Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "Historical time and space"
Historical time and space
Nikulin V.V. - Justice and Politics: the Balance Between Politics and Law in the Soviet System of Punishment pp. 1-59

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2013.5.747

Abstract: In this article conceptual views of theorists of Marxism-Leninism of a policy and right ratio are considered. The author of the article analyzes interrelation of the political doctrine of the Bolshevism with system of punishments, concrete manifestations of class policy in the system of punishments existing in the Soviet Russia in the 1920th years are shown. It is proved that in the Soviet Russia the politized right defined also class approach to definition of the principles of system of punishments. At class approach motivational action of punishment significantly decreased that inevitably influenced crime increase among "the classes". Steady templates of legal behavior, the relation to the law, generally nigilistic character were formed. The impunity and permissiveness atmosphere that conducted to the conflict of social behavior and a class association was created. It is claimed that the criminal and legal reform which is given out as revolutionary change of all criminal orientation of the Soviet right and law-enforcement system, embodied in UK RSFSR of 1926, didn't change essence of legal policy, having kept in it lines of the repressive character which has amplified to signs of legitimate terror in the late twenties. And emergency criminal measures of punishment came true various socially – the political significant reasons for a justification of ill treatment of own citizens.It is noted that the institute of legal responsibility in the Soviet Russia had unambiguously class character. It was considered to be the basis of legal responsibility not only an offense, but also socially dangerous condition of the personality. The nature of punishment in many respects was defined not by the principle of justice, and political purposefulness. 
Ippolitov V.A. - Provincial Komsomol of the first half 1930th years as object of political control pp. 1-24

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2015.2.14250

Abstract: In article it is analyzed the system of political control over the Komsomol organizations of the first half of the 1930th. It is considered such elements as political enlightenment, the party leadership, control of social contingent, struggle with right and left opposition. It is detail considered the Problems of political education of youth. It is investigated Participation of Komsomol in economic and political campaigns (collectivization, dispossession of kulaks, grain-collections). It is involved the subject of resistance of Komsomol members to policy of communist party. The special attention is paid to studying of the mechanism of political cleanings in the Komsomol organizations.A geographical framework of research includes the territory of Kozlowski and Tambov districts. After elimination of districts in the summer of 1930 it were considered the materials of the areas which were located in the territory of the modern Tambov region. Research is based on the principles of dialectics, historicism and objectivity. It used general scientific methods: complex analysis, synthesis, description.Scientific novelty of work consists in complex research of system of political control over Komsomol. Previously these tasks for this period of time the scientists were not stated. As a result of research, we came to the conclusion that political control covers all areas of Komsomol life. The main task of political control was to develop young people need the power behaviors . The system of political education in rural conditions were not perfect . The Using of Komsomol was in the various economic campaigns contrary to the educational function of the state.
Boltaevskii A.A. - The First World War and the Balkans: A look a century later pp. 1-19

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2015.5.16034

Abstract: The First World War radically changed not only the political map of Europe, but also social relations, will largely determine the development of the XX century. Balkan Peninsula was at the epicenter of events: that's where the war took place first Slavic countries with the Ottoman Empire and then the conflict between the former allies. Sarajevo assassination, it is not without the knowledge of the Serbian military officers, led to a Europe-wide disaster. Part of the world wars in the Balkans were the defense of Serbia in 1914-1915, The Dardanelles operation, Thessaloniki and Romanian companies. The article uses the historical-genetic, historical, comparative, historical and typological method. Considerable attention is paid to the diplomatic documents, recreate the atmosphere of the era. The Balkans appeared region where not only started, but actually determined the victory of the Entente in 1918. Through narrowcasting personal policy of the leading world powers have contributed to the same tendency in the Balkan states. This led to a radical revision of the borders after the war, that does not take into account, and could not take into account the interests of all countries and peoples. Currently, the unresolved issue of the Balkans continues to aggravate the situation in Europe.
Suroven' D.A. - About chronology of reigns of Okinaga-tarahsi-hime (empress Jingu) and Homuda-wake (emperor Ojin) pp. 1-226

