Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "Philosophy of history, historiography, chronology/source studies"
Philosophy of history, historiography, chronology/source studies
Slezin A.A., Skoropad A.E. - Initial Stage of Development of the Soviet System of Political Control in Modern Researches pp. 1-29


Abstract: The authors of the article describe the main targets, methods, achievements and unresolved issues in historical and legal researches at the initial stage of development of the Soviet system of political control. Being an essential function of the government, political control is being developed as the social life becomes more complex. According to the authors of the article, today we can talk about a new scientific field where historical, legal, political and social researches are combined. The authors agree with the point of view that the main purpose of political control is to provide the government with valid information about political attitudes of the population. The authors also describe the role of V. Izmozik, V. Krivoruchenko, N. Volodina, S. Dianova, A. Katkov, R. Nikulin T. Goryaev, N. Ofitserov, S. Maysheva, A. Demina and E. Lapatukhina in developmet of the Soviet system of political control. 
Khegai V.V. - The reform of foreign colonies of 1871 from the perspective of Russian historians: historiography and problems pp. 1-7


Abstract: The subject of this research is the evaluation characteristics of the reform of foreign colonies of 1871 of the Russian Federation, which are provided in the Russian language research of pre-revolutionary, Soviet, and post-Soviet periods. The author thoroughly examines such aspects of the topic as reference of the lawmakers, researchers of the anti-German wave, and descendants of the colonist environment to the problem of the reform of 1871 and the reaction upon the introduced changes. Special attention is given to the discussion between the authors, as well as factors that predetermines the position of the scholars in controversial questions. Particular examination is dedicated to the episode of closing the Saratov bureau of foreign colonists in the scientific literature. The scientific novelty of this work lies in the facts that for the first time the points of view of the Russian historians of various historical periods and representatives of different social circles and scientific disciplines with regards to the reform of June 4, 1871 are subjected to comprehensive academic analysis. The main conclusion consists in the thesis that the study of the history of Russian Germans was usually a reflection of national policy of the Russian State pertaining to this group of population. Expressed by the researchers opinions also depended on the national affiliation of the author and his social origin. This topic is insignificantly studied, thus remains relevant for the further research.
Khegai V.V. - The reform of foreign colonies of 1871 in Russia in reflection of the foreign historiography pp. 8-14


Abstract: The subject of this research is the main achievements and deceptions of the foreign historiography with regards to the problem of reforming of the Russian Germans colonies during the period of 1860’s – 1870’s. The author carefully examines such aspects as popularity of the topic of Russian Germans associated with the World War I in the works of German authors; period of silence of the 1930’s – 1950’s; activity of the Russian German community in the Federal Republic of Germany; German fundamentalist research of the 1980’s – 2000’s. Special attention is given to the leading woks of the American and French historiography. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that the author is first to carry out a scientific research of the coverage of the reform of 1871 in works of the foreign historians, in which the reform attained controversial evaluation, and who often patterned the opinion of Russian historians or intentionally polemicized with them. Some of the authors became hostages of the specific ideology or political conjuncture, which predetermined their non-scientific character of such publications. Not having access to the Russian archive sources, German, American, and French scholars often came to the contradictory conclusions. Thus, the questions about the reform of 1871 remains its relevance for the further research.
Shapkina E.A. - Modern Russian and Foreign Internet Resources of Official Archives as a Source for Studying History of the Russian State of the Late XXth - Early XXIst Centuries pp. 18-35


Abstract: Researches of Russian history of the 'epoch of changes' are rather difficult as a result of insufficient theory and methodology as well as paradoxical features of the database which is insufficient, having many gaps and at the same time excessive. Taking into account that the breakdown of the USSR and development of a new Russian state were the key processes of that period, one of the most important sources of information about those events are official documents of state authorities. The subject of the present research is the analysis and evaluation of Russian and foreign official Internet archive resources as a source for studying history of the Russian statehood of the late XXth - early XXIst centuries. To achieve the research objectives the author has applied the systems, comparative-historical, comparative-legal, structural-functional approaches and methods of induction, formalisation, systematisation and other analytical methods. The author has analyzed the largest Russian Internet archives as well as a number of foreign resources containing original digital documents on history of the USSR and Russia of the late XXth - early XXIst centuries and concludes that these digital resources have a great potential and high scientific value as a source of original historical information. 


