Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "History and historical science"
History and historical science
Abdulin R.S. - The Role of Court Administration Authorities in Human Resourcing of the Judicial Service of the RSFSR (1917 - 1930) pp. 1-21


Abstract: In article the role of bodies of judicial management in staffing of judicial activity of the young Soviet republic is considered. The author shows that during the period with 1917 prior to the beginning of 1930 in the country there is a strengthened search of forms and trial and error methods and placement of personnel on judicial positions. The active role in providing judicial authorities with the corresponding shots was played by judicial authorities and superior courts which the author of article carries to bodies of judicial management. During the studied period selection and placement of personnel of judicial system I was not only under control of the National commissariat of justice of RSFSR and its bodies on places, but also the party and Soviet bodies which the author of article refers to subjects of the management of judicial system. Indications of party bodies were obligatory for bodies of judicial management. Problem and chronological and comparative-historical methods allowed to track dynamics of formation of staffing of judicial activity, at the same time formations and developments of institute of judicial management, to find out features of this process. The reconstruction of an objective historical picture was promoted by the system approach, allowed to find out the intrinsic nature, the principles of functioning and evolution of one of the directions of the Soviet judicial management in the specified chronological framework. Scientific novelty of article is caused by the statement of a problem and that the purposes and the tasks defined in it, of the contents, an object of research, methods weren't solved in domestic jurisprudence in full. Therefore for the first time in a domestic historiography complex research of process of formation of staffing of judicial activity as component of judicial management in the Soviet state in a context of social history during the period from 1917 to 1930 is presented.
Kenya I.A. - Traditions of Merchants' and Businessmen's Charity in the 19th and early 20th Century on the Example of Bryanski Region pp. 1-15


Abstract: The subject of the research is  to find out the background of charity work (mental, spiritual, social and economical) and motivation (mercy and compassion, religion, thirst for education). One of the reasons for the popularity of charity work in the 19th and early 20th centuries is a governmental support and stimulation. The article reviews the forms for such support. The reflection and interpretation of merchants’ and businessmen’s charity work is shown on the example of Bryanski Region represented by the following people: S.I. Maltsov, P.I. Gubonin, the married couple of V.N. and M.K. Tenishevs and the brothers S.S. and P.S. Mogiljovtsevs.  The article researches the contribution of these people not only in the social and cultural development of the region, but also their meaning for the Russian history. Different characteristics of men’s and women’s charity work are shown. The comparative method, method of historic retrospective, method of analysis and synthesis have been used in the course of the research. The methodology of the research is based on the correlation of motivation and background of the charity work. The traditions of merchants’ and businessmen’s charity work are based on the social position of merchants and businessmen, their spiritual needs and aspirations, their wish to be useful for their motherland. These traditions are reviewed in the following aspects: family charity work, men’s and women’s charity work. The following conclusions have been made: personal live principles, religion and family traditions became the foundation for the merchants’ charity work. The governmental support let the merchants’ charity become a unique phenomenon of the Russian history in the second half of the 19th century.
Adebayo K. - Analysis of historical perspective of the Nigeria-Russia diplomatic relations as an instrument for the current diplomatic ties pp. 25-29


Abstract: The diplomatic relations between Nigeria and USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) can be traced back to 1960, since which both countries have maintained warm political, economic and cultural relations. The establishment of their relation prompted by the political and military support of the Soviet Union to the Nigerian government during the Nigerian Civil War in 1967 and 1970. This article underlines the aftermath of dissolution of the Soviet Union, which influence in Nigeria and West Africa had drastically reduced. The author examines the traditional diplomatic relations between Russian and Nigeria from the historical perspective, based on the diplomatic theory as a paramount instrument for tracing the existing diplomatic relationship between the two colossal nations. However, in 1991 the Russia Federation being the successor to the Soviet Union proceeded to establish the diplomatic relations with the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Then President Olusegun Obasanjo officially visited Moscow in 2001; both governments signed a declaration on the principles of friendly relationship and partnership. The agreement on the program of bilateral and international relations was also signed.
Veselova I. - The works of Francisco Javier Clavijero within the framework of censure in the Spanish Empire during the late XVIII century pp. 43-49