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2015.6.16206

Abstract: In this article materials about chronology of reigns of empress Okinaga-tarashi-hime (Jingu) and emperor Homuda-wake (Ojin) are analyzed. At the end of the XIX century researchers realized that time of reigns of the first sovereigns of Yamato are excessively extended. The reasons of it were found out by the Japanese scientist of Naka Michiyo. After that attempts of revision of chronology began. The most significant results are analysed in this article. Histori-ans, having compared materials of Japanese chronicles with the Korean and Chinese sources, found out that the second half of the Jingu’s regency and the most part of Ojin’s reign fell on the second half of IV – the beginning of the V centuries. Unresolved was a problem of time of the beginning of Jingu’s regency and a problem of the end of Ojin’s reign. In article results of the solution of these problems on the basis of comparison of materials of Japanese, Korean and Chinese sources are yielded. It is found out that reign of emperor Chuai came to the end in a year of the Korean campaign of empress Jingu which in the Korean sources is dated 346 AD. The period of the regency of empress Jingu falls on 347-389 AD, and reign of Ojin – on 390 – the end of 414 / beginning 415 AD.
Filippov V.R. - French colonial empire: beginning of the end pp. 1-14

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.9.23951

Abstract: The subject of this study is the crisis of the French colonial empire, caused by the global geopolitical changes that occurred after the end of the World War II. The author considers such aspects of the problem, as the clash of interests of the largest actors of international relations on the Indochina Peninsula, as well as policy of the world powers with regards to Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. Particular attention is paid to the reasons for the failure of the attempt to implement In Vietnam the doctrine of French neocolonialism, and identification of factors that substantiated the loss of the Fourth Republic in the First Indochina War. In the course of the research, the author used the method of historical reconstruction, which, along with the attraction of new historical sources (materials of the post-war mass media and memoirs) has allowed considering the problem in the context of clashes among mindsets, values structure of French aggressors and Vietnamese patriots. This aspect of the problem has not yet attracted serious attention of the Russian researchers, while it was viewed tendentiously within the French historiography. Conclusion is made that in this war the French individualism, a special relation to individual and values of human life (which in itself is worthy of respect!) was set against a centuries-old tradition of peasant community, in other words, the willingness to sacrifice itself for the common goal.
Koroleva L.A., Mol'kin A.N. - Religious Beliefs of the Soviet Population in 1960 - 1980 (the Case of the Penza Region) pp. 17-23

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2014.1.10344

Abstract: The object of the author of the article is to arrange for the research of religiousness of the population in the USSR for the purpose of scientific justification of process of an ateization of the Soviet people; level of religiousness of the population of the USSR in the 1960-1980th (commission of various ceremonies, social and demographic characteristics of believers, a national identity, etc.) on the basis of sociological researches of inhabitants of the Penza region. The Penza region was typical regional formation of the Central Russia. The main tendencies of religiousness of the population, activity of believers, foldings and developments of the relations of the state and religious formations in scales of all country are rather accurately traced on the example of the Penza region, having thus the specifics. As a teoretiko-methodological basis of research the principles of objectivity were chosen; historicism; the systemacities, the full account social and subjective in an object of research and the greatest possible neutralization of the prejudiced relation of the scientist at interpretation and an assessment of the facts. The principles of social and psychological approach and the principle of a correctness and tactfulness in an assessment of the actual material were as far as possible applied. Novelty of research is that religiousness of the population in the USSR in the 1960-1980th is for the first time studied. on the example of inhabitants of the Penza region; - in a scientific turn the layer of specific archival sources which wasn't demanded earlier owing to various reasons is introduced for the first time.Conclusions:- from the point of view of religiousness of the population the Penza edge represented obviously unsuccessful region: the area surpassed all in level of religious ceremonialism the others of Central Volga Area;- religiousness of the population of the Penza region continued to remain stable and rather high for the 1960-1980th.
Rudenko I.V., Mitskevich I.V. - To the question about beard token and existence of beard tax during the 1698-1725 pp. 44-55

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.5.20789

Abstract: The history of realization of Peter the Great’s reform, particularly, modernization of social lifestyle, is directly connected with the emergence of beard tax – first testimony to the legislative measures of Peter the Great on elimination of the ancient Russian tradition of wearing the beard. A number of sequential order forced the subjects to wear the old-fashioned Moscow dress wear, as well as shave the beard and moustache. In accordance with these laws, those who desired to leave the beard and had to pay annual fees. The article analyzes a large circle of numismatic and historical sources pertaining to the phenomenon of emergence and distribution of beard tax of 1698, 1705, 1724, and 1725, using the comparative and typological methods, which allowed critically regard the existing sources, as well as making conclusions based on the combination of gathered facts. The author were able to clarify certain details of the beard token and turnover of the beard tax, how they were issued, as well as their typology and circulation. The article attracted the fullest empirical base – all of the known varieties of the originals and replicas from the collections of the State Hermitage Museum (St. Petersburg), State Historical Museum (Moscow), National Museum of American History of the Smithsonian Institution (Washington, DC), French National Library (Paris), and others.
Smoleev A.A. - Crisis of Regional Bodies of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union During Perestroika (the Case Study of the Tambov Region) pp. 59-81