Abstract: The author analyzes the logic of the state and ethnic groups' interaction process in the context of empire state administration during the period of the XVIIIth - the beginning of the XXth century, emphasizes his own approach to the understanding of the category empire and empire state special properties and singles out their following.
Krakovskii K.P. - Judicial counterreform of the 2nd half of the XIXth century pp. 43-135


Abstract: This article is devoted to one is the most disputing questions, connected with the Judicial reform of 1864, its realization and the following fate. Historiographic discussion on question whether the judicial counterreform was implemented has been leading near century and half already. The author anylises its contence. Joining to opinion about essence of the judicial counterreform, the author characterizes its aims and the main directions, to which he takes the changing of mechanism of political justice , the limitation of the principles of fair trial, attacks to the court of the jury and liquidation of the institute of justices of the peace, and changing it by the institute of zemskie nachalniki.
Kodan S.V., Vladimirova G.E. - Legalization of the Supreme State Power in the Fundamental Laws of the Russian Empire of 1832 - 1892 pp. 44-78


Abstract: The Fundamental Laws of the Russian Empire (version of 1832 - 1892) set forth the legal provisions regarding arrangement of the supreme state power. Those Laws quite clearly outlined the principal features of the absolute monarchy as the form of govenment in the Russian Empire. The features include absolute supremacy, sanctity, heredity and dependence of the emperor on the effective legislation. A number of provisions of the Fundamental Laws reflected the empire-like nature of the territorial organization of the state power in Russia and a difficult configuration of relations between the imperial center and individual ethnic communities. The title of the Russian emperor and the Russian coat of arms described in the Fundamental Laws symbolized the scope of authority ofthe governor and borders of teh Russian empire. The Fundamental Laws also determined specific features of the authoritarian state regime which created legal grounds for such institutions as the institution of allegiance. That institution established the legal relation between an individual and state government represented by a monarch as well as the division of the society into estates. The authors of the article analyze the aforesaid issues and problems. 
Khasyanov O.R. - The dynamic of size of the collective farm peasantry of the mid-Volga village during postwar quinquennium pp. 95-100


Abstract: The subject of this research is the transformation in size of the collective farm peasantry of Ulyanovsk Region during the first postwar quinquennium. It is a known fact that in the prewar period peasantry represented one of the largest social groups of Soviet society. Thus, the biggest losses during the time of Great Patriotic War fall onto this particular social group, which later will become one of the causes for demographic crisis of the rural areas and Russian society. During the course of this work, the author applied the methods of comparative analysis, which contributed in reconstruction of the process of population change among the collective farm peasantry. The scientific novelty is defined by the choice of the subject of the research and territorial frameworks. The collective farm peasantry of Ulyanovsk Region did not attract due attention among scholars, and the modern historical science does not have special works that examine the process of dynamic of size of the collective farm peasant population of Ulyanovsk Region during the postwar period. Heuristic potential lies in the conclusion that in the demographic processes of the postwar mid-Volga village, the demographic transition begins manifesting earlier than in the central region.  
Likhodei E.M. - The transition from the “protection of maternity and childhood” to the “protection of children's rights” in the recent scientific literature pp. 101-109


Abstract: The article analyzes the approaches of researchers in the recent scientific literature to the study of state policy in the field of women's and children's issues in order to reflect the transition from the "protection of maternity and childhood" to the "protection of children's rights".A study of the transition between the terms is the process of particular relevance as proof of transfer can help in understanding the features of the policy on women and children, to eliminate the ambiguity of understanding of these terms, and to find gaps in the current policy in the women's and children's issues.The article is divided into three idea headings in accordance with the directions in the recent scientific literature, coinciding with the three periods of Russian history. The article sets a different ratio of researchers to study of the poicy, discusses their approaches to its study and analyzes the perception of women and children on the policy within the approaches.The methodological base of this study is founded on the principles of historicism, consistency and objectivity. The author applies the historical, comparative-historical, logical and dialectical methods. The scientific novelty of the present article specifies that this work wearing the comparative nature of the research synthesis, belonging to the three stages of the country's history reveals not noticed earlier presence of a transition between the terms in the policy, carried out during these three stages.The result of this work is the confirmation of the presence of the transition from the term "protection of maternity and childhood" to the term "protection of children's rights". It is important for the study of the development of Russia's policy in the children's issues. The results of this paper can be used in preparing special courses on the history of the state and law, history of policy development in the sphere of maternity and childhood, in writing textbooks and educational tutorials.
Slezin A.A. - Historical sources of the early years of the Komsomol pp. 108-148
Abstract: Using the experiences of the "History of the Youth Movement in Russia" school of thought, formed in the twenty-first century at the Tambov State Technical University, the author uncovers the possibilities of using a variety of sources to study the Komsomol and organizations alternative to it in the early post-revolutionary years. Sources include published documents, statistical reference publications, memoirs, print media, and documents from Russian archives. The primary focus is to highlight the role of archival sources which, as a rule, were previously unused by researchers. The article is written primarily for novice researchers of the history of the youth movement in Russia.
Popova S.M., Yanik A.A. - E-archive of the “Interfax” news as the source on the history of USSR and Russia of late XX – early XXI centuries pp. 149-175


