Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "Factors of historical development"
Factors of historical development
Shchuplenkov N.O., Shchuplenkov O.V. - Peculiarities of the Political and Legal Orientation of the Social Democratic Movement in Russia pp. 22-77


Abstract: The main aspects of social democracy taking into account modern relevance of political and legal views of movement are considered. Special value for social democracy has refusal of the Marxist economic concept of a socialism. The private property has the right for protection to means of production so far as it doesn't interfere with development of a fair social order. The market economy, free competition and free enterprise initiative admit modern social democrats as fundamental instruments of economic growth, economic efficiency and social justice. Exactly thanks to the thesis of equality, solidarity, justice of party of social democratic orientation arise practically on all continents. Thanks to a historical method we can track social democratism genesis at all stages of its development. In conditions, when in the world at the beginning of the XXI century. new collision – now not on ideological (totalitarian and democratic modes) is observed, and on a civilization basis (first of all between the western individualism and east traditsionalizm, the most otstaivayemy Islamic fundamentalism), to lot of social democracy falls a link role, first of all for the reason that its valuable installations incorporate both individualist, and the collectivist beginnings.It is necessary to emphasize that all main principles of a socialism – equality, justice, solidarity – remain and in a new socialism, providing its continuity with past sotsializm. But these principles are realized in a new way, gain new lines, providing a place to a socialism and in new, post-industrial society.
Nikulin V.V. - The Need for Safety. Legal Status of the All-Russian Emergency Commission, State Political Directorate and Joint State Political Directorate in the Structure of the Soviet State pp. 25-84


Abstract: The author of the article views the problem of creation and legal structuring of the All-Russian Emergency Commission in the system of the Soviet state. The author analyzes the relations between the Commission and other repressive authorities and describes serious organizational and legal contradictions between those. The author also studies the process of differentiation between competences and legal authorities of the Commission and other repressive authorities, in particular, Revolutionary Tribunals. The author also studies attempts to assign a more concrete legal status fo the Commission. By studying historical archives, the author analyzes the process of reinforcement of the structure of the Commission and establishment of the Commission subdivisions in the provinces. Noteworthy that that process was quite slow and difficult because creation of the Commission subdivisions had to 'compete' with numerious local commissions and other local emergency agencies. The author also traces back the process of strengthening of the role of the Commission in the entire state structure against the background of developing military and political environment. The author also views the process of re-organization of the Commission subdivisions during the New Economic Policy including restriction of competences, limitation of investigation periods and so on. 
Shadrin A.Yu. - Mobilization Development Model in the USSR (1945 - 1991). Crisis and Attempts to Overcome it pp. 29-50


Abstract: Control system and ideology are the two main controls of society under the conditions of moblization development. The peak efficiency of that particular model of social management fell on the post-war period. However, overpressure of forces and limited resources raised a question about using personal motivation of citizens along with the methods of enforcement and conviction. Economic and social management was performed by economic executives through political parties. This led to functional differentiation in the Soviet elite and created groups who had special interests. When Iosif Stalin's government was over, the question about which group would be at the head of government came up. The Council of Ministers lost their position to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and republican authorities which created another powerful group, national 'elite'. At  the same time, ideology was in chaos: the XX convention raise important questions about the previous state strategy and included utopic targets of full development of the communist society. The struggle of the 'elite' groups also introduced new methods of political management. Informal relationships became important. Elections of a new Soviet governor depended on clan relations just like in case of Mikhail Gorbachev. Groups kept satisfying their needs and interests and in the long run came to direct communication with the criminal environment. Needs of the state and government were replaced with the interests of clans. The government lost its legitimacy. The hopes people had at the beginning of Reconstruction Era were replaced with disappointment and disrespect towards Gorbachev and all what he symbolized - socialist regime and the Soviet Union.  
Gegamyan V.G. - Characteristic of modernization in Turkey over the period of Kemalist authority: an attempt of reassessment pp. 44-55


Abstract: This article represents an attempt of socio-anthropological interpretation of the process of modernization in the Republican Turkey. The process of radical modernization, which took place in Turkey during the ruling period of Kemalists (1923-1950), aroused extensive interest in the West and resulted in the emergence of large number of scientific publications. The foreign observers mostly admired the results of the modernization and claimed the creation of “New Turkey”. But all these works had apparent flaws, thus Kemalism and Kemalist modernization require a new critical approach. The author suggests examining the Turkish modernization in the context of difference of the sociocultural dynamics of historical process between the West and the East, as well as defines the key characteristic of Turkish modernization as authoritarian. At first, the author demonstrates the evolution of authoritarian modernization processes in Turkey, reveals their ideological roots, and then, the unidentified aspects of the Turkish modernization. The analysis of evolution of the Turkish modernization within the framework of differences in sociocultural dynamics of the historical process allows viewing the modernization processes of the traditional Eastern society not as a consistent phenomenon, but a complicated process, in which the authority discussed the modernization policy with the traditional society.  The article illustrates that modernization had limited direct impact upon the Turkish society, which opens the new research questions.
Derkach M.A. - Non-institutional factors of popularity of the “Sweden Democrats” party in 2006-2014 pp. 105-125


Abstract: The subject of this research is the non-institutional factors that affected the popularity (level electoral support) of the populist parties in Sweden over the period of 2006-2014: portion of immigrants; change in the portion of immigrants; level of economic wellness of the residents; level of unemployment; level of crime; low level of education of the voters; “historical predisposition” to voting for the populists. Identification of these factors is realized based on the analysis of results of participation in the elections to Riksdag of the party “Sweden Democrats” – the leading populist political power in Sweden at that time. Results of the research demonstrate that the popularity of the “Sweden Democrats” was observed in the regions with the lower level of social wellness, higher level of crime and unemployment, and with more uneducated people among the voters. At the same time, voting for the populists at parliamentary elections, the Swedish voters were on one hand concerned about the number of immigrants from the European countries, which can manifest as their competitors in job market, and on the other – by the dynamic of the increased number of culturally alien immigrants from the non-European countries. The author’s special contribution consists in determination of the following regularity: with the growing popularity of the populist party, the influence of immigration factors alongside the factor of “historical predisposition” towards voting gradually reduces, while the influence of socioeconomic factors increases.
Pletnikov V.S. - Discretion as one of the factors of state legal structuring and administration pp. 269-278


Abstract: In the introduction the author examines such aspect of the topic as the level of scientific development of the category of “discretion”. Later the author concentrates on the historical and modern examples of discretion related to the questions of state legal structuring and administration. A special attention is given to the public law, including the issues of discretion within the private legal relations. The main part of the research is completed with the demonstration of the issues of discretion pertaining to the questions of serving in military and law enforcement, as  two types of service that are subject to the effect of the unrestricted discretion. Among the main conclusions are the following: 1) category of “discretion” in the area of public legal relations did not receive a corresponding scientific and theoretical conceptualization; 2) discretion, depending on its nature, can have various manifestations; 3) in most cases, the processes taking place within the state legal structuring and administration in the past, as well as in the modern Russia, are predetermined by the discretion of  a particular individual, endowed with certain authorities, usually of state power.
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