Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue 09/2021
Contents of Issue 09/2021
Anthroposociogenesis and historical anthropology
Fedorova A.R. - On the emergence of the Yakut scare story as the genre of modern folklore pp. 1-12

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.9.36403

Abstract: This article examines the emergence and essence of the Yakut scare story. The modern Yakut scare story takes roots from the traditional culture, but in its genre form represents the modern urban legend. The goal of this research lies in tracing the process of synthesis from the perspective of anthropology. The author analyzes the differences between the Yakut, Soviet and Russian scary motifs, as well as determines the key traditional sources of the emergence of the Yakut scare story. The author aims to examine scare story as an important part of modern ethnic culture that retained traditional images, as a result of transition from the traditional life to an industrial society, rather analyzing separate stories through the prism of folklore studies. This defines the scientific novelty of this paper, as this topic has not previously become a separate subject of research in the scientific literature. The sources for this article employ the theoretical works about the Yakut culture, folklore overall, as well as Russian and Soviet horror stories; field materials acquired by the author, such as excerpts from interviews and sociological survey. The conclusion is made that the modern Yakut scare story has emerged in 1970s on the basis of traditional folklore, which obtains the features of the Soviet scare story and forms the new genre of modern folk art.
Interdisciplinary research
Peshkova K.V. - Radiation medical experiments in the United States (early 1930s mid1970s) pp. 13-28

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.9.34543

Abstract: The subject of this research is the period of human radiation experiments within the framework of the Manhattan Project and the Cold War. This phenomenon took place in 1945–1974.and contradicts all known standards of the United Nations that protect human rights in the United States and worldwide. Medical radiation research were conducted in stringent secrecy of the undertaken experiments and their outcome. This article employs the problem-analytical approach for analyzing the phenomenon of human radiation experiments. The research leans on the principle of historicism, according to which human radiation experiments are traced from 1930 to the emergence of the Manhattan Project, the Cold War years, until the records were declassified in 1990s. The novelty of this work is defined by the fact that the problem of antihuman radiation tests of the Manhattan Project is poorly studied in the Russian historiography. The US archival documents and literature that ensure the objectivity of this study comprise majority of the sources. The following conclusions were made:1) on the one hand, human radiation experiments were essentially directed against the population of pro-Soviet countries, but in fact carried out on the civilians of the United States of America with discriminatory orientation towards racial minorities, economically disadvantaged, seriously ill and incurable clinic patients, disabled people, mothers and children; 2) on the other hand, these experiments contributed to the development of radiation therapy for treating cancer patients, although having undermined the health of hundreds and generating incurable forms of diseases. From the scientific perspective, human radiation experiments have enriched medical science with new knowledge on various influence of radioactive elements on the human body.
History of regions of Russia
Chaplygina D.A. - Demographics of the Sami population of Kolsky Uyezd in the late XVIII century (based on the statistical report of 1764) pp. 29-36

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.9.36450

Abstract: The selected topic is at the intersection of such relevant trends of historical science as the history of popular sources, history of demographic processes of the Russian population, and regional history. The appeal to statistical data allows revealing various socioeconomic and demographic indicators, for example: the size and structure of the population, displacement of population, gender and age composition, matrimonial relations, as well as the regional peculiarities of demographic development. The subject of this research is the demographics of the Sami people of Kolksy Uyezd in the late XVIII century. The object of this research is the statistical report of 1764 compiled by order of the governor of Arkhangelsk E. A. Golovtsyn. The history of the Russian North overall and Kolsky Uyezd in particular is studied nonuniformily. The novelty of this article lies in the fact that in the Russian historiography there are no special research dedicated to the demographics of Kolsky Uyezd of that period. The statistical report of 1764 was introduced into the scientific discourse by S. A. Nikonov a short while ago. By giving a more detailed perspective on the subject matter, it draws interest in comparison with other sources used for studying the historical demographics of the region. The following conclusions were made: the main social institutions of the Sami people in the late XVIII century were “pogost” and “vezha”; vezha represented a collective that consisted of four or more families that usually were not blood-related; unlike other sources, statistical report of 1764 has records on the growing male population of the Sami population of Kolsky Uyezd; lineal consanguinity was a prevalent type of family, which included two generations.
History and Economics
Lozin D.I., Bolotova E.Y. - On the role of foreign experts in the development of Soviet industry during 19291933 (on the example of Stalingrad industry) pp. 37-45

