Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "History of regions of Russia"
History of regions of Russia
Popov A.D. - “Boxer Rebellion” in China in perception of the Siberian common people (based on the materials of Tomsk and Irkutsk newspapers) pp. 1-8


Abstract: This article reconstructs the perception of the “Boxer Rebellion” in China (1898-1901) among the common people of Siberia. The research is based primarily on the materials of Tomsk and Irkutsk private newspapers. Altogether, the author examined approximately 20 correspondences from the cities and villages of Western and Eastern Siberia (Irkutsk, Tomsk, Yeniseysk, Omsk, Ulan-Ude, Kokshetau, and others). The author also provides a brief description of the key events of “Chinese revolt”, as well as demonstrates the general historiographical background of the explored topic. The work is structured according to the principles of historicism and objectivity. The scientific novelty first and foremost consists in the introduction of the new circle of sources on this problematic into the scientific discourse (as a rule, in analyzing the “vox populi” regarding the Yihequan uprising, the historians used to refer to the Moscow or Far Eastern mass media). The conclusion is made that the events of 1898-1901 aroused great interest among the “ordinary” Siberians, as well as were widely discussed in cities and villages. However, the lack of information about the events taking place in the neighboring country substantiated the formation of a tense atmosphere in the region, which resulted in a number of tragic incidents.
Kattsina T.A., Marinenko L.E. - Change of the model and practices of solution of the problem of child neglect in the early XX century (on the materials of Yeniseysk Governorate) pp. 9-19


Abstract: The article is dedicated to examination of the model and practical activity of the local leadership of Yeniseysk Governorate in solution of the child neglect problem during the period of 1917-1925. The chronological framework of the research capture the term of establishment of the Soviet authority in the country, as well as the first reforms in the area of protection of childhood. The study of the aforementioned issue on the materials of Yeniseysk Governorate allows formulating an idea about what events took place in the region and the entire country. The scientific novelty consists in introduction into the scientific discourse of the new archive materials that have never been published earlier, which allowed reconstructing the practice of implementation of the Soviet model of solving the problem of child neglect on the example of Yeniseysk Governorate. The conclusion is made about the changes made in providing help to the street children during the first years of Soviet government, when the private initiative of separate individuals was replaced by the state centralized system. The article gives the analysis of the system of government measures on the struggle against neglect in the region; determines and systematizes the factors which formed the children homelessness during the stated historical period; and presents the assessment of the efficiency of work of the local self-governance in solution of this problem.
Starikov I.V. - Historical experience of constitutional structuring of the unrecognized state (on the example of the Far Eastern Republic Constitution of 1921) pp. 18-30


Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical experience of constitutional structuring under the conditions of civil war and foreign intervention of the unrecognized state of Far Eastern Republic (1920-1921). The author examines the process of establishment of the state and development of Constituent assembly of the Main Law (Constitution) by the constitutional commission. The article analyzed the impact of Soviet and bourgeois principles upon the content of main provisions of the Far Eastern Republic Constitution of 1921. The system of supreme and local authorities of the Far Eastern Republic, as well as main directions, forms, and methods of their work are being studied. The author notes the consolidation of the new economic policy in the Articles of the Far Eastern Republic Constitution of 1921. The article underlines the absence within the Soviet and modern historical legal scientific literature of the comprehensive research that are able to determine the specificities of the Main Law of the Far Eastern Republic in comparison with the Constitution of the Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic of 1918. The conclusion is made that the Far Eastern Republic Constitution of 1921 could become the legal foundation of the future democratic legal state and justly holds a special place in the country’s constitutional history.
Mikheev M.V. - Problems of the demilitarization of the Urals industry afte rthe Great Patriotic War pp. 25-35


Abstract: The article highlights the problems of reevacuation and the demilitarization of the industrial enterprises of the Urals in the post-war period. The object of research is the post-war recovery and development of the economy in the Soviet Union. The subject of the study is reevacuation and demilitarization measures, which took place in the industrial Urals since 1945. Particular attention is paid to the implications of these processes for the future economic development of the region. To find out their features, along with studies of precursors the author used documents of the central and regional archives.In the study, the author used principles of objectivity, historicist determinism, systematic approach, the method of quantitative data and comparative-historical method.The novelty of the work is proved by entering into a scientific revolution has not previously studied archival documents reflecting how all-union and regional aspects of the post-war demilitarization of the Soviet Union. principles of organization of reconversion at the plant Uralmash described in detail. States the problems of functioning pozdnestalinskoy command economy on the example of the processes of demilitarization and re-evacuation of the Urals. Showing organizational difficulties demilitarization of Soviet industry, the associated loss of income and productivity in the Ural enterprises. It is concluded that maintaining the Urals industrial facilities evacuated here during wartime.
Ippolitov V.A. - Dekulakization in the Central Black Earth Region at the brink of the 1920’s – 1930’s: the role of Komsomol pp. 42-56


