Genesis: Historical research
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History of regions of Russia
Popov A.D. - “Boxer Rebellion” in China in perception of the Siberian common people (based on the materials of Tomsk and Irkutsk newspapers) pp. 1-8


Abstract: This article reconstructs the perception of the “Boxer Rebellion” in China (1898-1901) among the common people of Siberia. The research is based primarily on the materials of Tomsk and Irkutsk private newspapers. Altogether, the author examined approximately 20 correspondences from the cities and villages of Western and Eastern Siberia (Irkutsk, Tomsk, Yeniseysk, Omsk, Ulan-Ude, Kokshetau, and others). The author also provides a brief description of the key events of “Chinese revolt”, as well as demonstrates the general historiographical background of the explored topic. The work is structured according to the principles of historicism and objectivity. The scientific novelty first and foremost consists in the introduction of the new circle of sources on this problematic into the scientific discourse (as a rule, in analyzing the “vox populi” regarding the Yihequan uprising, the historians used to refer to the Moscow or Far Eastern mass media). The conclusion is made that the events of 1898-1901 aroused great interest among the “ordinary” Siberians, as well as were widely discussed in cities and villages. However, the lack of information about the events taking place in the neighboring country substantiated the formation of a tense atmosphere in the region, which resulted in a number of tragic incidents.
Kattsina T.A., Marinenko L.E. - Change of the model and practices of solution of the problem of child neglect in the early XX century (on the materials of Yeniseysk Governorate) pp. 9-19


Abstract: The article is dedicated to examination of the model and practical activity of the local leadership of Yeniseysk Governorate in solution of the child neglect problem during the period of 1917-1925. The chronological framework of the research capture the term of establishment of the Soviet authority in the country, as well as the first reforms in the area of protection of childhood. The study of the aforementioned issue on the materials of Yeniseysk Governorate allows formulating an idea about what events took place in the region and the entire country. The scientific novelty consists in introduction into the scientific discourse of the new archive materials that have never been published earlier, which allowed reconstructing the practice of implementation of the Soviet model of solving the problem of child neglect on the example of Yeniseysk Governorate. The conclusion is made about the changes made in providing help to the street children during the first years of Soviet government, when the private initiative of separate individuals was replaced by the state centralized system. The article gives the analysis of the system of government measures on the struggle against neglect in the region; determines and systematizes the factors which formed the children homelessness during the stated historical period; and presents the assessment of the efficiency of work of the local self-governance in solution of this problem.
Starikov I. - Historical experience of constitutional structuring of the unrecognized state (on the example of the Far Eastern Republic Constitution of 1921) pp. 18-30


Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical experience of constitutional structuring under the conditions of civil war and foreign intervention of the unrecognized state of Far Eastern Republic (1920-1921). The author examines the process of establishment of the state and development of Constituent assembly of the Main Law (Constitution) by the constitutional commission. The article analyzed the impact of Soviet and bourgeois principles upon the content of main provisions of the Far Eastern Republic Constitution of 1921. The system of supreme and local authorities of the Far Eastern Republic, as well as main directions, forms, and methods of their work are being studied. The author notes the consolidation of the new economic policy in the Articles of the Far Eastern Republic Constitution of 1921. The article underlines the absence within the Soviet and modern historical legal scientific literature of the comprehensive research that are able to determine the specificities of the Main Law of the Far Eastern Republic in comparison with the Constitution of the Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic of 1918. The conclusion is made that the Far Eastern Republic Constitution of 1921 could become the legal foundation of the future democratic legal state and justly holds a special place in the country’s constitutional history.
Mikheev M.V. - Problems of the demilitarization of the Urals industry afte rthe Great Patriotic War pp. 25-35


Abstract: The article highlights the problems of reevacuation and the demilitarization of the industrial enterprises of the Urals in the post-war period. The object of research is the post-war recovery and development of the economy in the Soviet Union. The subject of the study is reevacuation and demilitarization measures, which took place in the industrial Urals since 1945. Particular attention is paid to the implications of these processes for the future economic development of the region. To find out their features, along with studies of precursors the author used documents of the central and regional archives.In the study, the author used principles of objectivity, historicist determinism, systematic approach, the method of quantitative data and comparative-historical method.The novelty of the work is proved by entering into a scientific revolution has not previously studied archival documents reflecting how all-union and regional aspects of the post-war demilitarization of the Soviet Union. principles of organization of reconversion at the plant Uralmash described in detail. States the problems of functioning pozdnestalinskoy command economy on the example of the processes of demilitarization and re-evacuation of the Urals. Showing organizational difficulties demilitarization of Soviet industry, the associated loss of income and productivity in the Ural enterprises. It is concluded that maintaining the Urals industrial facilities evacuated here during wartime.
Dementev A.P., Kattsina T.A. - Social policy of the committees of general security and the Soviets in Yeniseisk governorate (March – May 1917) pp. 31-42