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.9.36517

Abstract: The goal of this research is to reveal the role of foreign experts in the period of industrialization of the Soviet economy (1929–1933) on the example of the development of Stalingrad industry. Using the data from the State Archive of Volgograd Region and scientific literature, the author discloses the factors of engaging foreign experts in Stalingrad enterprises, forms of their employment, size, and qualitative characteristics. The subject of this research is the foreign experts involved in the industrial enterprises in Stalingrad. The article is based on the systemic approach, which views foreign experts as part of the labor resources of Stalingrad industrial enterprises; as well as on structural-functional analysis, which reveals the vectors and scope of activity of the foreign employees. The novelty of this research consists in introduction of new archival data into the scientific discourse, as well as in comprehensive analysis of the reminiscences of some foreign specialists about the specificity of their work. The following conclusions were made: the reason for inviting foreign expert to the USSR during the Industrialization period was substantiated by shortage of competent personnel and engineering-technical workers, who would have been capable to accomplish the tasks of building the new type of enterprise; hundreds of foreign specialists were brought to the factories of Stalingrad via legal or illegal methods’; over the period from 1930 to 1933, the number of foreign experts has gradually decreased due to increase in the number of the local qualified personnel; despite this fact, foreign employees and their experience in engineering, construction oversight, introduction of new methods of production to the Soviet workers became the starting point for the rapid development of Stalingrad industry.
History and historical science
Kilin A. - Private trade in the years of NEP: Russian historiography of the 1920s1980s pp. 46-66

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.9.35520

Abstract: The goal of this research lies in the analysis of Russian historiography of the 1920s–1980s dedicated to private trade in the years of NEP. The presented material is valuable for familiarization with the problem navigating through the variety of publications, as well as for in-depth study of the topic, such as writing historiographical sections of dissertations. The material is systematized on the basis of problematic-chronological approach, and includes stages that are traditional for the Russian historiography. The staged vary in content, covering NEP as a whole and its separate aspects, such as specificity of functionality of mixed economy, goods-money relations, analysis of commercial practices in different economic sectors, and social aspects of private entrepreneurship. The period of the new economic policy is the dynamic and contradictory stage of the national history; there are multiple opinions and discussions around the alternatives to the development of the country. Multistructurality of the economy implied multilayeredness and polemical sharpness of arguments that unfolded at that time and left a mark in the historiography of 1920s. On the other hand, monostructurality of the economy and ideocratic approach in science led to the interpretation of NEP as a ‘”departure”. In the historiography of 1930s – early 1980s, private trade was openly marginalized, and the variety of ongoing processes was reduced to the struggle of private owner with collectivized sector solely within the framework of the antagonistic concept of “class warfare”. Since the mid-1980, the researchers once again addressed the issues that were relevant in the 1920s. The return to variety of interpretations was on the background of convergence of the Russian and foreign historiography in the context of seeking the alternatives to the “Marxist-Leninist concept of the historical process”.
Bulatov I.A. - Russian organizations for children and youth in Harbin during the 1920s1930s in modern Russian historiography pp. 67-77

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.9.36444

Abstract: The subject of this research is historiography dedicated to the history of Harbin organizations for children and youth of the Russian immigrants during the 1920s – 1930s, which was published over the last thirty years. The article provides a general overview of the literature and key aspects on the topic. The author analyzes and groups the publications by the types of organizations reviewed therein, which gives a better perspective on the level of knowledge on all movements and compare the available data. This, in turn, reveals the contradictions in different works and helps finding gaps that require further research. The article explores the materials dedicated to the well-known organizations of the immigrants, such as the Scouts (NORS-R and NORR); collective, but solely exclusively Manchurian – musketeers and young fascists; small-numbered and virtually unknown – the 13, Black Ring, Black Hand, etc. The conclusion is made that the main organizations for children and youth in Harbin are well studied. The author notes the need for further analysis of the programs and ideologies underlying these organizations, as well as for the development of universal classification of immigrant movements that allow gaining better understanding of these organizations.
History and Politics
Pupykin N. - Reflection of the problematic of political conflicts in the history of public thought pp. 78-88

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.9.36473

Abstract: This article analyzes the evolution of theoretical approaches of the representatives of foreign (European and US) public thought towards studying the problem of political peace and conflict interaction. The object of this research is the conflictogenic political relations as a form of historical development of the state and social institutions. The subject of this research is the steady development of socio-political and socio-philosophical theories related to political conflicts and social stability. Research methodology is based on the structural-functional and systemic analysis, comparative-historical and problematic-chronological methods, as well as other general scientific and special principles of historical cognition. The author comes to the conclusion that the representations of the political forms of social conflict interaction have deeply rooted causal links with different historical eras (Antiquity, Middle Ages, Renaissance, Modern Age, Contemporary History), and have made a long way from “naivety” and dogmatism to interdisciplinarity, from unconditional historicism to social systematicity in their conceptual approaches. The novelty of this article consists in comprehensive examination of the evolution of methodology for studying the conceptual-categorical space of political conflict through the prism of the historical development of mankind, thereby revealing the impact of conflictogenic nature of the political process upon the course of world history.
Culture and cultures in historical context
Tikhonova V.B. - On the concept of honor in mentality of the Russian landowners of the XVII century pp. 89-120