Abstract: This article examines the role of Komsomol organizations in dekulakization of the Russian peasantry in the late 1920’s – early 1930’s.  Mechanism of youth participation in elimination of the kulaks as a social class is being revealed. The author demonstrates the contradictory attitude of the members of Komsomol towards this campaign, as well as examines the causes of attempt on the life of members of Komsomol by peasants. The geographical frameworks of this research contain the territory of Central Black Earth Region of RSFSR. The materials and documents from the State Archive of Sociopolitical History of Tambov Oblast comprised the foundation for this article. Special attention is given to the analysis of documents of the initial Komsomol organizations, which allows the author to determine the peculiarities of their activity and the attitudes of the regular members of the union, as well as to better understand the sociocultural phenomenon of Komsomol.  On the author’s opinion, the significant role of Komsomol in dekulakization is justified by the multiple facts of attempts on life and murders of the Komsomol members, as well as by presence of the big portion of the representatives of the poorest strata of the peasantry. The reputation of Komsomol in the villages was significantly undermined. The terms and the methods of conducting of campaign (later condemned) were dictated to Komsomol by the higher authorities. The active efforts of Komsomol were accompanied by constant threats of being excluded from the union. But majority of the Komsomol members did not support the idea of class warfare and preferred to remain neutral. A small part of the youth had openly protested the anti-peasantry policy of the party.
Tarasova Yu.A., Barabanova N.A. - Authority and labor in province just before the New Economic Policy pp. 46-54


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of relation of the Soviet authority towards the working population in provincial city of Volga Region in 1921. Based on the earlier studied documents of Syzran State Archive and materials of the newspaper Syzran Communar for 1921, the authors explore the ways of increasing work discipline, incentives and punishments, as well as strategies of ideological influence used by the government agencies. The peculiarities of the work of provincial concentration camp of compulsory labor are being determined. The authors also examine the relation to peasantry due to transition to the new economic policy. The new earlier unknown archive materials are introduced into the scientific discourse. The authors describe the mechanisms of ideological influence upon the consciousness of working population as well as reveal the specificities of relation of the government to peasantry during the first decades of the New Economic Policy. The conclusion is made that by the end of the Civil War, were developed the main ways of estrangement of labor, which were later used by Stalinist regime.   
Gergilev D.N. - Structure of the provincial and regional administration in Eastern Siberia from 1822 to 1917: principals of functionality and regional specificities pp. 56-69


Abstract: The object of this research is the administrative policy in remote areas of the Russian Empire. The subject is the structure of the provincial and regional government authorities in the Eastern Siberia from 1822 to 1917. The system of public administration represents a system of local government authorities in the offices of the second degree. The place of the degree in the government hierarchy was between governor-general degree and district degree. The research covers the Yeniseysk and the Irkutsk governorates, Yakutia and Zabaykalsky regions. These parts of the Eastern Siberia are the bright examples of the managerial control. The chronological limits of the research cover the period from 1822 to 1917. The key historical events in the timeline are «Institution for Siberian province management» and regulations of the reform of regional management. The main idea of the reform lies in the principle of common ground for public administration in Siberia. The research sources are the rules of the Russian Empire, archival materials, reference publications and periodical press. Methodological base of the research includes cognition universal method, general and special historical methods, inversion method. The changes in the structure of province and regional government system are demonstrated. The conclusion is made that the local features of the public administration of second degree were the principles of collective nature and scantiness (due to the Councils and Presence at the government institutions); military-administrative features of the governor power; the lack of power of regional authorities, the dependence of regional authorities from province authorities. The research specifies and extends scientific knowledge concerning the administrative policy of the Russian Empire in the Eastern Siberia, creates the additional possibilities for widening historical investigations in study of the policy.
Ponarin P.V. - County response to famine in 1891-1892 in the Russian Empire (on the example of Tula governorate) pp. 70-81


Abstract: This article summarizes the results within the framework of the project of Russian Humanitarian Scientific Foundation No. 15-01-00026 of 2016 “Crisis in agrarian society in the imperial Russia: famine of 1891-1892 in the Central Black Earth region”. The subject of the research is activity of the county council of Tula governorate over the period of 1891-1892 aimed at ensuring food provision, which the author define as county response to famine among the rural population. Using the published and unpublished sources, the article examines the county council’s initiatives on overcoming the agrarian crisis. The conclusion is made that the work of county councils in the famine of 1891-1892 was rather extensive, but only within the limits of their authority established by the legislation of the Russian Empire. Under the conditions of the existed legislation, the work of county councils was built in the state food policy. Granting of broader authority to the county council could take place only through crucial changes in the Russian legislation, which seemed practically impossible in terms of the conservative stabilization of Alexander III. Thus, the county response to famine of 1891-1892 was reduced mainly to the realization of local measures developed by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and governors.
Mezit L.E., Valyunova A.V. - The results of implementation of the program of comprehensive sociocultural development of Krasnoyarsk Krai pp. 89-95


