Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "Archeology"
Mal'chenko O.E. - Acquired Epigraphies on Medieval Gun Barrels pp. 1-60


Abstract: The article is devoted to artillery epigraphies in the XVI - XIX centuries. The author underlines the low information capacity of artillery epigraphies as the primary source of historical data. The author also describes different types of acquired epigraphies depending on the information they contained. The author's classification includes the accounting details, technical specifications, epigraphies when the owner of the weapon was changed (trophy, gift, purchase), descriptive epigraphies and graffiti. The author also gives examples of inscriptions on gun barrels and explains why they were created. For the first time in literature the author introduces the definition of 'gun barrel graffiti'. The author also proves why the term 'graffiti' also applies to illegitimate inscriptions on artillery gan barrels. Gan barrel graffiti is viewed as an informal form of communication of the military community in conflictogenic situations. The author also makes an attemp to create a classification of gan barrel graffiti based on the analysis of inscribed gan barrels from the museums in Eurasia, Northern and Central America. The author critisizes some approaches to studying gan barrel graffiti. Much attention is paid to the 'magical', integrative and spatial functions of gan barrel graffiti. The conclusion is that this type of epigraphy material can be useful for studying the history of artillery based on the anthropocentric approach. 
Stavitskii V.V. - At the Sources of Ethnogenesis of Ancient Mordovians pp. 1-13


Abstract: Article is devoted to studying of background and early stages of ethnogenesis of an ancient mordva. The author analyzes the traditional points of view on process of formation of the Mordovian ethnos. Verification of the autochthonic concept of an origin of a mordva is carried out. Possible specific weight of various groups of the ancient population which took part in its ethnogenesis becomes clear: carriers of gorodetsky, penalty-abyzsky and pyanoborsky cultures, vostochnobaltskikh of tribes and Sarmatians. The question of the possible reason of their migrations on the territory of Sursko-Oksky Entre Rios is brought up. The main stages and chronology of ethnogenesis of a mordva are considered. The methodology of research is based on the analysis of archaeological sources: burial grounds, settlements and ancient settlements. At interpretation of data of archeology data on linguistics and written sources are used. In article the conclusion that the population of gorodetsky culture, contrary to the traditional point of view didn't play a noticeable role formation of the Mordovian ethnos is drawn. Addition of an ancient mordva results from population shift of pyanoborsky and penalty-abyzsky cultures from the territory of the left-bank basin of the river. Béla. It is possible that vostochnobaltsky tribes also took part in ethnogenesis of Mordivians.
Orfinskaya O.V., Chutkina S.S., Titova L.A. - Studies of pre-Mongolian embroidery based on archaeological excavations of 1966 – 1974 years in the city of Staraya Russa of Novgorod Region pp. 127-143


Abstract: The subject of this research is the archeological textile material (XVII – XV centuries) discovered during the 1966 – 1974 archeological excavations in the city of Staraya Russa, which is divided into four compositions and stored in Novgorod open-air museum for over 30 years, and later, due to the unsatisfactory condition, has undergone restoration and exploration. The main goal of this research lies in determination of a number of the survived textile products, identification of the nature of fabrics, as well as the connection between the preserved artifacts – narrow golden ribbon and fragments of embroidery, which were earlier considered as part of the collar (necklace). It was established the most likely that origin of the golden ribbons is Mediterranean; the used fabrics has a distinct dense texture, and was brought from, perhaps, Byzantine Empire, as an expensive goods. All of the golden threads in the samples had identical characteristic (thin, with dense golden strip winding), which allowed suggesting that the ribbons alongside the finished embroidery “has come” from the same place.
Tabarev A.V., Gladyshev S.A. - Microcleavage in the complexes of early Upper Paleolithic of Northern Mongolia pp. 144-154


Abstract: The subject of this research is the technology of microcleavage in the complexes of early Upper Paleolithic of Northern Mongolia. Microcleavage implies that the assemblage of stone artefacts associates with the procedure on manufacturing small-size blanks – microliths. Such combination contains micronucleuses, specially prepared cores for preparation of microliths. It is not the depleted nucleuses, but a particular independent group of the cores, which can be justifiable called micronucleuses. Moreover, microcleavage also includes microliths and their fragments. There have not been found any tools made out of microliths in the materials of the explored complexes. The research applies the traditional to archeological studies methodology: technical-typological and morphological analysis of stone inventory belonging to microcleavage of micronucleuses and microliths. Until present time, microcleavage has not been examined as an independent direction of development of stone processing technology in the early Upper Paleolithic of the eastern part of Central Asia. This is the first attempt on the example of the materials of Northern Mongolia to trace the facts of existence of microcleavage already at early stages of Upper Paleolithic (37,000 to 27,000 years ago).
Kulakov V.I. - Prussian belts of the time of Teutonic Order pp. 147-158


Abstract: The subject of this research is the Prussian belts of the early Medieval era. As demonstrated by the archeological data of the Southeastern Baltics, the Prussian belts of the XIII-XIV centuries were either of local origin (buckles – derivations from the Central European manufactures) or created by the example of Teutonic Order. The latter, in turn, could have the square-shape cover plates with the cross, which were borrowed by the Teutonic jewelers from the ancient population of modern Latvia. The presences of imitations of chivalric belts in burials of the Prussian nobles does not mean the acceptance of knighthood. The research is carried out by determination of the unique elements of these belts and comparison with other belts, as well as creation of a dynamic picture of development of this construct and details of Prussian belts in the Teutonic time. Until the present time, Prussian belts were not subjected to special examination in Europe. This article is the first experience of introducing into the scientific discourse of the unique discoveries, represented by the Prussian belts of Teutonic Order.
Tikhonov R.V. - Tagora from the Dabilcurgan in Northern Bactria pp. 191-197


Abstract: The subject of the research in this article is tagora, discovered during archaeological excavations of the Kushano-Sasanian cultural layer (III-IV В.С.) in the settlement of Dabilkurgan in Northern Bactria. It has a conical shape of the body with widely divergent walls and a thickened rim, with the profiled inner side of the three grooves and ledges. A characteristic feature of the tagora is the presence of floral ornament applied by the burnishing engobe on the inner surface of the vessel. In the upper part the composition made up of images of flowers, which are interconnected by a U-shaped line. At the bottom of the ornament is a slanted crossing line. During the study, emphasis was placed on careful analysis of the stratigraphy of the Kushano-Sasanian cultural layer, as well as the study of typology tagora and «iconographic» features are presented ornamental compositions. During the conducted research the author came to the following conclusions. First, form the dining area enough tagora of the Dabilkurgan typical of Bactria Kushano-Sasanian period, which indicates some standardization in the pottery craft. Secondly, the technique of ornamentation is unique to the ceramic complex of the country, as was primarily made on wet clay ornament and stamp. Thirdly, the analysis of ornamental compositions revealed that the motif, the «flowers», appeared in connection with the antique effect, which has undergone a number of changes on Bactrian soil.
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