Abstract: The current article deals with the measures taken by the committees of general security and the Soviets of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies in order to improve the living conditions of the citizens of Yeniseisk governorate in March – May 1917. The comparison of revolutionary organizations’ social policies is vital for understanding the causes of institutional shifts, which led to the Soviets getting citizens’ support. While the Soviets took the power in October-November 1917, the committees lost all their democratic potential. This issue has not been properly investigated in the historiography. The current objective research is provided with the help of systematic and comparative-historical approaches. The presented information concerning the social policy is based on the analysis of published and unpublished documents, as well as periodical press data. The analysis shows that the coalition nature of the committees caused the class compromise policy and evasion of discussion of the problems, which could have brought disagreement in the society. The main measures of their social policy were help to amnestied political and criminal exiles and welfare for the soldiers’ families. The committees’ revaluation of goods in the uyezds’ cities was conducted under the control and help of the Soviets. On the other hand, the Soviets, while being under pressure of workers' and soldiers' deputies, concentrated on populist measures, such as 8-hour work day and revaluation of goods in the governorate centre, which guaranteed them public support. The data presented in the paper specifies and extends the scientific knowledge of the organizations’ policy, creates new opportunities for further comparative-historical researches of Siberia.
Pertsev N.V. - Moscow troops campaign to Yugra in 1499 in the context of Moscow State domestic and foreign policy pp. 40-54


Abstract: This article is dedicated to reconstruction of the events of the Moscow troops campaign to Yugra in 1499. Although this military campaign is a generally known fact, there is yet no agreement of opinion on the results of this operation; the questions associated with the purpose of campaign, rout of troops, and their capacity have not been covered by the researchers. The author believe that revelation of these aspects is an essential condition in objective assessment of the indicated event. Examination of the military campaign of 1499 without analyzing the key questions, has led the researchers to some hasty conclusions that do not find endorsement in the sources. Methodology is bases on the methods of scientific synthesis and analysis of the historical sources; particular attention is given to historiography of the problem. The author composed the comparative tables, so the charting of information allowed significantly rectifying the data from the sources and reconstructing the events of the military campaign. A new approach implied the consideration of the military campaign of 1499 in the context of Muscovy’s foreign policy position and implementation of solidification policy in the northeastern periphery. The article also examines the question of building a Russian city of Pustoozersk. Comparing the routs of the Russian troops in 1499 with the famous routs of that time, which lead to the territories of Northern Ural and Western Siberia, allows concluding that the military campaign on Yugorian “princelings” was secondary in relation to the goals of assimilation of the remote territories of Prirechye by the Moscow State.
Ershov M.F. - “Do not laugh at peas, do not be better than beans”: pedagogical conflicts in Tobolsk governorate in the late XIX – early XX centuries pp. 41-51


Abstract: The subject of this article is the conflict in pedagogical environment of Tobolsk governorate in the late XIX – early XX centuries. The author pursues the goal to determine and classify variants of interpersonal conflict within the provincial society with involvement of teachers. The causes could be different: amoral actions, discontent with the social status and financial situation, gender behavior, political and civil position of the teachers, their attitude towards execution of the professional responsibilities. All of the above resulted in a sequence of conflicts within the pedagogical community. The article applies methodologies used in research of the history of daily life and social psychology, as well as analyzes the untypical behavior and deviant actions. The scientific novelty consists in analyzing the deviant behavior of provincial pedagogues at the simple mundane level. The results of examination of historical sources testify to the fact that productivity of educational system drops due to the interpersonal conflicts, deficit in professional pedagogical personnel, conservative environment, lack of means and excessive paternalistic custody from the side of local society and the state.
Ippolitov V.A. - Dekulakization in the Central Black Earth Region at the brink of the 1920’s – 1930’s: the role of Komsomol pp. 42-56


