Genesis: Historical research - 3 2020
Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue 03/2020
Contents of Issue 03/2020
Theory and methodology of history
Miloslavov A.S. - Digital revolution: the experience of periodization and problems of forecasting pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.3.32295

Abstract: This article examines a complicated phenomenon that includes the epistemic and technological components, as well as multiplicity of social practices. Based on such approach, the author determines the significant stages of “digitalization” of various sides of social life; describes the problems impeding accurate forecasting of the processes of future development of information and communication technologies and their impact upon social life. Methodological patterns that should be followed by a researcher aimed at implementation of a forecasting function with regards to future transformations of sociotechnical digital world. Methodological framework contains the historical-comparative analysis that allows identifying problematic areas in the attempts to establish periodization of the development of computer science and desire to form forecast of the future flow of transformations in the “digital world”. Bases on the concepts “open exit project” and “medium zoom level”, the article reveals the capabilities and limitations for accurate realization of forecast functions with regards to further course of the “digital revolution”. The author substantiates the statement that in studying processes associated with future development of computer science, it is necessary to pay attention to socio-anthropological consequences of research and engineering activity.
The path of the Scientist: anniversaries, milestones, an epitome
Roshchevsky M.P., Roshchevskaya L.P. - Director of research station of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union Alexander for exploration of the North academician Fersman (based on the materials from the archives of Komi Republic) pp. 10-23

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.3.32325

Abstract: The object of this research is the scientific and organizational activity of the academician Alexander Fersman on realization of a grand project – the creation of research station of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union for exploration of the North in the deep countryside of the European Northeast of USSR. The source base is presented by the materials from archives, museums and libraries of Komi Republic. The goals of this work consist in characterizing the role of the academician Alexander Fersman in creation of the aforementioned facility based on the documents from regional archives. The integrated approach, principles of scientific objectivity, retrospective method of library studies demonstrate the role of human factors in scientific cognition. Reallocation of institutions of the Academy of Sciences consisted in organization of migration of the collectives with scientific property, formation of the new structure, orientation towards studying defense objectives for ensuring strategic independence of the country and attraction of prominent scholars. Rare publications with autographs prove that the prewar scientific interests in the European Northeast and scientific-propagandistic activity of Fersman during the time of war.
History of science and technology
Skrydlov A. - Institutionalization of statistical science in universities of the Russian Empire (late XVIII early XIX centuries) pp. 24-38

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.3.32372

Abstract: The object of this research is the process of institutionalization of statistical science in Russia in the early XIX century. The article examines the history of emergence within the structure of Russian universities of the corresponding departments and inclusion of statistical knowledge into lectures. The author analyzes the peculiarities of teaching statistical science in the Moscow, Kharkov, Kazan, and Saint Petersburg universities. Special attention is given to the activity of M. l. Magnitsky and D. P. Runich, which led to termination of the reputable scholars-statisticians from Kazan and Saint Petersburg universities. The research leans on the basic methods of historical science – problem-chronological for studying the time sequence of events; historical-genetic and historical comparative that allow studying the genesis and key stages of development of statistical education in the Russian universities. It is established that teaching statistics in form of political science initially appeared in the last third of the XVIII century in the Moscow University. Statistical courses were read upon personal initiative of the professors and were not established by the provisional “Project” of 1755. In their lectures, the first educators were guided by the experience of Göttingen University, which in the mid XVIII century became the center of the German school of political science. The university reform of 1802-1804 in Russia led to the creation of new system of higher education. In accordance with the norms of the Decrees of 1804, statistics was introduced into the curriculum of Russian universities for the first time. The article explores the key stages of organization of teaching statistics, such as unification of the content of lectures, publishing of course books, establishment of scientific schools.
Historical sources and artifacts
Biahun R. - Maps of Minsk of the late XVIII early XIX century as the sources on social topography of the city pp. 39-59

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.3.32406

Abstract: This article examines the maps of Minsk of the late XVIII – early XIX century as the sources on social topography of the city. Socio-topographic approach in history implies combining topographic data and social research. City maps have been traditionally viewed as the sources for reconstructing urban topography. However, they often contain valuable data on population of the city, thus it is suggested viewing the maps of Minsk as the carriers of two types of information – topographic and social. Having prepared a review of twenty city maps, the author demonstrates the context of their emergence and provides brief description. The importance of city maps for reconstruction of its topography is underlined. Bases on studying the cartographic content of maps, the author reproduces the image of Minsk of the late XVIII – early XIX; determines the records on social characteristics of urban population. The meaning of cartographic sources for examination of social topography of Minsk is defined.
Ethnography and ethnology
Sokolov O. - Recitation of sacred text in rites of passage among the Muslims of Volga-Ural Region (XIX XXI centuries) pp. 60-66

