V. - Orenburg Cossack detachments in battles in Transbaikal territory at the final stage of Civil War (February November of 1920) pp. 32-42


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the consideration of military operations in Transbaikal territory at the finals stage of Civil War and foreign military intervention (February – November of 1920) with participation of the Orenburg Cossack military detachments. The selected framework allowed conducting a meticulous analysis of events of the past, as well as the entire complex of the major driving forces and factors. Leaning on remembrances of the participants of military operation, archival documents and scientific works, an attempt is made to trace the battle rout of the Orenburg Cossack detachments in Transbaikal, where they arrived in February of 1920 with the remnants of the Admiral Kolchak’s armies. The article explores the reorganization and participation of military units of the Orenburg Cossacks as a part of Far Eastern Army in battles against the People’s Revolutionary Army of the Far Eastern Republic and partisan regiments of the red forces in Transbaikal territory. The scientific novelty lies in generalization of information from the various published and previously unknown sources on the little-studied, but exceptionally dramatic pages of the history of Civil War and foreign military intervention in Transbaikal territory, which is relevant from the perspective of restoring a full picture of the events.  
Yunina E.A. - To the question of use of the photographic materials in reconstruction of everyday life in Western Siberian province of the late XIX early XX century, based on the example of regional photo collection pp. 32-57


Abstract: The goal of this article is the synoptic characteristic of the photographed visual sources applied in the process of reconstruction of everyday life of the residents of Russian periphery, as well as models of everyday routine of the diverse social, professional and age groups of urban population of the late XIX – early XX century. For detailed and gradual examination of this topic, the range of sources was limited by photo collections of Tobolsk and Tyumen. This article is first to describe and introduce into the scientific discourse of the set of photos of several local collections preserved in the state museums, as well as private and family archives. Methodological foundation contains the principles of historical anthropology and visual history, combined with the micro-historical approach towards exploring the local photo collections of various types. Micro-historical approach is specified by studying the local collections, with application of systemic and structural-functional analysis, comprehensive and descriptive approaches, historical-typological method, as well as paramount in working with photo collections method of museum classification and attribution. The scientific novelty is defined by the use of photo documents as the backbone and independent sources in studying the history of everyday life of Western Siberian cities during the period of rapid growth of photographic industry in Russia, which fell on the turn of the XIX – XX centuries.
Sutyagina O.A. - Size and composition of Siberian merchantry in the early XIX century pp. 32-45


Abstract: The object of this research is the different merchant classes of Siberian cities. The subjects is the size and composition of Siberian merchantry of the early XIX century. The goal of this work consists in tracing the process of establishment of Siberian merchantry in the conditions of economic and estate policy of the empire. The author highlights and analyzes the three stages in the process of formation of Siberian merchantry in the early XIX century, which reflects the socio-legal transformations in functionality of merchantry, as well as the changes in economic life of the Siberian region. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that by generalization of previous experience and attraction of other materials, including archival that have not been considered before by the experts, the author explores the dynamic pattern of size and density of merchantry in the Siberian cities throughout half of a century, as well as traces the influence of various factors upon its formation. The conclusion is made that throughout the period in question the size of merchantry has undergone significant changes associated with the government policy, namely raise of property requirements for enrollment into merchant guilds, tax rates for merchantry, economic development of the region and its separate cities.
P'yankov S.A. - Precious square footage: housing and living conditions of the employees of the Ural Automotive Plant during the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) pp. 32-55


Abstract: The subject of this research is the housing and living conditions of the employees of the Ural Automotive Plant named after J. V. Stalin, established during the Great Patriotic War as a result of evacuation of one of the largest enterprises of Soviet automobile industry – Moscow Vehicle Plant named after J. V. Stalin. The article analyzes the process of accommodation of evacuated employees in the Ural rear, as well as describes ways of resolving their housing by the plant. Methodological framework consists of the generally accepted methods of historical science. The descriptive method allowed characterize the living situation of the employees of automotive plant. The historical-genetic method allowed tracing the changes in housing and living conditions of the employees of Ural Automotive Plant during the Great Patriotic War, as well as reconstructing the course of residential construction. The relevance of this work is substantiated by the detailed reconstruction of the mechanisms of functionality of defense economy on the example of a large industrial enterprise. Based on the report documentation and protocols of political party association of the plant, the article demonstrates the process of building factory housing, as well as the course and results of individual residential construction. The article reviews the conditions of living in dormitories. The conducted research explicates that the existing system of government and party administration managed to resolve the problems of evacuation and accommodation of the employees of the vehicle plant; and the active participation of political party association of the factory allowed addressing most urgent issues of the factory employees, and consolidating their efforts for solution of the socially important tasks.
Nevostruev N.A., Lyadova V.V. - Place and role of national relations in the development of Russian civil society in the late XIX early XXX centuries (on the example of Perm Governorate) pp. 34-44


Abstract: The object of this research is the Russian civil society, while the subject is the national relations in the process of civil development using the example Perm Governorate during the post-reform period. The authors analyze the increased attention of Zemstvo institutions to the living conditions of non-Russian population of the governorate demonstrated by activities in the spheres of education and medical care. The peculiarities of ethnic composition of the governorate, their displacement, level of social and economic development are determined. The main forms and fields of activity of Zemstvo institutions and various organizations pertinent of the development of indigenous peoples are described. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that for the first time in Ural historiography national development is viewed in correlation with the key elements of the Russian civil society, which found its reflection in the attempts of solving social issues of a significant portion of population of Perm Governorate. The conducted analysis of the evolution of national relations in the Urals proves that their development becomes an inseparable part of the Russian civil society, and their interaction – a crucial attribute of civilizational transformations in Russia of post-reform period.
Nevostruev N.A., Lyadova V.V. - The role and place of public organizations in establishment and development of the elements of civil society in Russia in late XIX XX centuries (on the example of Perm Governorate) pp. 34-51


Abstract: This article, based on the new research paradigm of the history of post-reform Russia, gives assessment to the role of public organizations in the course of establishment of civil society as one of the crucial elements of this phenomenon, which is aimed at laying the groundwork for personal development. Perm Governorate became one of the leading centers of civil development; the events held under the full support of Zemstvo institutions and municipality received a nationwide coverage. Using the examples of the work of Ural medical institutions and academic communities, the author reveals the process of their gradual engagement into the civil society system, and elicits their civil potential. Attention is turned to the high level of social coverage of the events held by public organizations, which is associated with the peculiarities of their composition, with the leading role played by democratic elements of the participants. The novelty of this research lies in the fact that this article is first the within Ural historiography to give assessment to the level of effectiveness of the delivered events, as well as determine the peculiarities of participation of Ural intelligentsia in the work of educational and enlightenment societies. Emphasis is made on the common features of public organizations, which allow assessing their work as a manifestation of own social activity, as well as formation of favorable conditions for personal development. The conclusion is substantiation on the significant influence of public organizations and associations on further development of the elements of civil society in Ural, creation of essential prerequisites for social development of the territories, and engagement of active social elements into the system of civil relations.
Putilin S.V. - Cognitive values of service population in Western Siberia of the XVII century pp. 35-39