Abstract: This article examines the role of Komsomol organizations in dekulakization of the Russian peasantry in the late 1920’s – early 1930’s.  Mechanism of youth participation in elimination of the kulaks as a social class is being revealed. The author demonstrates the contradictory attitude of the members of Komsomol towards this campaign, as well as examines the causes of attempt on the life of members of Komsomol by peasants. The geographical frameworks of this research contain the territory of Central Black Earth Region of RSFSR. The materials and documents from the State Archive of Sociopolitical History of Tambov Oblast comprised the foundation for this article. Special attention is given to the analysis of documents of the initial Komsomol organizations, which allows the author to determine the peculiarities of their activity and the attitudes of the regular members of the union, as well as to better understand the sociocultural phenomenon of Komsomol.  On the author’s opinion, the significant role of Komsomol in dekulakization is justified by the multiple facts of attempts on life and murders of the Komsomol members, as well as by presence of the big portion of the representatives of the poorest strata of the peasantry. The reputation of Komsomol in the villages was significantly undermined. The terms and the methods of conducting of campaign (later condemned) were dictated to Komsomol by the higher authorities. The active efforts of Komsomol were accompanied by constant threats of being excluded from the union. But majority of the Komsomol members did not support the idea of class warfare and preferred to remain neutral. A small part of the youth had openly protested the anti-peasantry policy of the party.
Tatarnikova A.I., Zagorodnyuk N.I. - The network of settlements in the Kondinskiy district of the Ural region according to the census of 1926 pp. 43-54


Abstract: The subject of this research is the network of settlements of Kondinskiy district of the Tobolsk district of the Urals region. The object is spatial distribution, typology, size and infrastructure of its settlements. Sources for the study of the development of the settlement network of the area were the materials of the Circumpolar census of population of 1926-1927 and lists of localities of the Tobolsk district of the Urals region on October 1, 1926. The analysis of the sources helped to identify the location of settlements relative to water sources. The authors concluded that the settlements were located along rivers at a great distance from each other. The typology of the settlement network was dominated by this type of settlement as "derevnya". The number of "selo" and "vyselok" (the settlement outside the village) is slightly. The settlements outside the village were formed in the course of commercial activities of the population. Settlements in the area were small and amounted, on average, 11 households, 41 person. They had a chaotic structure of buildings, streets and alleys were absent. The social infrastructure of settlements of the area was poorly developed, the village council of Nakhrachi, which was the administrative center of Kondinskiy district, had all the elements of infrastructure (school, medical point, post office, commercial establishments).
Tarasova Y.A., Barabanova N.A. - Authority and labor in province just before the New Economic Policy pp. 46-54


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of relation of the Soviet authority towards the working population in provincial city of Volga Region in 1921. Based on the earlier studied documents of Syzran State Archive and materials of the newspaper Syzran Communar for 1921, the authors explore the ways of increasing work discipline, incentives and punishments, as well as strategies of ideological influence used by the government agencies. The peculiarities of the work of provincial concentration camp of compulsory labor are being determined. The authors also examine the relation to peasantry due to transition to the new economic policy. The new earlier unknown archive materials are introduced into the scientific discourse. The authors describe the mechanisms of ideological influence upon the consciousness of working population as well as reveal the specificities of relation of the government to peasantry during the first decades of the New Economic Policy. The conclusion is made that by the end of the Civil War, were developed the main ways of estrangement of labor, which were later used by Stalinist regime.   
Sartikova E.V. - Institutional registration of Kalmyk regional party organization (1920-1921) pp. 52-64


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the education of Kalmyk regional organization of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) since 1921, when at the first regional constitutive party conference took place its institutional registration. The author sets a goal to demonstrate the evolution of its emergence and development on the background of various historical and political circumstances. It is noted that the creation of party organization has begun after the cessation of civil war on the territory of Kalmyk region. The article examines the results of the first party conference, the key topics of which became the resolution of economic issues and fight against racketeering. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that the author comprehensively examines the work of the regional organization of Communist Party, its specificity under the particular circumstance by attracting the previously unpublished archive materials. Conclusion is made that the first Kalmyk regional conference of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) did not just institutionalize the creation of regional party organization, but also contributed into improvement of the party work at the local level. A. Chapchaev has been selected as the Executive Secretary of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks); the structure and objectives of the regional committee of the party have been approved. Based on the conducted analysis, it is underlined that the established party organization from the very beginning “obtained the features of not just political organization, but also governmental with the functions common to the state facilities of executive and oversight character”, which was practically standard for all regions during the Soviet period.
Moiseeva L.A. - Subjects of the Russian Far East of the early XXI century: policy of selecting the ways of joint development (from the perspective of modern historical knowledge) pp. 55-69