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.3.32420

Abstract: The subject of this research is the rites of passage among the Muslims of Volga-Ural Region in historical perspective. Ritual practices of the Muslim population of Volga Region are of particular interest since they developed in the conditions of continuous contact with non-Muslim population, and religious was often a key factor of national self-identification. Examination of the patterns of inclusion of the sacred text fragments into Muslim rituals in Volga-Ural Region has not previously been a topic of separate research within the Russian and Western anthropology. Analysis of functionality of the sacred text in rites of passage among the Muslims of Volga Region was conducted within the framework of methodology of diachronic analysis through comparing the records from Arabographic manuscripts and modern editions of prayer books. It is underlined that the prayers presented in manuscript of the XIX century are formulaic and repetitive, consisting usually of brief repeating fragments – epithets of Allah, names of prophets and chapters Ayats. Modern prayer books contain the whole Ayats and Surahs, or citations from Hadith. Such difference can be explained by widely accessible printed literature and expansive increase in the literacy level among population of the region comparing to the XIX century. The author notes that the great majority of prayers in both types of sources are in Arab language, which emphasizes a sacred significance of Arab language in the Muslim culture.
World of ideas and world of the mundane
Nosova E.S. - The image of Greenland in Icelandic Saga tradition: to the question on formation of binary image of Home and Anti-Home pp. 67-77

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.3.32411

Abstract: Currently, the national humanities science shows particular interest in the phenomena that have been previously outside its area of expertise. These phenomena include materialistic objects, which in the context of cultural-semiotic approach turn into meaningful constants. One of such materialistic-spiritual phenomena is the concept of “home”. For Icelanders, during the period of civil war marked in history as the Age of the Sturlungs, the phenomenon of “home” undergoes substantial transformation. Forced exile from the country, loss of relationship with family, and building a new life contribute to conception and formation of the new semantic space structured on the binary image: Home – Anti-Home. Within the Icelandic Saga tradition, the image of negative home belongs of the island of Greenland, which provided an temporary shelter and reflected the overall atmosphere of forced migrants. The article is dedicated to the examination of the image of Greenland in Icelandic Saga tradition. The author reveals the key parameters of formation of the image of Greenland as an “alien” space, formed among the Icelanders who were forced to leave their country. This leads to the emergence of antithesis in Saga literature: home and homelessness. The concept of “home” is associate with Iceland and saturated with additional shades of meaning, turning into and object of reminiscence and becoming the embodiment of spiritual substance. Greenland, on the contrary, was endowed with the traits of hostile space with regards to a person.
History of political and legal doctrines
Gorban V.S. - On the development of methodology of source criticism in the area of philosophy of law pp. 78-92

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.3.32442

Abstract: This article explores the problem of development of methodological framework of source criticism in the area of history of political and legal doctrines (history of philosophy of law). Deficit of the related developments in both, national and foreign legal literature, has a highly negative effect on the quality of selection of the source research material and formulation of valid scientific conclusions that allow conducting historical-philosophical and problematic-theoretical reconstructions of legal and political ideas of the past and modernity in a proper way. The scientific novelty of this work consists in substantiation of scientific importance and possibilities of practical application of such relevant vector of legal methodology as the methodology of source criticism in the area of philosophy of law (history of political and legal doctrines), which is interpreted not only as a set of instrumental cognitive acts, but also as a combination of principles and techniques of ensuring veracity of the content, concept and purpose of legal and political ideas of the past and modernity.
History and Literature
Eylbart N.V. - Candidature of Ivan the Terrible for the throne of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Polish political pamphlets of the period of first free election (1572-1574) pp. 93-103