Abstract: This article, in the context of prohibition of Spanish publication “The Ancient History of Mexico” by Francisco Javier Clavijero, examines the problem of censure of historical works of the colonial authors by Spanish authorities. The New Spain of the late XVIII retained barriers for distribution of the European philosophical ides of Modern Era. Besides the “natural” obstacle – remoteness from the metropolitan country and Europe – existed the barriers associated with the censure from Church and government. The works that contained the most radical and “harmful” ideas from the perspective of Spanish authorities, fell under the ban. Thus, the article determines the relation of Spanish authorities to the ideas of Clavijero through studying the censure practices of the Council of Indian Affairs – the institute, which controlled the colonial press, as well as the degree of reliability of censure filter. The article introduces into the scientific discourse a number of archival reference sources pertinent to issuing of the license for publishing texts of the colonial authors in the territory of India and metropolitan country. As demonstrated in the research, censure was a weak barrier for distribution of the new historical and sociopolitical ideas in the colonial society. This process could not be halted, even in terms of banning the publications in Spanish language.
Khristinich I.V. - Execution of the Fire Safety Law Under the Prosecutor's Supervision Over 300 Years pp. 60-71


Abstract: It is well known that the prosecution authorities have started to significantly influence the level of legitimacy in Russia since the very moment those authorities were created. Prosecutors deal with all legal spheres of life activities including fire safety. In the pre-revolutionary Russia fire safety was already controlled by prosecutors along with the issues of national security. The main goal was to inform the authorities about all incidents of fire and fire safety measures. In the pre-revolutionary period all fire safety agencies and organizations were under the supervision of prosecution agencies. The main regulatory and administrative documents of the Prosecutor General of the USSR describe the following directions of prosecution supervision in the sphere of fire safety: supervision of the execution of laws by administrative agencies conducting preventive maintenance and fire safety investigations, control over the execution of orders and instructions and supervision of the execution of laws on responsibility for violation of fire safety rules. Based on this insight into the history, the author of the article makes a conclusion that as an independent activity, prosecutor's supervision over the execution of fire safety rules started to form at the post-socialist period of Russian history. 
Venikova M.S. - Institutionalization and educational activities of the public universities in Imperial Russia pp. 70-81


Abstract: This article examines the history of institutionalization and work of the  people's universities (at initial stage) of Imperial Russia. The research is conducted in the context of general problem of the establishment of civil society in Imperial Russia in the late XIX – early XX centuries. In modern Russia, after a sustained period of time, emerges a similar social transformation, which determines the relevance of the existing historical experience and scientific research on this topic. The object of the study is the people's universities that existed in Russia as public organizations (or - NCOs in the modern interpretation). The subject of research is determined by the characteristics provided in scientific literature of the people’s universities in Imperial Russia as the public institutions. One of such characteristics reflects the sociological views and considers the people's universities as institutions of civil society. Another one reflects the view  upon the people's universities as a phenomenon of the history of pedagogy and education, as well as defines them as a form of extracurricular education for adults. Proceeding from the first definition, the subject of research implies studying the forms and methods of self-organization, self-management and self-financing of the people's universities. The purpose of the study lies in the identification of the people's universities of Imperial Russia as the institutions of civil society, as well as revelation of the specific historical features in self-organization of these institutions. The author establishes the presence of common features in the creation and operation of the Societies of People's Universities that are characteristic for determining the presence of the developing civil society at the turn of the XIX and XX centuries in Russia. The materials of the first all-Russian congress of members of the Societies of People's Universities and other privately initiated educational facilities are analyzed. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that the author carries out a gradual (rather than fragmentary) comparison of the capital and provincial universities in terms of the basic parameters and characteristics. The characteristic of the phenomenon of people's universities leans not only the a priori (although unquestioned) judgments, but also on the comprehensive analysis of specific forms and manifestations of their self-organization, self-management and self-funding.
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