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.9.36320

Abstract: The interdisciplinary approach that takes into account various points of view allows revealing the representations of honor in mentality of the Russian landowners of the XVII century. These representations are analyzed both in the context of national mentality of the XVII century overall, and within the privileged class. The article examines different meanings of honor typical to Russia of the XVII century: ancestral, official, corporate, spiritual, as well as assumptions on the presence of personal honor. Plausible mental representations of the honor of county landowners of the XVII century are viewed from the social, legal, spiritual, moral, and military-professional perspectives. The author goes along with the concepts that attribute honor to the fundamental concepts of national mentality of the XVII century. There are several meanings of honor: the medieval ideal of honor as virtue prevalent in Moscow society, honor of the rank, although the complete dominance of the latter in mentality of the XVII century seems exaggerated. The entire privileged class of the Russian society attached great importance to the meaning of “homeland”, while the provincial landowners valued the length of service. The author believes that the idea of syncretism of honor expressed by the scholars about Middle Ages also pertains to the Moscow period. The honor of noblemen and children of court nobility on the ancestral, corporate and personal levels was an achievement based on “accumulative” principle. The resentment of duels by the Russian privileged ranks of the XVII century, who defended their honor in a lawful manner, deserves particular attention. The representations of honor of the county landowners was stressed by mass poverty and closeness to the lower social classes, which encouraged to stay in the privileged environment. This was accompanied by continuous struggle for retaining paternal, official, corporate, personal honor.
Historical sources and artifacts
Akimova T.M. -
Narrative of the women of Burachikha settlement as a source on the history of development of civil society in Vladimir province in the spring of 1917
pp. 121-132

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.9.36412

Abstract: This article reviews two documents stored in the State Archive of the Russian Federation: “Narrative” of the women of Burachikha settlement (Glumovskaya Volost , Yuryevsky Uyezd of Vladimir Province) and the response of the Moscow Regional Council of the Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers' Deputies dated by April-May 1917. The “Narrative” reflects the concerns of peasantry, which was the largest social class in Russia of that time: shortage of firewood and food, ongoing World War I, unresolved land issue; confusion with the political changes taking place in the country due to lack of awareness and special literature. The attitude of rural population towards the pre-revolutionary authorities and Provisional Government is described. The document deserves special attention, as it demonstrates the position of women who were first granted the right to vote in the spring of 1917. Moscow Regional Council of Workers' Deputies supported the political activity of female rural population, although did not render any assistance. The conclusion is made that the published texts can be used in studying the development of civil society in provinces after the February Revolution of 1917. The content of these sources is also valuable for the researchers dealing with the gender problems, social history of the first quarter of the XX century, and the history of the February and October Revolutions of 1917.
Personality in history
Krizhanovsky N.I., San'kova S.M. - The impact of M. O. Menshikov's childhood upon the formation of his publicistic interests pp. 133-150

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.9.36474

Abstract: The subject of this research is the early life of M. O. Menshikov – one of the ideologists of the Russian nationalism of the early XX century and leading publicist of the largest all-Russian newspaper “Novoe Vremya”. The goal consists in full reconstruction of the conditions of his childhood and early youth. The methods of deduction, induction, comparative and prospective analysis were used for reconstructing separate circumstances of the initial stage of development of Menshikov’s personality and holistic biographical picture. The synthesis of objective analysis of the facts with subjective assessments of the events described by Menshikov himself in his diaries and articles allowed depicting the external circumstances of his youth, as well as reconstruct the peculiarities of development of his inner world and social reflection. The conclusion is made that a range of the core themes of Menshikov's publicistic writing, which were covered in the newspaper “Nedelya” and later in “Novoe Vremya”, and ultimately brought him popularity, take roots in his childhood and early youth: “family relations”, “upbringing and education”, “pursuit of belonging”, “finding  happiness through harmony with the world”. These topics were covered by Menshikov based on the rich life experience, a long path from the poor peasant family to the cadet of Naval Engineering School in Kronstadt. The fact that he was able to understand the problems  of the commoners made him closer to the reader. The provided biography is currently the most detailed study of the early life of M. O. Menshikov's; many facts are introduced for the first time. The article also presents additional empirical material on the history of childhood, elementary and secondary education in Russia of the late XIX century.
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