Abstract: The subject of this research is the service population in Western Siberia of the XVII century; the object is their intellectual values, particularly cognitive. The author examines the questions of cognitive attitude towards reality of the service people: language instruments of cognition and consciousness. Special attention is given to the subjective perception of cognitive values, revealing their structure and content, conceptual meaning and interrelation. The definitions of cognitive values from the standpoint of service people – language and knowledge are provided; the peculiarities of interpretation of cognitive values from the perspective of the context of events are described. Among the main conclusions of the conducted research is the understanding of the value of cognition and information for service population as paramount from the perspective of professional activity, variety of cognitive values in form of verbal and written speech, knowledge, mentality and mind in different forms. The author’s contribution lies in the interdisciplinary method of research, historical-anthropological approach to studying service population, implementation of contemporary information technologies and comprehensive analysis of the sourced. The scientific novelty is defined by formulation of practical mechanisms on conceptualization of the socio-psychological phenomena of service people and their intellectual values.
Pertsev N.V. - Moscow troops campaign to Yugra in 1499 in the context of Moscow State domestic and foreign policy pp. 40-54


Abstract: This article is dedicated to reconstruction of the events of the Moscow troops campaign to Yugra in 1499. Although this military campaign is a generally known fact, there is yet no agreement of opinion on the results of this operation; the questions associated with the purpose of campaign, rout of troops, and their capacity have not been covered by the researchers. The author believe that revelation of these aspects is an essential condition in objective assessment of the indicated event. Examination of the military campaign of 1499 without analyzing the key questions, has led the researchers to some hasty conclusions that do not find endorsement in the sources. Methodology is bases on the methods of scientific synthesis and analysis of the historical sources; particular attention is given to historiography of the problem. The author composed the comparative tables, so the charting of information allowed significantly rectifying the data from the sources and reconstructing the events of the military campaign. A new approach implied the consideration of the military campaign of 1499 in the context of Muscovy’s foreign policy position and implementation of solidification policy in the northeastern periphery. The article also examines the question of building a Russian city of Pustoozersk. Comparing the routs of the Russian troops in 1499 with the famous routs of that time, which lead to the territories of Northern Ural and Western Siberia, allows concluding that the military campaign on Yugorian “princelings” was secondary in relation to the goals of assimilation of the remote territories of Prirechye by the Moscow State.
Chyrgalan S.Y. - The activity of medical expedition of RSFSR National Healthcare Committee in Tuvan Peoples Republic during 1928-1933 pp. 40-49


Abstract: The subject of this research is the activity of medical expedition of RSFSR National Healthcare Committee in Tuvan People’s Republic (TPR) during 1928-1933; while the objects is the relationship between USSR and TPR. The author focuses attention on the establishment of relationship between the USSR and TPR by means of dispatching medical personnel to the Tuvan People’s Republic, makes an assumption about the number of expedition participants, as well as characterizes the main results of the activity of the National Healthcare Committee during their stay. The scientific novelty is defined by conclusions built on the basis of the archival materials from the State Archive and sources of the Aldan Maadyr National Museum. The historical-hermeneutic method alongside the historical-comparative method were applied in the course of this work.  The author also analyzes the activity of medical expedition in the context of cultural relationship between the Soviet Union and Tuvan People’s Republic.
Bezai O.V. - Participation of aviation in combating the uprising in Tambov Governorate (January August 1921) pp. 40-48


Abstract: This article examines the role of aviation of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army in the course of suppression of the Tambov uprising in 1920-1921. The subject of this research is the participation of aircraft of Air Defense Forces in military operations against the peasant rebel. The authors explores such aspects of the topic as the usage of aircraft for aerial reconnaissance, as well as use of military airplanes for destruction of the enemy through ground attacks and bombing. Special attention is turned to the actions of the flight crews aimed at displacement of the rebels from the town of Rasskazovo captured by the detachments of guerilla army of the Tambov region on April 11, 1921. Based on the pilot reports, the author determines the content of military missions, as well as establishes the causes and consequences of emergency landings. The newly introduced into the scientific discourse archival documents allow detecting the character and effectiveness of combat missions, as well as rebels’ response to the actions of “Red” aviation. The conclusion is made that the military aircraft was used for locating and destructing the guerilla forces through bombardment and machine-gun firing. Military pilots collected information on dislocation and size of the rebel forces, as well as dropped propaganda materials over the “rebel” villages. The examined materials demonstrate that the air attacks did not inflict significant damage to the enemy, but rather produced a strong psychological effect on guerillas and local population.
Tatarnikova A.I. - The extremes in the everyday life of the population of Western Siberia during the time of epidemics of the late XIX early XX centuries pp. 40-54


Abstract:  The object of this research is the population of Western Siberia considering its social diversity (city people, peasants, migrant peasants). The subject of this research is the everyday life of residents of the region in the extreme conditions of mass epidemics that took countless lives. The author characterizes the state of surrounding environment, level of medical development and sanitary-hygiene culture of the population, and determines their effect upon high mortality rate caused by different types of epidemics. Attention is focused on the behavioral practices, survival strategies of various social groups during the time of epidemics, which provoke changes in the everyday, routine life. The study is based on the complex approach with the elements interdisciplinary research allowing to trace the transformation of traditional values and mentality under the influence of extreme conditions of life. The conclusion is made on the impact of extreme conditions of the time of epidemics upon the transformation of everyday behavioral models and pursuit of survival strategies, reflected in the gradual alienation from the irrational ways of fighting infection, turning to official medicine, usage of decontamination means, cleaning of housings and curtilages, due attention to personal hygiene. During the time of epidemics, emotional and behavioral reactions were majorly affected by such factors as the affiliation to a certain social group, level of financial wealth, level of education, individual peculiarities of psyche and perception of illness and death of family members, attitudes on “unresolvable” problems of deviant and delinquent behavior.
Ershov M.F. - Do not laugh at peas, do not be better than beans: pedagogical conflicts in Tobolsk governorate in the late XIX early XX centuries pp. 41-51


Abstract: The subject of this article is the conflict in pedagogical environment of Tobolsk governorate in the late XIX – early XX centuries. The author pursues the goal to determine and classify variants of interpersonal conflict within the provincial society with involvement of teachers. The causes could be different: amoral actions, discontent with the social status and financial situation, gender behavior, political and civil position of the teachers, their attitude towards execution of the professional responsibilities. All of the above resulted in a sequence of conflicts within the pedagogical community. The article applies methodologies used in research of the history of daily life and social psychology, as well as analyzes the untypical behavior and deviant actions. The scientific novelty consists in analyzing the deviant behavior of provincial pedagogues at the simple mundane level. The results of examination of historical sources testify to the fact that productivity of educational system drops due to the interpersonal conflicts, deficit in professional pedagogical personnel, conservative environment, lack of means and excessive paternalistic custody from the side of local society and the state.
Ippolitov V.A. - Dekulakization in the Central Black Earth Region at the brink of the 1920s 1930s: the role of Komsomol pp. 42-56


Abstract: This article examines the role of Komsomol organizations in dekulakization of the Russian peasantry in the late 1920’s – early 1930’s.  Mechanism of youth participation in elimination of the kulaks as a social class is being revealed. The author demonstrates the contradictory attitude of the members of Komsomol towards this campaign, as well as examines the causes of attempt on the life of members of Komsomol by peasants. The geographical frameworks of this research contain the territory of Central Black Earth Region of RSFSR. The materials and documents from the State Archive of Sociopolitical History of Tambov Oblast comprised the foundation for this article. Special attention is given to the analysis of documents of the initial Komsomol organizations, which allows the author to determine the peculiarities of their activity and the attitudes of the regular members of the union, as well as to better understand the sociocultural phenomenon of Komsomol.  On the author’s opinion, the significant role of Komsomol in dekulakization is justified by the multiple facts of attempts on life and murders of the Komsomol members, as well as by presence of the big portion of the representatives of the poorest strata of the peasantry. The reputation of Komsomol in the villages was significantly undermined. The terms and the methods of conducting of campaign (later condemned) were dictated to Komsomol by the higher authorities. The active efforts of Komsomol were accompanied by constant threats of being excluded from the union. But majority of the Komsomol members did not support the idea of class warfare and preferred to remain neutral. A small part of the youth had openly protested the anti-peasantry policy of the party.
Tatarnikova A.I., Zagorodnyuk N.I. - The network of settlements in the Kondinskiy district of the Ural region according to the census of 1926 pp. 43-54