Abstract: The subject of this research is the ways of internal integration of the nine subjects of the Russian Far East as a factor of implementation of the strategic task of Russia’s integration into the Pacific Rim. The methodological framework applies following principles: historicism – for reconstructing the past, studying the present, and historical vision of the future; objectivity – for the comprehensive “multi-aspect”  consideration of the question after defining of its borders; comparative-historical – for analyzing the historical process in dynamics; alternativeness – for examining the various historical concepts; determinism – for identifying the universal regularities, causative substantiation of all phenomena of the historical paradigm; plausibility – in using diverse types of sources (statistical, written, Internet materials, works of foreign and national authors, etc.) for proposing the author’s concept. The scientific novelty consists in articulation of the topic of research that allowed demonstrating that the rapid escalation of territorial differentiation of the subjects of the Russian Federation in the Far East, weakening of the production ties between them, generated the chain of regional and local crises, which worsened the situation of isolation of the Far East from the more consistently developing central regions. Such negative trends resulted in the increase of threshold indexes leading to disturbance of the political, social, and economic stability that caused a mass outflow of the economically active population from the region. The author believes that the independent achievement by the subjects of Russian Federation of the direct cooperation with business world of the Pacific Rim turn developed into the pillage of natural resources of the Far East. The conceptual conclusion of this research includes the thesis that without the “codevelopment” of the subjects of Russian Far East with the Pacific Rim states (due to a specific geopolitical location of the region) it was impossible to retain the independence of the Pacific suburb of Russia.
Ryabkova O.V. - Deer farming in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug during the Great Patriotic War pp. 55-67


Abstract: The object of this research is the deer farming industry of the Yamalo-Nenets National Okrug, while the subjects of the processes taking place within the industry during the Great Patriotic War. The goal of this work lies in the attempt to describe the processes that took place with regards to deer farming, combining the preceding studies and the most recent data acquired in the course of examining the previously unpublished archival materials preserved in the State Archive of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Methodological foundation includes the historical-genetic and historical-comparative methods, which allow considering the specificities of development of the deer farming industry within the indicated region during the years of Great Patriotic War. The scientific novelty consists in the use of the previously unpublished sources from the archival fund “Yamalo-Nenets District Department of Agriculture of the Executive Committee of the Yamalo-Nenets Council of Workers’ Deputies” of the State Archive of Yamalo-Nenets National Okrug. The aforementioned documents provide the more detailed description of the processes that took place in deer farming of the Yamalo-Nenets National Okrug during the Great Patriotic War, as well as saturate with the additional facts the already existing information on the topic.
Gergilev D.N. - Structure of the provincial and regional administration in Eastern Siberia from 1822 to 1917: principals of functionality and regional specificities pp. 56-69


Abstract: The object of this research is the administrative policy in remote areas of the Russian Empire. The subject is the structure of the provincial and regional government authorities in the Eastern Siberia from 1822 to 1917. The system of public administration represents a system of local government authorities in the offices of the second degree. The place of the degree in the government hierarchy was between governor-general degree and district degree. The research covers the Yeniseysk and the Irkutsk governorates, Yakutia and Zabaykalsky regions. These parts of the Eastern Siberia are the bright examples of the managerial control. The chronological limits of the research cover the period from 1822 to 1917. The key historical events in the timeline are «Institution for Siberian province management» and regulations of the reform of regional management. The main idea of the reform lies in the principle of common ground for public administration in Siberia. The research sources are the rules of the Russian Empire, archival materials, reference publications and periodical press. Methodological base of the research includes cognition universal method, general and special historical methods, inversion method. The changes in the structure of province and regional government system are demonstrated. The conclusion is made that the local features of the public administration of second degree were the principles of collective nature and scantiness (due to the Councils and Presence at the government institutions); military-administrative features of the governor power; the lack of power of regional authorities, the dependence of regional authorities from province authorities. The research specifies and extends scientific knowledge concerning the administrative policy of the Russian Empire in the Eastern Siberia, creates the additional possibilities for widening historical investigations in study of the policy.
Ponarin P.V. - County response to famine in 1891-1892 in the Russian Empire (on the example of Tula governorate) pp. 70-81