Abstract: The article is dedicated to the analysis of the archival database of news agency "Interfax" as the source of the reliable facts which describe the key events of the political and economic history of the USSR and Russia of the late XX – early XXI centuries. The authors give and external and internal criticism of the source, as well as examine the circumstances of its emergence and existence, authorship, peculiarities of the structure and content, quality of the presented information, as well as the prospects of its implementation in researches of the history of modern Russia. Special attention is given to the information standards of “Interfax”, which influenced the formation of the source and its distinctive characteristics. This work is first to demonstrate and examine the digital archive of the “Interfax” news as the historical source. It is noted that just over the period of 1989-1999, the database contains more than 1.6 million messages on the key events of the sociopolitical and economic history of USSR and Russia. Thanks to the information standards of the agency, all news messages are notable for its trustworthiness, practical accuracy, and preserve the live reaction of the contemporaries upon the changes that take place in the country. The authors make a conclusion on the value of the “Interfax” archive as the source of the adequate and precise information on the history of USSR and modern Russia.
Romanova A.A. - Sources of the Russian hagiography: menology of the Pomor mentor Fyodor Babushkin pp. 174-180


Abstract: This article reviews the lists of the manuscript menology from the library of the Vygov Old Believer F. P. Babushkin (1764-1842), which is preserved in the department of manuscripts of the Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg). Currently, there are three determined list of menology, edited or comprised with participation of F. P. Babushkin. Peculiar attention is given to the unique facts contained in menology, namely in commemoration of the Russian Saints, including founders of St. Nicholas Monastery Anthony and German Krasnokholmsky, as well as venerable Leonid Ustnedumsly and Iulianiya Semigorodskaya. The article presents observation for correlation of the menology and their chronological order. The author makes supposition that one of the sources of menology became the data from the "History of Russian Hierarchy" by Ambrose (Ornatsky). Thus, the time of creation of one of the menologies (collection of Druzhinin No. 131) is verified. The conclusion is made on the secondariness off the facts of Babushkin’s menology for the Russian hagiography. The article deals with copies of menologies, compiled by Pomorian Old-Orthodox mentor Fyodor Babushkin (1764-1842). A large part of Babushkin's library is nowadays kept in the Manuscript Department of the Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences (St.Petersburg), in collection of a prominent Russian scholar V.G.Druzhinin. The author discusses sources for adding of memories of Russian saints and concludes, that Babushkin could derive some data from the "History of Russian Hierarchy" by Ambrosii (Ornatskii) (Moscow, 1812-1815).
Bredikhin V.E. - Problem of mobilization of finances of the Russian village during the World War I (1914-October of 1917) within the modern Russian historiography pp. 365-382


Abstract:  This essay presents the analysis of modern Russian historiography of the state fiscal policy and the local self-governance with regards to agricultural manufacturers during the period of the World War I. The object of this research became the conclusions of the scholars on various aspects of fiscal policy: tax structure; mechanism of collection of taxes; government projects on improving tax system; methods of carrying out tax campaigns; reaction of peasantry upon tax policy during the war period; fiscal role of peasant land community; socio-economic importance of tax reforms of 1916-1917; influence of the 1917 revolution upon tax discipline in the village. Scientific novelty is substantiated by the need for systematization of the latest scientific results in the conditions of the increased attention of the scholars to the issues of economic history of the WWI associated with its 100th anniversary. The author makes a conclusion on a low level of scientific attention of the modern Russian researches-agrarians towards the problems of taxation of peasants in Russia during the WWI; the fundamental scientific material is contained in the works on financial and tax history of Russia.
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