Abstract: The subject of this research is the network of settlements of Kondinskiy district of the Tobolsk district of the Urals region. The object is spatial distribution, typology, size and infrastructure of its settlements. Sources for the study of the development of the settlement network of the area were the materials of the Circumpolar census of population of 1926-1927 and lists of localities of the Tobolsk district of the Urals region on October 1, 1926. The analysis of the sources helped to identify the location of settlements relative to water sources. The authors concluded that the settlements were located along rivers at a great distance from each other. The typology of the settlement network was dominated by this type of settlement as "derevnya". The number of "selo" and "vyselok" (the settlement outside the village) is slightly. The settlements outside the village were formed in the course of commercial activities of the population. Settlements in the area were small and amounted, on average, 11 households, 41 person. They had a chaotic structure of buildings, streets and alleys were absent. The social infrastructure of settlements of the area was poorly developed, the village council of Nakhrachi, which was the administrative center of Kondinskiy district, had all the elements of infrastructure (school, medical point, post office, commercial establishments).
Vasil'eva S.I. - Culture of collective farming during the Great Patriotic War (On the materials of autonomous republics of Volga-Vyatka region) pp. 45-57


Abstract: The object of this research is a wide array of problems related to the negative impact of war upon the state of agricultural technology in collective farms in the autonomous republics of Volga-Vyatka Region (Mari, Mordovian and Chuvash ASSR): slowing down the rates of sowing and harvest works, quality deterioration of ploughing and seed material, difficulties associated with timely replenishment of seed reserves,  disregard of the earlier introduced succession cropping, losses in conducting harvest works, etc. The research is based on the extensive use of the methods of comparative analysis, which allow determining and demonstrating the peculiarities of the state of agricultural technology in the three autonomous republics of the Volga-Vyatka Region. The author’s special contribution consists in introduction of the new for the historical science archival materials; detailed examination of the various aspects of the topic that has not been previously studied within the regional historiography; as well as broad applicability of the methods of comparative analysis that allowed revealing the peculiarities in the state of agricultural technology in the autonomous republics of the Volga-Vyatka Region.
Tarasova Y.A., Barabanova N.A. - Authority and labor in province just before the New Economic Policy pp. 46-54


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of relation of the Soviet authority towards the working population in provincial city of Volga Region in 1921. Based on the earlier studied documents of Syzran State Archive and materials of the newspaper Syzran Communar for 1921, the authors explore the ways of increasing work discipline, incentives and punishments, as well as strategies of ideological influence used by the government agencies. The peculiarities of the work of provincial concentration camp of compulsory labor are being determined. The authors also examine the relation to peasantry due to transition to the new economic policy. The new earlier unknown archive materials are introduced into the scientific discourse. The authors describe the mechanisms of ideological influence upon the consciousness of working population as well as reveal the specificities of relation of the government to peasantry during the first decades of the New Economic Policy. The conclusion is made that by the end of the Civil War, were developed the main ways of estrangement of labor, which were later used by Stalinist regime.   
Dary-Surun S.A. - Exploration of Uriankhai Region by the Russian Geographical Society in the late XIX early XX century pp. 47-52


Abstract: Uriankhai Region is the last of the Russian lands that was formally accepted as a protectorate of the Russian Empire in 1914. Although the “Uriankhai Question”, namely the dispute between Russian, China and Mongolia over the territory and richness in natural resources, which emerged earlier, attracting the travelers from other countries, including Russian merchants and the scholars from the Russian Geographical Society. The goal of this article is todetermine the main stages, causes and difficulties of exploration of Uriankhai Region by the Russian Geographical Society, as well as the objectives that required meticulous examination of the historical landmarks via external description and comparison, as well as archeological excavations. This work reveals the questions of Russia-China relations with regards to Tuva; Russian-Tuvan trade and border question; feudal nature of social relations in Tuva; and the goals of the Russian Geographical Society associated with studying the natural and geographical conditions, as well as political situation of Tuva during this period. Since the end of the XIX and until the beginning of the X century, there has been more targeted attention aimed at research of the peoples of Siberia, particularly Tuvans, rather than for the previous 150 years. Since the establishment of the Russian Geographical Society, one of the priority task, besides studying the Siberian ethnic groups, became the exploration of particular Asian countries that were a matter of great practical and scientific interest.
Kozlova S.A., Beshentsev A.N. - Transformation processes of the resettlement of Old Believers of the Western Transbaikal Region (Semeiskie) over the period of XX XXI centuries pp. 49-56


Abstract: The subject of this research is the transformation processes in resettlements of the Semeiskie Old Believers in the Western Transbaikal Region throughout the XX and XX centuries. The authors examine the population dynamics in the Old Believer settlements of the Western Transbaikal Region. A conducted geographical chart traces the population decline from the rural areas into the district administrative centers. The three time periods are determined: pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet, marking the historical events that affected the resettlement of the Semeiskie of the indicated region. The authors consider the transformations within the system of resettlement of the Semeiskie, trace the population dynamics among the Old Believers, as well as the development of localities within the limits of the main range of their resettlement. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that this article is first to reveal the discussed topic from the perspective of cartographic analysis. The author observe a high natural population increase in the first half of the XX century, the expansion of Old Believer communities in the poorly inhabited territories. By the end of the XX century, the population sized in the district centers has increased due to the inflow of population from the surrounding rural areas and villages, so the previously inhabited territories have become neglected. At the present time, the demographic development and resettlement of the local Semeiskie communities and Old Believers’ descendants do not differ from the national urbanization trend.
Sartikova E.V. - Institutional registration of Kalmyk regional party organization (1920-1921) pp. 52-64


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the education of Kalmyk regional organization of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) since 1921, when at the first regional constitutive party conference took place its institutional registration. The author sets a goal to demonstrate the evolution of its emergence and development on the background of various historical and political circumstances. It is noted that the creation of party organization has begun after the cessation of civil war on the territory of Kalmyk region. The article examines the results of the first party conference, the key topics of which became the resolution of economic issues and fight against racketeering. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that the author comprehensively examines the work of the regional organization of Communist Party, its specificity under the particular circumstance by attracting the previously unpublished archive materials. Conclusion is made that the first Kalmyk regional conference of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) did not just institutionalize the creation of regional party organization, but also contributed into improvement of the party work at the local level. A. Chapchaev has been selected as the Executive Secretary of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks); the structure and objectives of the regional committee of the party have been approved. Based on the conducted analysis, it is underlined that the established party organization from the very beginning “obtained the features of not just political organization, but also governmental with the functions common to the state facilities of executive and oversight character”, which was practically standard for all regions during the Soviet period.
Suprunova E. - Activity of the local self-government aimed at improvement of sanitary and hygienic situation in Vladivostok and Primorskaya Oblast in the conditions of modernization of the early XX century pp. 52-65