Abstract: This article summarizes the results within the framework of the project of Russian Humanitarian Scientific Foundation No. 15-01-00026 of 2016 “Crisis in agrarian society in the imperial Russia: famine of 1891-1892 in the Central Black Earth region”. The subject of the research is activity of the county council of Tula governorate over the period of 1891-1892 aimed at ensuring food provision, which the author define as county response to famine among the rural population. Using the published and unpublished sources, the article examines the county council’s initiatives on overcoming the agrarian crisis. The conclusion is made that the work of county councils in the famine of 1891-1892 was rather extensive, but only within the limits of their authority established by the legislation of the Russian Empire. Under the conditions of the existed legislation, the work of county councils was built in the state food policy. Granting of broader authority to the county council could take place only through crucial changes in the Russian legislation, which seemed practically impossible in terms of the conservative stabilization of Alexander III. Thus, the county response to famine of 1891-1892 was reduced mainly to the realization of local measures developed by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and governors.
Perviy A.I. - Participation of the labor unions of Volgograd in solution of the housing problem within the framework of the program “Housing-200” during 1985-1991 pp. 85-92


Abstract: The subject of this research is the work of the regional labor unions in solution of the housing problem of Volgograd workers over the period of 1985-1991 within the framework of state program on providing housing to all Soviet citizens. Special attention is given to the contribution of Volgograd labor unions with regards to solution of housing problem of the country. The characteristic is provided to the key methods of implementation of the program “Housing-2000” by the labor unions. The goal of this work consists in giving an idea on the forms and content of the activity of Volgograd labor unions in solution of the regional housing problem during 1985-1991. Thus, the author examines the status of housing problem of the Soviet State and Volgograd Region, analyses the capabilities of the regional labor unions to influence its outcome. In accordance with the principles of historicism used as methodological foundation of this research, the policy of labor unions was viewed in close interrelation with the political and socioeconomic processes that took place in the Soviet State, which allowed demonstrating justification and consistency in activity of the Volgograd labor unions throughout the indicated timeframe. The general scientific method of synthesis helped to acquire the full picture on the Volgograd labor unions as an organization contributing into accommodating the needs of regional population. The relevance of this research is defined by introduction of the new historical sources to the scientific discourse. The conducted analysis will allow assessing the all-union housing situation, considering the solution of housing problem by the labor unions of the Soviet State.
Mezit L.E., Valyunova A.V. - The results of implementation of the program of comprehensive sociocultural development of Krasnoyarsk Krai pp. 89-95


Abstract: The goal of this work is to assess the efficiency of the program-targeted method of administration based on the experience of implementation of the complex program of sociocultural development of Krasnoyarsk Krai during the period of 1980’s. The specificity of the region is substantiated by the fact that the large-scale tasks on its industrial assimilation were performed in the conditions of complete absence of infrastructure, deficit of labor resources, as well as its geographical remoteness from the central authorities. The scientific novelty consists in the following: based on the archive data, the authors attempted to determine the decision-making mechanism along with realization of complex goals pertaining to changes in the working conditions and meeting the cultural demands of the population of the region. The article also analyzes the public initiatives that emerged in the region during the examined period.
Konovalov I.A. - The peculiarities of self-governance in Siberia in the late XVIII century pp. 90-96


Abstract: Based on the previously unknown documents of the archival documentation and pre-revolutionary legislation, this article examines the municipal and peasant self-governance in Siberia in the XVIII century. The growing interest to the history of local self-governance is associated not only with desire of the historians to look more thoroughly into the past, but also strictly practical needs. With reference to the forgotten traditions of public administration, it is important to extensively consider the historical experience that was acquired over the centuries. Special attention is given to the structure and organizational legal questions of the work of local self-governance and its cooperation with the local administrative-police bodies. The author concludes that the bodies of municipal and peasant public administration of Siberia in the XVIII century were incorporated into the system of local branches of government. Competences of the branches of local self-governance were quite limited,  for instance, they had no authority to solve many of the economic issues without sanction of the crown administration. Their effectiveness was reduced due to the extremely undemocratic system of class representation. The main differences between public administration bodies and state government bodies consisted in the forms of their organization, character and conditions of work, subordinate to oversight of the local administrative-police bodies, which at that time, was perceived by the Siberians as the fully justified conditions of their life.
Babich I.L. - Orthodox life of the Moscow Region countrymen of the late XIX – early XX centuries (on the example of parish of the Church of the Life-Giving Spring Icon of the Mother of God in Tsaritsyno) pp. 91-104