Abstract: The goal of this work is to assess the efficiency of the program-targeted method of administration based on the experience of implementation of the complex program of sociocultural development of Krasnoyarsk Krai during the period of 1980’s. The specificity of the region is substantiated by the fact that the large-scale tasks on its industrial assimilation were performed in the conditions of complete absence of infrastructure, deficit of labor resources, as well as its geographical remoteness from the central authorities. The scientific novelty consists in the following: based on the archive data, the authors attempted to determine the decision-making mechanism along with realization of complex goals pertaining to changes in the working conditions and meeting the cultural demands of the population of the region. The article also analyzes the public initiatives that emerged in the region during the examined period.
Babich I.L. - Orthodox life of the Moscow Region countrymen of the late XIX – early XX centuries (on the example of parish of the Church of the Life-Giving Spring Icon of the Mother of God in Tsaritsyno) pp. 91-104


Abstract: The subject of this research is the noble, ducal, large industrial and foreign last names, who settled in Tsaritsyno as the countrymen over the period of 1880’s – 1910’s. The objects is the peculiarities of development of the countrymen movement in the late XIX – early XX centuries. The goal of this article is to trace the interconnection between the members of the Orthodox congregation that resided in the large architectural complex of the times of Catherine the Great Tsaritsyno and the process of establishment of the country life around it, using the materials from the Moscow Central State Archive. This article is prepared based on introduction into the scientific discourse of the new archive information, accumulated by the author in the Moscow Central State Archive, which preserved the documents on the history of the Life-Giving Spring Church, and particularly, metrical books of the temple. The author pursued correlation of the data about the countrymen and the congregation, who referred to the church for realization of various Orthodox rituals. The work also applied the materials of a so-called “verbal history” – the interview with descendants of the priests of the Life-Giving Spring Church in Tsaritsyno. The author is first to examine the intersection of the live of Orthodox parishes and the countrymen movements of the late XIX – early XX centuries from such perspective. This approach allowed determining the interconnection of the organization of suburban settlements in places with the active spiritual life under. The new social slice of the Orthodox congregation, when the single organization united the people of various social classes, gradually led to establishment of the other structures in Russian society. 
Kleitman A.L. - History of the Lower Volga Region in historiography of the time of Peter the Great pp. 112-128


Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical essays of the early XVIII century, in which along with other issued, were examined the problems of history of the Lower Volga Region (diaries of Peter the Great’s travels, “Short History of the Great Northern War”, “Core of the Russian History”, as well as works of the foreigners who traveled or served in Russia – Bell, Perry, Strahlenberg, de Bruijn). The work defines the circles of the questions on the Lower Volga Region history, which presented the interest for these authors, as well as characterizes their contribution into the study of regional history. The conducted research demonstrated that in the early XVIII century, the issues associated with the history, modern status and prospects of development of the Lower Volga Region were analyzed, as well as materials on this topic were created. These essays differed from the previously existed traditions of description of history in their approaches towards understanding of the past, form, and methods of the work with the source. These compositions comprised the foundation for the main directions of further study of the history of Lower Volga Region during the XVIII-XIX centuries:Examination of events of the regional history in the context of history of the Russian State;Study of the historical problematic within the works dedicated to the comprehensive research of territory of the Russian Empire in geographic, economic, and ethnographic regard.
Esikova M.M. - Economic and demographic peculiarities of the development of Tambov governorate immediately prior to and at the beginning of the World War II pp. 212-225


Abstract: The subject of this research is the effect of the World War I upon the state of industry and agriculture, as well as the position of the working class and peasants of the Tambov governorate. The author points out that the general level of industrial production of the governorate prior to the war remained low. The majority of the industrial facilities were scatter throughout towns and villages. The Tambov workers were closely connected to land. The pre-war problems of the governorate’s agriculture consisted in the low level of technical equipment, work efficiency and crop capacity; it resulted in the prevalence of the subsistence economy with the improper organization of the territory, forced crop rotations, and the extensive production. Due to the war, industry and agriculture were experiencing the lack of the workforce, which became one of the key causes for the deep disruption in the economy. The author analyses the increase of speculation, and growth of the market prices on bread. It is noted that with the worsening of the economic situation in the country, the government intensified its interference into the economic life; however, it increased the uncontrollability of the economic processes. Scientific novelty consist in the attempt to solve certain issues which currently remain controversial: influence of the World War, mobilization of human and material resources for the army, importance of the government policy with regards to the working class and peasants on the example of Tambov governorate. The author highlights the negative effect of the war upon the functioning of the economy, and agriculture in particular, as well as the intensification of social differentiation and social tension in the village.
Ippolitov V.A. - Regulation of social structure of the Komsomol organization of the Central Black Earth Oblast at the initial stage of thorough collectivization pp. 226-242