Abstract: The subject of this research is the activity of central and, specifically, local authorities aimed at ensuring conditions for public health and well-being in Vladivostok and Primorskaya Oblast in the early XX century. The goal is to determine the key problems pertaining to provision of urban amenities to the city and region, and the measures taken by the authorities to resolve them. Research methodology is based on the analysis of archival documents and a combination of special historical methods, such as problematic-chronological, comparative-historical, and classification. The author also used the materials from Primorsky State Archive, including cases of Vladivostok City Administration, reports of Vladivostok State Duma, and cases of the Military Governor of Primorskaya Oblast. In the conditions of modernization of the early XX century, including Stolypin's resettlement policy, the unpreparedness of suburbs of the Far East to mass population by foreign and Russian citizens became evident due to the absence of basic conditions of urban civilization. The conclusion is made that local authorities, relying on support of the central administration, undertook measures for ensuring favorable living conditions in the region. Leaning on examination of the previously unstudied archival documents, the author concludes on ineffectiveness of measures undertaken by the local authorities. The acquired results of can be applied in the current activity of local authorities, as well as in teaching historical disciplines universities, including such discipline as the History of the Primorsky Krai (in the department of Humanities at Pacific State Medical University). The experience accumulated demonstrates the effective solution for multiple issues.
Moiseeva L.A. - Subjects of the Russian Far East of the early XXI century: policy of selecting the ways of joint development (from the perspective of modern historical knowledge) pp. 55-69


Abstract: The subject of this research is the ways of internal integration of the nine subjects of the Russian Far East as a factor of implementation of the strategic task of Russia’s integration into the Pacific Rim. The methodological framework applies following principles: historicism – for reconstructing the past, studying the present, and historical vision of the future; objectivity – for the comprehensive “multi-aspect”  consideration of the question after defining of its borders; comparative-historical – for analyzing the historical process in dynamics; alternativeness – for examining the various historical concepts; determinism – for identifying the universal regularities, causative substantiation of all phenomena of the historical paradigm; plausibility – in using diverse types of sources (statistical, written, Internet materials, works of foreign and national authors, etc.) for proposing the author’s concept. The scientific novelty consists in articulation of the topic of research that allowed demonstrating that the rapid escalation of territorial differentiation of the subjects of the Russian Federation in the Far East, weakening of the production ties between them, generated the chain of regional and local crises, which worsened the situation of isolation of the Far East from the more consistently developing central regions. Such negative trends resulted in the increase of threshold indexes leading to disturbance of the political, social, and economic stability that caused a mass outflow of the economically active population from the region. The author believes that the independent achievement by the subjects of Russian Federation of the direct cooperation with business world of the Pacific Rim turn developed into the pillage of natural resources of the Far East. The conceptual conclusion of this research includes the thesis that without the “codevelopment” of the subjects of Russian Far East with the Pacific Rim states (due to a specific geopolitical location of the region) it was impossible to retain the independence of the Pacific suburb of Russia.
Ryabkova O.V. - Deer farming in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug during the Great Patriotic War pp. 55-67


Abstract: The object of this research is the deer farming industry of the Yamalo-Nenets National Okrug, while the subjects of the processes taking place within the industry during the Great Patriotic War. The goal of this work lies in the attempt to describe the processes that took place with regards to deer farming, combining the preceding studies and the most recent data acquired in the course of examining the previously unpublished archival materials preserved in the State Archive of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Methodological foundation includes the historical-genetic and historical-comparative methods, which allow considering the specificities of development of the deer farming industry within the indicated region during the years of Great Patriotic War. The scientific novelty consists in the use of the previously unpublished sources from the archival fund “Yamalo-Nenets District Department of Agriculture of the Executive Committee of the Yamalo-Nenets Council of Workers’ Deputies” of the State Archive of Yamalo-Nenets National Okrug. The aforementioned documents provide the more detailed description of the processes that took place in deer farming of the Yamalo-Nenets National Okrug during the Great Patriotic War, as well as saturate with the additional facts the already existing information on the topic.
Shumkin G.N. - The problem of quality of consumer goods in USSR during the 1955-1975 (on the materials of clothing industry of Krasnodar Krai) pp. 55-70


Abstract:  The object of this research is the fuel and energy base of ferrous metallurgy of Ural in the late XIX – early XX centuries. Leaning on the materials of Compilations of statistical records of mining industry of Russia” for 1882-1911, the article examines the dynamics of consumption of the various types of fuel; determines the total volume of fuel consumption (tonnage-wise of reference fuel) and specific gravity of vegetal fuel (firewood, charcoal) and mineral fuel (bituminous coal, mazut, peat); reveals the portions of fuel consumed by iron plants and other sectors of mining industry of Ural. The records on collecting fuel by the Ural steel companies and its consumption by iron plants are compiled in a table (over 10,300 of reporting units). The acquired results are converted to reference fuel (by caloric coefficients) and subjected to analysis. The scientific novelty consists that the fact that the article is first in historiography to examine the fuel and energy base of ferrous metallurgy of Ural in the late XIX – early XX centuries. The conclusion is made that the  deficit of wood fuel, which has been the major energy resource, led to rationalization of the fuel and energy base. As a result, fuel consumption in semi-integrated steelworks (production of iron, steel, hardware) per production unit has reduced by five times in thirty years.  
Gergilev D.N. - Structure of the provincial and regional administration in Eastern Siberia from 1822 to 1917: principals of functionality and regional specificities pp. 56-69


Abstract: The object of this research is the administrative policy in remote areas of the Russian Empire. The subject is the structure of the provincial and regional government authorities in the Eastern Siberia from 1822 to 1917. The system of public administration represents a system of local government authorities in the offices of the second degree. The place of the degree in the government hierarchy was between governor-general degree and district degree. The research covers the Yeniseysk and the Irkutsk governorates, Yakutia and Zabaykalsky regions. These parts of the Eastern Siberia are the bright examples of the managerial control. The chronological limits of the research cover the period from 1822 to 1917. The key historical events in the timeline are «Institution for Siberian province management» and regulations of the reform of regional management. The main idea of the reform lies in the principle of common ground for public administration in Siberia. The research sources are the rules of the Russian Empire, archival materials, reference publications and periodical press. Methodological base of the research includes cognition universal method, general and special historical methods, inversion method. The changes in the structure of province and regional government system are demonstrated. The conclusion is made that the local features of the public administration of second degree were the principles of collective nature and scantiness (due to the Councils and Presence at the government institutions); military-administrative features of the governor power; the lack of power of regional authorities, the dependence of regional authorities from province authorities. The research specifies and extends scientific knowledge concerning the administrative policy of the Russian Empire in the Eastern Siberia, creates the additional possibilities for widening historical investigations in study of the policy.
Ershov M.F. - Helicopter Rhapsody as a historical-ethnographic source describing life in the North of Tyumen Region pp. 56-67


Abstract: The novel “Helicopter Rhapsody” by L. Babanin describes the daily activities of pilots in the conditions of frontier, on the border of nature and industrial civilization. The subject of this research is the important factors of social psychology of the population of the Far North in the period of oil and gas exploitation. Analysis is conducted on text as a historical-ethnographic source about isolated lifestyle of the population during the exploration of oil and gas deposits in the North of Western Siberia in the late XX – early XXI centuries. Based on information provided in the novel, and attempt is made to reconstruct mentality of the people living in the conditions of Soviet and post-Soviet oil and gas frontier, as well as explicate the specificity of formation of industrial society in the North of Western Siberia. The author's special contribution consists in reliance on the interdisciplinary approach. The novelty is defined by usage of the concepts of frontier, trickstership, and theoretical groundwork in the area of literary studies applicable to the events of the recent past. The acquired results demonstrate that L. Babanin using the imagery means described the breakdown of former cultural regulators, and in many ways, the intuitive, archaic methods of seeking the way out typical to the characters of his novel. The informal functions of tricksters are implicitly present among the social roles. They have, albeit implicitly, in a number of public roles, there are informal functions of the trickster. Study of the novel “Helicopter Rhapsody” proves that the cultural boundaries between profane and sacred components were vague, and former meanings faded away back in the Soviet times. However, the entropy of culture cannot be eternal. It is justifiable to conclude that tricksters in the future may play positive roles for overcoming the national stagnation. This article is valuable for the researchers dealing with frontier and soft scientists studying the culture of Russian province.
Asochakova V.N., Turezhanova S.A. - On prerequisites of the emergence of intelligentsia (XVIII-XIX centuries) pp. 58-64