Abstract: The subject of this research is the noble, ducal, large industrial and foreign last names, who settled in Tsaritsyno as the countrymen over the period of 1880’s – 1910’s. The objects is the peculiarities of development of the countrymen movement in the late XIX – early XX centuries. The goal of this article is to trace the interconnection between the members of the Orthodox congregation that resided in the large architectural complex of the times of Catherine the Great Tsaritsyno and the process of establishment of the country life around it, using the materials from the Moscow Central State Archive. This article is prepared based on introduction into the scientific discourse of the new archive information, accumulated by the author in the Moscow Central State Archive, which preserved the documents on the history of the Life-Giving Spring Church, and particularly, metrical books of the temple. The author pursued correlation of the data about the countrymen and the congregation, who referred to the church for realization of various Orthodox rituals. The work also applied the materials of a so-called “verbal history” – the interview with descendants of the priests of the Life-Giving Spring Church in Tsaritsyno. The author is first to examine the intersection of the live of Orthodox parishes and the countrymen movements of the late XIX – early XX centuries from such perspective. This approach allowed determining the interconnection of the organization of suburban settlements in places with the active spiritual life under. The new social slice of the Orthodox congregation, when the single organization united the people of various social classes, gradually led to establishment of the other structures in Russian society. 
Chernysheva I.I. - Formation of the system of public education of adults in the middle of the 1930's: Russian national context and regional perspective pp. 97-109


Abstract: This article analyzes the formation of the system of public education of adults in Ural in the context of the nationwide modernization process. Basic attention is given to the structural-organizational aspect of the reform of public education of adult population, primarily during the period of 1936-1937, when took place the search for the new structure of secondary education along with the continuous efforts to battle illiteracy. The conditions that affected the establishment the education structure and system of adults are characterized, among which are emphasized the outbreak of famine in 1937 and food shortage that led to decrease of the working students and closing of adult schools. Analysis of the documents from regional archives allowed determining the local specificities of this process in the region that marked the establishment of a powerful industrial facility, population growth, rapid urbanization, as well as critical deficiency of literate people and competent specialists. The conclusion is made that the efforts aimed at achieving mass literacy progressed to a new level and delivered substantial results.
Kleitman A.L. - History of the Lower Volga Region in historiography of the time of Peter the Great pp. 112-128


Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical essays of the early XVIII century, in which along with other issued, were examined the problems of history of the Lower Volga Region (diaries of Peter the Great’s travels, “Short History of the Great Northern War”, “Core of the Russian History”, as well as works of the foreigners who traveled or served in Russia – Bell, Perry, Strahlenberg, de Bruijn). The work defines the circles of the questions on the Lower Volga Region history, which presented the interest for these authors, as well as characterizes their contribution into the study of regional history. The conducted research demonstrated that in the early XVIII century, the issues associated with the history, modern status and prospects of development of the Lower Volga Region were analyzed, as well as materials on this topic were created. These essays differed from the previously existed traditions of description of history in their approaches towards understanding of the past, form, and methods of the work with the source. These compositions comprised the foundation for the main directions of further study of the history of Lower Volga Region during the XVIII-XIX centuries:Examination of events of the regional history in the context of history of the Russian State;Study of the historical problematic within the works dedicated to the comprehensive research of territory of the Russian Empire in geographic, economic, and ethnographic regard.
Esikova M. - Economic and demographic peculiarities of the development of Tambov governorate immediately prior to and at the beginning of the World War II pp. 212-225


Abstract: The subject of this research is the effect of the World War I upon the state of industry and agriculture, as well as the position of the working class and peasants of the Tambov governorate. The author points out that the general level of industrial production of the governorate prior to the war remained low. The majority of the industrial facilities were scatter throughout towns and villages. The Tambov workers were closely connected to land. The pre-war problems of the governorate’s agriculture consisted in the low level of technical equipment, work efficiency and crop capacity; it resulted in the prevalence of the subsistence economy with the improper organization of the territory, forced crop rotations, and the extensive production. Due to the war, industry and agriculture were experiencing the lack of the workforce, which became one of the key causes for the deep disruption in the economy. The author analyses the increase of speculation, and growth of the market prices on bread. It is noted that with the worsening of the economic situation in the country, the government intensified its interference into the economic life; however, it increased the uncontrollability of the economic processes. Scientific novelty consist in the attempt to solve certain issues which currently remain controversial: influence of the World War, mobilization of human and material resources for the army, importance of the government policy with regards to the working class and peasants on the example of Tambov governorate. The author highlights the negative effect of the war upon the functioning of the economy, and agriculture in particular, as well as the intensification of social differentiation and social tension in the village.
Ippolitov V.A. - Regulation of social structure of the Komsomol organization of the Central Black Earth Oblast at the initial stage of thorough collectivization pp. 226-242