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.3.32474

Abstract: This article analyzes the Polish political pamphlets published during the time of first “free election” (1572-1574), the candidature of Ivan the Terrible or one of his sons was nominated for the throne of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The main goal consists in answering the question: did the Russian Tzar have a substantial number of supporters among the Polish-Lithuanian ruling elite, and did he have a chance for being elected as the king of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1573. The author applies the following methods of research: analysis, synthesis, comparison, induction, deduction, problem-chronological, historical-genetic, objectivity, and historicism. The author translates the fragments of these pamphlets, as well as introduces them into the Russian scientific discourse for the first time. The conclusion is made on the significant support of “Moscovian candidate” by the Polish public opinion, and under the certain circumstances, his great chances to be elected for the Polish-Lithuanian throne. The author refutes the thesis presented in the modern Polish historiography on “miniscule” chance of Ivan the Terrible to become the king of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
History and Ideology
Pokrovskaia D.M. - The principles of liberal internationalism in diplomatic reality of Lester B. Pearson pp. 104-112

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.3.32428

Abstract: The subject of this research is the practice of liberal internationalistic approach to foreign affairs, which form many decades is a defining factors in studying Canada’s foreign policy. The Canadian liberal internationalism emerged after the World War II, and the concept of its ideology received its development in the 1950’s being inextricably linked to the name of Lester Pearson. The object of this research is the views, ideas and main approaches of Lester Pearson, who held a post of Undersecretary of State and later Prime Minister of Canada, towards the formation of foreign policy of the country. Methodology contains the analysis of personal sources of Lester Pearson and his colleagues, public speeches, official documents of Canadian Department of Foreign Policy, as well as writings of the leading Russian and foreign scholars. The author highlights the key principles of the liberal internationalistic approach towards conducting Canada’s foreign policy, among which is the institutional approach, participation of Canada in world politics as a “medium superpower”, mediation in settlement of international disputes, peacekeeping activity and adherence to the ideas of collective security, etc. A detailed analysis is carried out on the personal views and techniques of conducting diplomacy of Lester Pearson that influences the development of the Canadian liberal internationalism.
Historical memory
Petrova O.S. - About my defiled, beloved Russia I yearn in a foreign land: revolution and civil war in reminiscences of the countess P. S. Uvarova pp. 113-120

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.3.30431

Abstract: This article examines the reflection of events of the period of civil war and intervention in the memoirs of the countess P. S. Uvarova “The Past. Long Gone Happy Days”. These reminiscences are the testimonies of a witness on people and events of the late XIX – early XX century that allow understanding the life of academic community from inside, the routine of professional historians and amateur regional ethnographers. On the other hand, the narrative about the last years in the native country allow viewing the everyday life of Uvarovs family in the conditions when the routine has been destroyed. Reference to the personal sources revealing the new pages and milestones of the phenomenon in question allows seeing it through the eyes of a person from the past, find out what was happening and what felt the author. The peculiarity of P. S. Uvarova’s memoirs consists in focusing not on the everyday minutiae that is common to women, but on the reasoning which purpose is to preserve and translate the representations on the core values of life that were relentlessly destroyed by the revolution to the future generations.
Stream of books: bibliography, reviews
Zipunnikova N., Zipunnikova Y.N. - Fate of a scholar in the fate of a country (about the book N. S. Nizhnik, S. Y. Dergileva State and Law in Theoretical-Legal Views of A. I. Elistratov: monography. M.; Yurlitinform, 2017. 376 p. as about an invitation to ponder) pp. 121-132

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.3.30535

Abstract: This article discusses a monographic study dedicated to the prominent Russian legal scholar A. I. Elistratov (1822-1955), whose life and works fell on the different historical periods, including a tragic crisis time. The authors of the monograph N. S. Nizhnik, S. Y. Dergileva characterize the intellectual biography of the scholar and his sociopolitical activity in the context of establishment of the police-legal theory within the European and national educational scientific tradition. Subsequent changes in the attitude towards legal scholar and his scientific writings that were popular in Russia prior to the October Revolution are demonstrated through the prism of transformation of state-legal, political-ideological, socioeconomic, educational-scientific customs of the national culture. An effective reconstruction of the scientific biography of A. I. Elistratov became possible due to careful attention to the heritage of national police science and Soviet science of administrative law as a whole, as well as anthropocentric scenario of the conducted research. From the standpoint of historicism and anthropological approach, the peer reviews turns attention to functionality in the culture of complex mechanisms that ensure succession of the traditions. The new monographs demonstrates the importance and research prospects of the separate storylines related to the formation of scholar’s personality and his realization of scientific-pedagogical and sociopolitical activity, for example on the foreign business trips and participation in seminars on law, work of law communities in pre-October Russia, dynamism of educational and scientific activity of the first Soviet decades.
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