Abstract: The subject of this research is the lower layer of church intelligentsia – parish clergy. The goal of this article is the characteristics of parish priests as one of the elements of cultural-historical and social prerequisites of the formation of national intelligentsia of Khakassia. The authors analyze the origin, level of education, and quantitative indicators of parish clergy in the Khakass-Minusinsk region during the XVIII-XIX centuries – one of the national regions of Southern Siberia. The research is conducted within the framework of the concept accordant to which the church intelligentsia is divided into three layers: higher (administration), middle (teachers), and lowee (parish). The conclusion is made that parish clergy in the region formed a bit later than in other parts of Siberia. Throughout the entire period, the segment of clergy has reduced despite the growth of Orthodox population. The low level of education, lack of personnel, nepotism and heredity of positions in the XVIII-XIX centuries led to the low level of professional qualification of the clergy. The cultural and historical prerequisites of the emergence of intelligentsia in Khakassia were not fully developed until the end of the XIX century.
Akberdeeva D.I. - Everyday life of political prisoners of Tobolsk Governorate in the early XX century pp. 61-77


Abstract: The subject of this research is the everyday life of political prisoners of Tobolsk Governorate in the extreme conditions of isolation, including routine and behavioral aspects. Everyday life is characterized with routineness and repetitiveness. In the conditions restriction of practically all spheres of life and total control of prison authorities, the political captives were forced to adjust to the unnatural circumstances and constantly search for the ways of physical and psychical survival. The author examines the following questions: living and sanitary-hygienic conditions of incarceration of political prisoners, daily schedule, arrangement of free time, regime changes affected by various factors, struggle of prisoners against toughening of regime, application of disciplinary sanctions and interpersonal relations among them. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that the author is first to characterize the routine of political prisoners of Tobolsk Governorate in the context of extreme conditions of everyday life, which allows to get having a new perspective on the events taking place in the region during the late-imperial period. It is concluded that separate categories of political prisoners had a number of privileges if compared to criminal offenders. The majority of penitentiary facilities of Tobolsk Governorate were characterized by overcrowding and anti-sanitary state of prison wards, insufficient supply of food, clothes and footgear. To a large extent, the conditions depended on country’s domestic political situation, policy of prisoner authorities, peculiarities of adaptation of political prisoners to extreme conditions, and their commitment to achieving goals.
Akberdeeva D.I. - A. N. Ushakov the deputy of State Duma of the first convocation from Tobolsk Governorate pp. 63-73


Abstract: The object of this research is the persona of A. N. Ushakov – the deputy of State Duma of the first convocation from Tob0lsk Governorate. The subject is his sociopolitical activity in 1906. Currently, there are no publications with sufficient description of his role in the sociopolitical processes unfolded in the governorate and the country during the establishment of the Russian parliamentarism. In order to fill the gaps in the deputy’s biography, the author examines and analyzes the materials from the personal fund preserved in the State Archive of Tobolsk, regional periodicals, and published sources. The methods of biographical analysis allow delving into the most significant events of A. N. Ushakov’s life – arrest, exile to the north of governorate for organizing the congress of peasants of Tobolsk District, election into the 1st State Duma, signing of “Vyborg Manifesto” after the disassembly of State Duma. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that it is the first work in historiography dedicated to A. N. Ushakov. The conclusion is made that the biographical materials of A. N. Ushakov are undeniably relevant for studying the establishment of parliamentarism in Russia, as well as sociopolitical history of the region overall. The revealed sources testify to the fact that with his official and social activity, Ushakov earned respect among his contemporaries who entrusted him with the right to represent Tobolsk Governorate in the 1st State Duma.
Yunina E.A. - Military daily life of 1941-1945 in epistolary documents of the Siberian combatants pp. 65-100


Abstract: Through the analysis of epistolary documents, the author determines the information component of letters and perception of war by the Siberian combatants: weekdays and holidays in the field, adaptation behavioral strategies, emotional state, and transformation of mindset. The work is based on application of the techniques of military psychology, history of everyday life, historical-anthropological approach and text analysis. The sphere of personal human experiences are analyzed in the context of extreme conditions for the first time. The novelty of this work is defined by introducing into the scientific discourse of a complex of epistolary documents from the family archives of Tobolsk residents, which have not been previously subjected to scientific analysis. The specificity of communicative process, generation of information, emotional coloring of epistles directly depended on situational factors and addressing of correspondence; receiving a letter became the key event within the realm of daily life in the front. The attributes of soldierly letters contained consolation of relatives, recommendations on maintaining the household in case of death of the combatants, description of life in the field, recreation culture. In the atmosphere of potential danger to life, took place the process of reassessment of the fundamental human values, formation of views on the nature of war, personal aspects of its perception. These problems were solved based on the level of education, professional and social affiliation, intellectual capabilities of the addressers. The adjustment to military reality was accompanied by the negative form of stress, development of the habit to extreme existence. The form of written communication allowed realizing intra-familial socio-demographic role common to the traditional binary gender system. The distinct peculiarity of Tobolsk soldier consisted in understanding of spiritual connection with birthplace; the sense of compatriotism became much stronger.
Ponarin P.V. - County response to famine in 1891-1892 in the Russian Empire (on the example of Tula governorate) pp. 70-81


Abstract: This article summarizes the results within the framework of the project of Russian Humanitarian Scientific Foundation No. 15-01-00026 of 2016 “Crisis in agrarian society in the imperial Russia: famine of 1891-1892 in the Central Black Earth region”. The subject of the research is activity of the county council of Tula governorate over the period of 1891-1892 aimed at ensuring food provision, which the author define as county response to famine among the rural population. Using the published and unpublished sources, the article examines the county council’s initiatives on overcoming the agrarian crisis. The conclusion is made that the work of county councils in the famine of 1891-1892 was rather extensive, but only within the limits of their authority established by the legislation of the Russian Empire. Under the conditions of the existed legislation, the work of county councils was built in the state food policy. Granting of broader authority to the county council could take place only through crucial changes in the Russian legislation, which seemed practically impossible in terms of the conservative stabilization of Alexander III. Thus, the county response to famine of 1891-1892 was reduced mainly to the realization of local measures developed by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and governors.
Dolidovich O.M. - Food supply of mining community of Lensk-Vitim gold-mining districts during the World War I pp. 71-80


Abstract: This article explores the problems of food supply of mining community of Lensk-Vitim gold-mining districts during the World War I, as well as the measures taken by the government to resolve them. The author determines the peculiarities of the delivery of food products established by the beginning of the XX century under the influence of geographical position and transport infrastructure. The article demonstrates the impact of procurement activities of the Lensk gold-mining community upon the local market conjuncture, as well as the emerging difficulties such as shortage of delivery from Irkutsk and speculation of traders. It is noted that the administration of the province strived to maintain same rate of gold extraction and was careful to avoid the reoccurrence of the tragic events of 1912. The conclusion is drawn that the authorities were able to avert interruption in supply of the territories and prevent outrage on the part of workers until 1916. The use of narrative method helped to select and interpret the historical facts of the problem under consideration; historical-genetic method allowed identifying the causes that led to difficulties of food supply of mining community of Lensk-Vitim gold-mining district during the wartime; systemic method played an important role in correlating the regional events with the spread of food crisis in the Irkutsk Province. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that based on the archival and published sources the author is first to conduct special research on food supply of the northern gold-mining territories of Eastern Siberia during the World War I, assess the performance of the provincial government, as well as describe the priorities of economic policy of the imperial government in this remote region.
Tinikova E.E. - Age and gender structure of urban population of South Siberia in the middle of the XX beginning of the XXI century pp. 74-87