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2015.1.13844

Abstract: The subject of the present research is the Tambov Regional Body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1985 - 1991. The object of the research is the social and political activity of Tambov regional strutures of the Communist Party during the above mentioned period. The author examines the social structure and changes in the number of communists of that region. Smoleev describes the main reasons of the crisis of the party and why its influence and positions were weakened at the final stage of perestroika. The author also provides an analysis of confrontations between the regional party government and local informal organizations and later - regional departments of opposing parties. The situation with the regional organization of the Communist Party is viewed in terms of the social and economic situation in the Tambov Region. The research is based on the principles of objectivity, historicism and critical interpreation of sources. The author tries to stay objective when studying the topic. Such a scientific analysis of the activity of Tambov Regional Body of the Communist Party is performed for the first time in the academic literature. The main conclusion of the research is that the crisis of the party was a result of many factors including difficult economic and social situation in the region, contradictions inside the party, growing political reforms eliminating the status of the Communist Party as a ruling party and movement towards parliamentary system and multiplicity of parties. Members of informal social organizations and opposing parties also made a great contribution to that. 
Danilova E.N. - The Third Constitution of the Russian Federation pp. 79-125

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2013.3.721

Abstract: The author of the artile studies the history and adoption of the Constitution of the RSFSR in 1937. The author underlines some of peculiarities of these processes and compares them to the preparation of Stalin Constitution in 1936. The emphasis is made on the fact that development and adoption of new republican constitutions was a part of ongoing Constitional Reform in the USSR during the second half of the 1930's. The author of the article concludes that Politburo and the Central Committee of the Comunist Party of the Soviet Union played an important role and controlled the entire process of creation and adoption of new republican Constitutions. By studying materials of the brief peoples discussion of the Draft Constitution of the RSFSR in 1937 the author has defined the most important problems that worried the population of the Russian republic.  Those problems included national relations, status of national republics, economic and social rights of rural and urban population, education and repressions. 
Timoshina S.A., Shpakovskii V.O. - The Role of National and Regional Periodical Editions in Provision of Information About Foreign Life to Soviet Citizens in the 1920 - 1930s pp. 85-105

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2013.6.322

Abstract: The article discusses peculiarities of the strategy of information provision and the role of national and regional periodical editions in the process of provision of information about foreign life to Soviet citizens in the 1920 - 1930s. The authors of the article give a brief review of scientific researches devoted to the relations between the Soviet mass media and governmental authorities during that period. The authors also describe the main directions of mass media activities in provision of information about foreign events. The authors describe how information about the life in Russia and abroad was presented in the 1920 - 1930s. Special emphasis is made on certain contradictions in Soviet publications and press with regard to external political processes and actual achievements of foreign science and technology. In conclusion the authors make an assumption that the system of Soviet press was fully controlled by the government and was an efficient instrument of government even despite all contraditions in the process of information provision. 
Suroven' D.A. - To a question of chronology of the establishing of Yamato dynasty and reign sovereign Jimmu pp. 136-220

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2015.3.14752

Abstract: In this article, data of Japanese sources on East campaign the sovereign Jimmu and the establishing of a Yamato dynasty and state in the Central Japan in comparison to results of archaeological researches of the ancient Japanese monuments of material culture of the late yayoi period and the early kofun period for the purpose of definition of chronology of the establishing of Yamato are analyzed. Also materials of the Korean chronicles for the purpose of detection of the indirect evidences allowing to date the time of foundation of Yamato state of are analyzed. Besides materials of Chinese dynastic histories about the establishing of the state in the Central Japan are provided.Results of archaeological researches allow to correct chronology of ancient Japan, and, on the basis of cyclic designations of a 60-year cycle from the ancient Japanese written sources, give the chance to offer the corrected datings of time of East campaign to Jimmu and his reigns as the first sovereign of Yamato.The main result of this research is the conclusion that, on the basis of results of archaeological researches and indirect evidences of the Korean sources, East campaign of Jimmu was carried out at the end of the III century AD (294-300), and foundation of Yamato dynasty and state occurred at the beginning of the IV century (in 301 AD). Sovereign Jimmu ruled during 16 years (301-316 AD).
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