Abstract: The author examines the following factors of regulation of social structure of Komsomol in the early 1930’s: collectivization, fight against “centering” of the union, strengthening of the brotherly-proletarian core. In the history of Komsomol of this little-studied period, the author notices a legitimate connection between the policy of the party and the criteria of social selection of those who entered the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League. The author comes to a conclusion that in the early 1930’s that the ideal characteristics of the members of Komsomol were considered proletarian-poor descent, commitment to the “general line of the party”, as well as membership in the collective farm (kolkhoz). The main sources for this article became the unpublished archive materials from the funds of State Archives of Public Political History of Voronezh Oblast and Tambov Oblast. It is demonstrated that the strict regulation of the party’s structure according to the class affiliation negatively affected the quality of the work of Komsomol. The scientific novelty consists in the reframing of the importance of social selection in the youth communist union.
Krasnyakov N.I. - General imperial tendencies and attempts to implement local specificity into administrative-normative system of the XVIII century Siberia pp. 322-361


Abstract: The author examines the reformation of the voivode-mandatory administration of Siberia and focuses his attention on the combination of the defining factors, first and foremost the colonizational character   of the territory, traditionally more expanded competency of the local government officials, conduction of the diplomatic relations with the bordering states, absence of noble landownership, developed self-governance among the migrants, etc. Namely the peculiarities of the region created such regional institutions and centers of power that could put the local society and administration above the supreme authority. The author underlines that the reforms of the early XVIII century in Siberia were conducted considering the specificity of the region, and that resulted in the deviation from the unified governorate administration in the empire.  An example of such deviation from the rational principles of the empire-building became the restoration in the late 1720’s of the Siberian order, but this measure did not pan out, because besides the order, the All-Siberian affairs were under the competency of the Senate, collegiums, Siberian governor, and the specialized financial and departmental metallurgical administration. With regards to Siberia, during the period of 1710-1782, there were “Special orders” for the governors, developed by taking into account the geographical, economic, and socio-political specificity of the region.  
Lidzieva I.V. - Economic activity of the branches of public administration of Kalmyk Steppe in the XIX century pp. 362-392


Abstract: The subject of this article is the examination of the economic activity of self-governance in the Kalmyk Steppe. Based on the archive materials, various “budget” sources that contain data on profits and losses of the branches of public administration were subjected to studying. That allowed figuring out complicated issues of economic development. Based on the results of their analysis, it was determined that budgets of uluses were especially poor. The critical analysis of the sources showed that the forms of financial and primary accounting records for the uluses administrations were standard. The author concludes that despite the limited financial resources, the financial relations provided a relative economic autonomy of the branches of local self-governance in the XIX century Kalmyk Steppe, because namely the local finances best match the needs of the specific territory and contribute into the establishment of the conditions of its functioning.
Bredikhin V.E. - Processing industry in Tambov Oblast during the period of 1941-1945 pp. 393-419


Abstract: Based on the example of functioning of Tambov Oblast processing branches of industry, the author gives evaluation to the efficiency of the planned-centralized economy in the conditions of the wartime. The object of this research is the combination of branches of light and food industries that belong to the industry group B, the strategic importance of which during the wartime consisted in the food and clothes supply of the army and fabric-factory population of the base. A special attention is given to the questions of local subordination as the only source of supply of the local population throughout the war. The authors examines the industrial base potential, difficulties of economic restructuring of the real sector and the ways to overcome them, as well as the results of carrying out the government projected tasks. This article is first to analyze on the example of the materials of Tambov Oblast the effect of the government industrial policy during the period of “socialistic reconstruction of economy” upon the work of the Soviet processing industry under the conditions of the Great Patriotic War. The author makes a conclusion on the complete retargeting of the processing branches towards the supply of the battle needs; their objective incapability to carry out government projected tasks and meet the needs of the local population with the living essentials due to human resources, material-technical, as well as mineral and fuel issues; negative influence upon the industrial indexes in the light and food sectors of the prewar industrial policy of the government aimed at stimulating the heavy industry branches.
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