Abstract: The subject of this research is the peculiarities of age and gender structure of urban population of South Siberia over the period from 1945 to 2017. Territorial framework include the national republics o Khakassia, Tuva, and Altai; the year 1945 is selected as the chronological boundary as benchmark of a relatively stable period in the Russian history, after the end of the Great Patriotic War. The selection of chronological framework was also affected by the entry of Tuvan Autonomous Oblast into the RSFSR in 1944. The goal of this article lies in examination of the development vectors of age and gender structures of urban population in the indicated republics for the formation of general picture of demographic trajectory of urban population of the region, as well as the prospects for its development in the nearest future. The research is prepared on the basis of statistical data of five All-Union and two Russian censuses, as well as current census registration presented on the official website of the Russian Federal State Statistics Service ( Demographic development of urban population of South Siberia along with its age and gender structure has not been a subject of separate scientific research. Although it is necessary to conduct such analysis for the socioeconomic planning and development of the region, as well as for the regional historical science, because the impact of demographic processes upon the history of particular communities is an old-established fact. The study demonstrated a nonuniform distribution of urban population by age and gender, which significantly affected such demographic processes as birth rate and mortality rate.
Aksarin V.V. - Agrarian reforms in Tobolsk (Tyumen) Governorate during the period of military-communist experiment (1918-1921) pp. 78-91


Abstract: The object of this research is the policy of “war communism” conducted during the escalated military-political crises by the central and local government authorities in Soviet Russia. The subject of this research is the agrarian reforms executed by the Soviet authorities in the territory of Tobolsk (Tyumen) Governorate during the time of Civil War (1918-1921). Leaning on the documentary materials of Tobolsk State Archive, the author meticulously examines such aspects of the topic as the implementation of food policy of requisitioning of agricultural products, creation of Committees of Poor Peasants , and exemption of “excess” from the population. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that based on the newly introduced into the scientific discourse archival materials and a number of other sources, the author analyzes agrarian reforms conducted in Tobolsk (Tyumen) Governorate during the period of military-communist experiment, reflected in the policy of requisitioning of agricultural products, creation of Committees of Poor Peasants  and exemption of agricultural “surplus” from the population.  The author believes that increase of administrative control over requisitioning of agricultural products along with tightening of food policy led to a more severe crisis among rural population of the governorate. In the conditions of socioeconomic and political crisis caused by the Civil War and frequent change power, the measures taken by the local authorities delayed and had certain peculiarities. The conclusion is made on the egregious excesses that carried anti-peasant character and drastic consequences of the reforms for the residents of governorate.
Vasilyeva E. - The milestones of party building of the constitutional democrats of Siberia during the Revolution of 1917 and the Civil War pp. 78-88


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the questions of party building of the constitutional democrats of Siberia during 1917 – 1920, which is one of most tragic periods of the Russian history. Based on the analysis of  published and archival materials and documents of the central and local committees of the People's Freedom Party in Eastern Russia during the Revolution and Civil War, the goal is set to determine the causes and follow the trends of changes in composition of the party, vector and nature of the activity of Siberian cadet groups. The research relies on the fundamental principles of scientific objectivism and historicism, which allows examining the topic in dynamics and in relation to the specific socioeconomic, political, and cultural circumstances that developed during this period. The scientific novelty consists in demonstration of the dynamics and identification of the causes of changes in composition and tactics of the Siberian cadet groups throughout the Revolution of 1917 and the Civil War. Emphasis is placed on the “democratic counter-revolution” and the political regime of A. V. Kolchak. The conclusion is made that the nature of organizational party activity of the Siberian cadets is determined by a range of factors, namely local conditions and events that unfolded in the capital of Russia. A considerable influence was produced by the directives of the Central Committee of the People's Freedom Party, political orientations of the All-Russian National Center, and the experience acquired by the party and its leaders during the Revolution of 1917 and the Civil War.
Tinikova E.E. - Marriage and divorce rates among the population of Southern Siberia in the middle of the XX beginning of the XXI century pp. 81-92


Abstract: The object of this research is the peculiarities of demographic development of urban population of Southern Siberia over the period from 1945 to 2017. The subject of this research is the marriage and divorce rates as the paramount demographic processes. The territorial framework consists of the republics of Khakassia, Tyva and Altai. The author examines such aspects of the topic as factors that influence these processes and trends of their development, as well as assessment of the regional differences with regards to marriage and divorce among urban population. The analysis is conducted on the absolute number of marriages and divorces. Correlation between the amount of divorces and amount of marriages, total rates of marriage and divorce, matrimonial structure of urban population in accordance with the four All-Union and two All-Russian censuses. The scientific novelty consists in performing systemic analysis of the dynamics of marriage and divorce rates among urban population of Southern Siberia throughout a historical period of more than 70 years. The drawn conclusions demonstrate that the development of such demographic processes as marriage and divorce rates to a great extent are substantiated by the structural factors. The author also notes that considerable differences with regards to these demographic processes are observed between the representatives of various ethnic groups.
Perviy A.I. - Participation of the labor unions of Volgograd in solution of the housing problem within the framework of the program Housing-200 during 1985-1991 pp. 85-92


Abstract: The subject of this research is the work of the regional labor unions in solution of the housing problem of Volgograd workers over the period of 1985-1991 within the framework of state program on providing housing to all Soviet citizens. Special attention is given to the contribution of Volgograd labor unions with regards to solution of housing problem of the country. The characteristic is provided to the key methods of implementation of the program “Housing-2000” by the labor unions. The goal of this work consists in giving an idea on the forms and content of the activity of Volgograd labor unions in solution of the regional housing problem during 1985-1991. Thus, the author examines the status of housing problem of the Soviet State and Volgograd Region, analyses the capabilities of the regional labor unions to influence its outcome. In accordance with the principles of historicism used as methodological foundation of this research, the policy of labor unions was viewed in close interrelation with the political and socioeconomic processes that took place in the Soviet State, which allowed demonstrating justification and consistency in activity of the Volgograd labor unions throughout the indicated timeframe. The general scientific method of synthesis helped to acquire the full picture on the Volgograd labor unions as an organization contributing into accommodating the needs of regional population. The relevance of this research is defined by introduction of the new historical sources to the scientific discourse. The conducted analysis will allow assessing the all-union housing situation, considering the solution of housing problem by the labor unions of the Soviet State.
Mezit L.E., Valyunova A.V. - The results of implementation of the program of comprehensive sociocultural development of Krasnoyarsk Krai pp. 89-95


Abstract: The goal of this work is to assess the efficiency of the program-targeted method of administration based on the experience of implementation of the complex program of sociocultural development of Krasnoyarsk Krai during the period of 1980’s. The specificity of the region is substantiated by the fact that the large-scale tasks on its industrial assimilation were performed in the conditions of complete absence of infrastructure, deficit of labor resources, as well as its geographical remoteness from the central authorities. The scientific novelty consists in the following: based on the archive data, the authors attempted to determine the decision-making mechanism along with realization of complex goals pertaining to changes in the working conditions and meeting the cultural demands of the population of the region. The article also analyzes the public initiatives that emerged in the region during the examined period.
Konovalov I.A. - The peculiarities of self-governance in Siberia in the late XVIII century pp. 90-96