Abstract: The author examines the following factors of regulation of social structure of Komsomol in the early 1930’s: collectivization, fight against “centering” of the union, strengthening of the brotherly-proletarian core. In the history of Komsomol of this little-studied period, the author notices a legitimate connection between the policy of the party and the criteria of social selection of those who entered the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League. The author comes to a conclusion that in the early 1930’s that the ideal characteristics of the members of Komsomol were considered proletarian-poor descent, commitment to the “general line of the party”, as well as membership in the collective farm (kolkhoz). The main sources for this article became the unpublished archive materials from the funds of State Archives of Public Political History of Voronezh Oblast and Tambov Oblast. It is demonstrated that the strict regulation of the party’s structure according to the class affiliation negatively affected the quality of the work of Komsomol. The scientific novelty consists in the reframing of the importance of social selection in the youth communist union.
Krasnyakov N.I. - General imperial tendencies and attempts to implement local specificity into administrative-normative system of the XVIII century Siberia pp. 322-361


Abstract: The author examines the reformation of the voivode-mandatory administration of Siberia and focuses his attention on the combination of the defining factors, first and foremost the colonizational character   of the territory, traditionally more expanded competency of the local government officials, conduction of the diplomatic relations with the bordering states, absence of noble landownership, developed self-governance among the migrants, etc. Namely the peculiarities of the region created such regional institutions and centers of power that could put the local society and administration above the supreme authority. The author underlines that the reforms of the early XVIII century in Siberia were conducted considering the specificity of the region, and that resulted in the deviation from the unified governorate administration in the empire.  An example of such deviation from the rational principles of the empire-building became the restoration in the late 1720’s of the Siberian order, but this measure did not pan out, because besides the order, the All-Siberian affairs were under the competency of the Senate, collegiums, Siberian governor, and the specialized financial and departmental metallurgical administration. With regards to Siberia, during the period of 1710-1782, there were “Special orders” for the governors, developed by taking into account the geographical, economic, and socio-political specificity of the region.  
Lidzhieva I.V. - Economic activity of the branches of public administration of Kalmyk Steppe in the XIX century pp. 362-392


Abstract: The subject of this article is the examination of the economic activity of self-governance in the Kalmyk Steppe. Based on the archive materials, various “budget” sources that contain data on profits and losses of the branches of public administration were subjected to studying. That allowed figuring out complicated issues of economic development. Based on the results of their analysis, it was determined that budgets of uluses were especially poor. The critical analysis of the sources showed that the forms of financial and primary accounting records for the uluses administrations were standard. The author concludes that despite the limited financial resources, the financial relations provided a relative economic autonomy of the branches of local self-governance in the XIX century Kalmyk Steppe, because namely the local finances best match the needs of the specific territory and contribute into the establishment of the conditions of its functioning.
Bredikhin V.E. - Processing industry in Tambov Oblast during the period of 1941-1945 pp. 393-419


Abstract: Based on the example of functioning of Tambov Oblast processing branches of industry, the author gives evaluation to the efficiency of the planned-centralized economy in the conditions of the wartime. The object of this research is the combination of branches of light and food industries that belong to the industry group B, the strategic importance of which during the wartime consisted in the food and clothes supply of the army and fabric-factory population of the base. A special attention is given to the questions of local subordination as the only source of supply of the local population throughout the war. The authors examines the industrial base potential, difficulties of economic restructuring of the real sector and the ways to overcome them, as well as the results of carrying out the government projected tasks. This article is first to analyze on the example of the materials of Tambov Oblast the effect of the government industrial policy during the period of “socialistic reconstruction of economy” upon the work of the Soviet processing industry under the conditions of the Great Patriotic War. The author makes a conclusion on the complete retargeting of the processing branches towards the supply of the battle needs; their objective incapability to carry out government projected tasks and meet the needs of the local population with the living essentials due to human resources, material-technical, as well as mineral and fuel issues; negative influence upon the industrial indexes in the light and food sectors of the prewar industrial policy of the government aimed at stimulating the heavy industry branches.
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