Abstract: Based on the previously unknown documents of the archival documentation and pre-revolutionary legislation, this article examines the municipal and peasant self-governance in Siberia in the XVIII century. The growing interest to the history of local self-governance is associated not only with desire of the historians to look more thoroughly into the past, but also strictly practical needs. With reference to the forgotten traditions of public administration, it is important to extensively consider the historical experience that was acquired over the centuries. Special attention is given to the structure and organizational legal questions of the work of local self-governance and its cooperation with the local administrative-police bodies. The author concludes that the bodies of municipal and peasant public administration of Siberia in the XVIII century were incorporated into the system of local branches of government. Competences of the branches of local self-governance were quite limited,  for instance, they had no authority to solve many of the economic issues without sanction of the crown administration. Their effectiveness was reduced due to the extremely undemocratic system of class representation. The main differences between public administration bodies and state government bodies consisted in the forms of their organization, character and conditions of work, subordinate to oversight of the local administrative-police bodies, which at that time, was perceived by the Siberians as the fully justified conditions of their life.
Babich I.L. - Orthodox life of the Moscow Region countrymen of the late XIX early XX centuries (on the example of parish of the Church of the Life-Giving Spring Icon of the Mother of God in Tsaritsyno) pp. 91-104


Abstract: The subject of this research is the noble, ducal, large industrial and foreign last names, who settled in Tsaritsyno as the countrymen over the period of 1880’s – 1910’s. The objects is the peculiarities of development of the countrymen movement in the late XIX – early XX centuries. The goal of this article is to trace the interconnection between the members of the Orthodox congregation that resided in the large architectural complex of the times of Catherine the Great Tsaritsyno and the process of establishment of the country life around it, using the materials from the Moscow Central State Archive. This article is prepared based on introduction into the scientific discourse of the new archive information, accumulated by the author in the Moscow Central State Archive, which preserved the documents on the history of the Life-Giving Spring Church, and particularly, metrical books of the temple. The author pursued correlation of the data about the countrymen and the congregation, who referred to the church for realization of various Orthodox rituals. The work also applied the materials of a so-called “verbal history” – the interview with descendants of the priests of the Life-Giving Spring Church in Tsaritsyno. The author is first to examine the intersection of the live of Orthodox parishes and the countrymen movements of the late XIX – early XX centuries from such perspective. This approach allowed determining the interconnection of the organization of suburban settlements in places with the active spiritual life under. The new social slice of the Orthodox congregation, when the single organization united the people of various social classes, gradually led to establishment of the other structures in Russian society. 
Yunina E.A. - Photographic studio with a female face. The spouses Ussakovsky: marital and creative union in sociocultural space of Tobolsk of the late XIX min XX century (the experience of historical-cultural analysis and regional biography) pp. 93-158


Abstract: This article presents the results of personification of the evolution of photography in Tobolsk during the late XIX – min XX century, demonstrated on the example of biographies of I. K. Ussakovsky and his spouse M. M. Ussakovskaya – owner of one of the most popular photographic studio in the city. The research methodology leans on the historical-genetic, descriptive-narrative, retrospective and historiographical methods; historical-anthropological and micro-historical approaches, with application of the biographical tools and method of historical reconstruction. On the basis of the newly revealed archival documents and published data alongside the analysis of products and teaser advertising of the studio of M. Ussakovskaya, the author comprehensively reconstructs the family history and professional activity of the spouses Ussakovsky in accordance with the political situation in the country. For 37 years, the studio of M. Ussakovskaya has been one of the leading public-cultural establishments of Tobols in the area of photography services. It was attended mostly by the privileged part of the population. After the change of political regime, the studio quickly enough readjusted to the transformed structure of everyday life of the city. The lead in the mastery of photography in the marital tandem belonged to I. K. Ussakovsky. He was responsible for execution of practical and organizational tasks in the studio, while M. M. Ussakovskaya acted as a competent representative of family business, handled the administrative work and made deals with the authorities.
Borodina E.V. - Regulation and control of duty hours of the record clerks in Russia during 1725-1734 (on the example of Middle Ural) pp. 96-121


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the history of establishment of the institution of duty hours at the time of Russian Empire after the death of Peter the Great. Namely the years of the rule of the first Russian emperor mark the emergence of the paramount of normative legal acts, which determined the fundamentals for regulation of state administration. The subject of this research is the analysis of discipline and control practices of the work of record clerks in the decade after the death of Peter the Great. The goal consists in determination of peculiarities in regulation of duty hours of the clerks during 1725-1734. The method of historiographical analysis allowed examining the internal criticism of the structure and content of legislative acts and documental materials. The author also applied the chronological method, mathematical analysis, and method of comparative-legal studies. The scientific novelty lies in comparison of the legislation and regulation practice of duty hours of the clerks in a particular region of the Russian Empire. Despite the sufficient knowledge on the history of mining administration in the Ural Region, the question of regulation of duty hours of the clerks of Siberian Oberbergamt did not receive due attention on the pages of monographs and articles. The comparison of legislative acts and specificity of orderliness of activity of the clerks of Siberian Oberbergamt and subordinate establishments allowed determining that the regulations on duty hours recorded in General Regulation required constant reinforcement by the local normative acts. Along with the monetary fines set by the Regulation, the record clerks were punished by confinements, demotion to a lower appointment, as well as hitting by cudgels. The increase in document flow created conditions for strengthening control over the work of clerks.
Chernysheva I.I. - Formation of the system of public education of adults in the middle of the 1930's: Russian national context and regional perspective pp. 97-109


Abstract: This article analyzes the formation of the system of public education of adults in Ural in the context of the nationwide modernization process. Basic attention is given to the structural-organizational aspect of the reform of public education of adult population, primarily during the period of 1936-1937, when took place the search for the new structure of secondary education along with the continuous efforts to battle illiteracy. The conditions that affected the establishment the education structure and system of adults are characterized, among which are emphasized the outbreak of famine in 1937 and food shortage that led to decrease of the working students and closing of adult schools. Analysis of the documents from regional archives allowed determining the local specificities of this process in the region that marked the establishment of a powerful industrial facility, population growth, rapid urbanization, as well as critical deficiency of literate people and competent specialists. The conclusion is made that the efforts aimed at achieving mass literacy progressed to a new level and delivered substantial results.
Filatova Z.V. - Transformation of the institution of government commissars in the Stavropol Governorate in 1917 pp. 103-115


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the establishment and development of the institution of government commissars after the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution. The relevance of this research lies in the analysis of the core reforms of local governance within the specified period, determination of trends in transformation of the local administrative system, study the reforms of this system in the past, considering the possibility of usage of such experience in modern practice. The author analyses the processes of transformation of power of the instate of government commissars – local governing body of the Provisional Government in the Stavropol Governorate over the period from March to December 1917. All attempts of the government commissioner to conduct socioeconomic reforms in the governorate were rather shallow and did not pertain to the basic political statutes of society, set by autocracy in the past. The application of historical comparative method allows determining the common and peculiar characteristics of the local governing bodies in Stavropol Governorate, as well as pursue correlation between the processes of their transformation during this time. The conclusion is made that the institute of government commissars in its concept remained a brogues authority and represented the interest of the well-off population. This institution neither realized the given administrative opportunities, nor established order in the various spheres of life of the governorate. On the background of disappointment with the work of the institute of government commissars and other bourgeois authorities by the end of 1917, the population of Stavropol Governorate supported the Congress of Soviets of Workers', Soldiers' and Peasants' Deputies that promoted socially important slogans.
Kleitman A.L. - History of the Lower Volga Region in historiography of the time of Peter the Great pp. 112-128


Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical essays of the early XVIII century, in which along with other issued, were examined the problems of history of the Lower Volga Region (diaries of Peter the Great’s travels, “Short History of the Great Northern War”, “Core of the Russian History”, as well as works of the foreigners who traveled or served in Russia – Bell, Perry, Strahlenberg, de Bruijn). The work defines the circles of the questions on the Lower Volga Region history, which presented the interest for these authors, as well as characterizes their contribution into the study of regional history. The conducted research demonstrated that in the early XVIII century, the issues associated with the history, modern status and prospects of development of the Lower Volga Region were analyzed, as well as materials on this topic were created. These essays differed from the previously existed traditions of description of history in their approaches towards understanding of the past, form, and methods of the work with the source. These compositions comprised the foundation for the main directions of further study of the history of Lower Volga Region during the XVIII-XIX centuries:Examination of events of the regional history in the context of history of the Russian State;Study of the historical problematic within the works dedicated to the comprehensive research of territory of the Russian Empire in geographic, economic, and ethnographic regard.
Gordeeva M. - Execution for debt in the volost courts of Barnaul districts of Tomsk governorate: origin and incidence in the judicial practice (late XIX early XX centuries) pp. 120-125


Abstract: The subject of this research is the judicial practice of the volost courts of Barnaul district of the Tomsk governorate in the late XIX — early XX centuries. Minute books of the volost courts, which contained records on the claims, testimony of the parties and witnesses, and court decision, served as the main source for this research. Fine and comprehensive record management made allowed applying historical-systemic method, which revealed the mechanism of functionality of the volost courts. The use of content analysis allowed determining the priority of the questions under review, classifying debt enforcement by the types of undischarged obligations, reconstructing the level of legal consciousness of peasants, and assessing the effectiveness of the peasant self-governance. It is established that litigations on obligations default held second place among all cases in the volost courts, which indicates wide applicability of the practice of “seeking truth” not in the rural society, but the official institutions. Based on introduction of new sources into the scientific discourse, the author concludes the spread of debt enforcement is related not only to increase of currency circulation in everyday life of peasants, consolidation of the practice of estimation of things, and getting paid for work, but also with the crisis of trust-based relations within the rural community.
Esikova M. - Economic and demographic peculiarities of the development of Tambov governorate immediately prior to and at the beginning of the World War II pp. 212-225


Abstract: The subject of this research is the effect of the World War I upon the state of industry and agriculture, as well as the position of the working class and peasants of the Tambov governorate. The author points out that the general level of industrial production of the governorate prior to the war remained low. The majority of the industrial facilities were scatter throughout towns and villages. The Tambov workers were closely connected to land. The pre-war problems of the governorate’s agriculture consisted in the low level of technical equipment, work efficiency and crop capacity; it resulted in the prevalence of the subsistence economy with the improper organization of the territory, forced crop rotations, and the extensive production. Due to the war, industry and agriculture were experiencing the lack of the workforce, which became one of the key causes for the deep disruption in the economy. The author analyses the increase of speculation, and growth of the market prices on bread. It is noted that with the worsening of the economic situation in the country, the government intensified its interference into the economic life; however, it increased the uncontrollability of the economic processes. Scientific novelty consist in the attempt to solve certain issues which currently remain controversial: influence of the World War, mobilization of human and material resources for the army, importance of the government policy with regards to the working class and peasants on the example of Tambov governorate. The author highlights the negative effect of the war upon the functioning of the economy, and agriculture in particular, as well as the intensification of social differentiation and social tension in the village.
Ippolitov V.A. - Regulation of social structure of the Komsomol organization of the Central Black Earth Oblast at the initial stage of thorough collectivization pp. 226-242


Abstract: The author examines the following factors of regulation of social structure of Komsomol in the early 1930’s: collectivization, fight against “centering” of the union, strengthening of the brotherly-proletarian core. In the history of Komsomol of this little-studied period, the author notices a legitimate connection between the policy of the party and the criteria of social selection of those who entered the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League. The author comes to a conclusion that in the early 1930’s that the ideal characteristics of the members of Komsomol were considered proletarian-poor descent, commitment to the “general line of the party”, as well as membership in the collective farm (kolkhoz). The main sources for this article became the unpublished archive materials from the funds of State Archives of Public Political History of Voronezh Oblast and Tambov Oblast. It is demonstrated that the strict regulation of the party’s structure according to the class affiliation negatively affected the quality of the work of Komsomol. The scientific novelty consists in the reframing of the importance of social selection in the youth communist union.
Krasnyakov N.I. - General imperial tendencies and attempts to implement local specificity into administrative-normative system of the XVIII century Siberia pp. 322-361


Abstract: The author examines the reformation of the voivode-mandatory administration of Siberia and focuses his attention on the combination of the defining factors, first and foremost the colonizational character   of the territory, traditionally more expanded competency of the local government officials, conduction of the diplomatic relations with the bordering states, absence of noble landownership, developed self-governance among the migrants, etc. Namely the peculiarities of the region created such regional institutions and centers of power that could put the local society and administration above the supreme authority. The author underlines that the reforms of the early XVIII century in Siberia were conducted considering the specificity of the region, and that resulted in the deviation from the unified governorate administration in the empire.  An example of such deviation from the rational principles of the empire-building became the restoration in the late 1720’s of the Siberian order, but this measure did not pan out, because besides the order, the All-Siberian affairs were under the competency of the Senate, collegiums, Siberian governor, and the specialized financial and departmental metallurgical administration. With regards to Siberia, during the period of 1710-1782, there were “Special orders” for the governors, developed by taking into account the geographical, economic, and socio-political specificity of the region.  
Lidzieva I.V. - Economic activity of the branches of public administration of Kalmyk Steppe in the XIX century pp. 362-392


Abstract: The subject of this article is the examination of the economic activity of self-governance in the Kalmyk Steppe. Based on the archive materials, various “budget” sources that contain data on profits and losses of the branches of public administration were subjected to studying. That allowed figuring out complicated issues of economic development. Based on the results of their analysis, it was determined that budgets of uluses were especially poor. The critical analysis of the sources showed that the forms of financial and primary accounting records for the uluses administrations were standard. The author concludes that despite the limited financial resources, the financial relations provided a relative economic autonomy of the branches of local self-governance in the XIX century Kalmyk Steppe, because namely the local finances best match the needs of the specific territory and contribute into the establishment of the conditions of its functioning.
Bredikhin V.E. - Processing industry in Tambov Oblast during the period of 1941-1945 pp. 393-419


Abstract: Based on the example of functioning of Tambov Oblast processing branches of industry, the author gives evaluation to the efficiency of the planned-centralized economy in the conditions of the wartime. The object of this research is the combination of branches of light and food industries that belong to the industry group B, the strategic importance of which during the wartime consisted in the food and clothes supply of the army and fabric-factory population of the base. A special attention is given to the questions of local subordination as the only source of supply of the local population throughout the war. The authors examines the industrial base potential, difficulties of economic restructuring of the real sector and the ways to overcome them, as well as the results of carrying out the government projected tasks. This article is first to analyze on the example of the materials of Tambov Oblast the effect of the government industrial policy during the period of “socialistic reconstruction of economy” upon the work of the Soviet processing industry under the conditions of the Great Patriotic War. The author makes a conclusion on the complete retargeting of the processing branches towards the supply of the battle needs; their objective incapability to carry out government projected tasks and meet the needs of the local population with the living essentials due to human resources, material-technical, as well as mineral and fuel issues; negative influence upon the industrial indexes in the light and food sectors of the prewar industrial policy of the government aimed at stimulating the heavy industry branches.
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