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Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue є 11/2020
Contents of Issue є 11/2020
The path of the Scientist: anniversaries, milestones, an epitome
Savvinov P.O. - From political and intellectual biography of the Yakut emigrant Asklefeodot Afanasyevich Ryazansky (1898-1968) pp. 1-13

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.11.34291

Abstract: The subject of this research, dedicated to mental characteristics of the world of Yakut emigration of 1917 – 1940, is the history of Yakut emigration on the example of life of the active participant in the anti-Bolshevik movement in the northeast of Russia, who fought for the alternative path of development in the XX century and the Yakut emigrant Asklefeodot Afanasyevich Ryazansky (1898 – 1968). The object of this research is the history of Russian emigration. Historical-biographical method is applies in the course of this work. The article analyzes the adaptation of the Yakut emigrant in the context of impact of external factors in China and Australia, as well as his political views. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that the topic of Yakut emigration and “Yakut world” did not receive due coverage within the Russian historical science, although it is an important scientific problem that requires comprehensive examination on the background of Revolution of 1917 and Russian Civil war in the context of world history. The conclusion is made that along with majority of Russian emigrants of the first wave, A. A Ryazansky struggled for survival in the new conditions abroad and was able to adjust to foreign cultural environment, having become a prominent journalist in China, and later the owner of marine company in Australia. Ryazansky saw the future of his homeland (Russia) as a democratic federative state with guaranteed preservation of ethnocultural identity of the indigenous peoples of Yakutia with the possibility of receiving education.
Social history
Borodina E.V. - Convicts and exiled in Yekaterinburg in 1723 Ц late 1730s: to the question on formation of social space of the city pp. 14-26

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.11.34382

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the history of the Institution of penal servitude and exile in Ural Region in the 1720s – 1730s. The subject of this research is the convicts and exiled who arrived to Yekaterinburg during the period from 1723 to the late 1730s. Analysis is conducted on the legislation dedicated to regulation of penal labor and exile in Russia. Differences in the government policy with regards to exiled in the XVII and XVIII centuries are revealed. The author also examines the reasons of the emergence of exiled and convicts in Ural Region, dynamics of their arrival from Tobolsk and the capital regions, as well as the stance of the mining and metallurgical authorities on this social category. Historians alongside legal historians turned attention to studying penal labor and exile in Siberia, practically not comparing the situation of exiled and convicts in other Russian regions. The novelty of this work consists in studying life of the representatives of this social group in the Ural Region in the early XVIII century, which was noted for transit location, connecting  European and Asian parts of the country, and was the center of mining and metallurgical industry. Leaning on the analysis of documental sources and records, the author concludes that convicts and exiled played a role in the formation of social space of Yekaterinburg. They were well integrated into the social relations: they were allowed to own homesteads and marry, but were under permanent control of the mining and metallurgical administration.
History and Economics
Andreeva E.V. - Development trends of service industry in Yakutia in the late XIX century pp. 27-36

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.11.34453

Abstract: The object of this research is the establishment of service industry in Yakutia, while the subject is its development trends in the second half of the XIX century. Attention is focused on examination of the documents from the National Archive of Sakha Republic (Yakutia), namely content of the documents of Yakut regional administration for the period from 1850s to 1900s, reports of the town governors of the Yakut region, and comparison with the existing research on the history of Yakutia of this period. The author explore the peculiarities of service industry as a social and historical process; determine natural-climatic and historical factors impacting the development of service sector in Yakutia; review social composition of the participants, as well as headmost services in Yakutia in the late XIX century. The conclusion is made that in the late XIX century, service sector in Yakutia was at its infancy, and characterized by a contradictory tendency, which on one hand combined limitedness of the content and types of services due to immaturity of the craft, state control and initiative in this sphere; and on the other –  engaged the representatives of different social groups, set vector towards the forming consumer requests, rudiments of legal culture and civil society. The author makes an assumption that due to the historical and political development of our country, the indicated contradiction was not resolved in subsequent periods and retains certain effect on the current state and development of service sector in Yakutia. The novelty of this work consists in attraction and examination of the extensive archival material that allows broadening the knowledge on the establishment of service sector in Yakutia.
Personality in history
Skrydlov A. - A scholar-statistician and state authority in the early XIX century: on the biography of K. I. Arsenyev (1789-1865) pp. 37-47

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.11.34470

Abstract: The object of this research is the evolution of statistical science in the Russian Empire in the early XIX century. The author analyzes the peculiarities of interaction between the academic community of statisticians and state authority on the example of career trajectory of the academician K. I. Arsenyev. The research leans on the basic methods of historical science – problem-chronological for studying the time sequence of events; historical-genetic and historical-comparative analysis for determining the key stages of the scholar’s scientific biography, as well as objective and subjective factors that impacted his performance. Special attention is given to the analysis of scientific works of K. I. Arsenyev, which prompted the major statistical discussion that unfolded in pre-reform Russia during the 1818-1819. The author examines the impact of the “Professors’ Case” upon Arsenyev's future career, traces the history of his relationship with the Emperor Nicholas I, and analyzes the scholar’s role in the development of administrative statistics in Russia. In the course of this research, it was established that academic career of Arsenyev is not typical, but rather illustrative for characterizing the status of a scholar-statistician in the first half of the XIX century. The difficulties of undergoing censorship, limited access of the scholars to departmental statistical materials, and risk of being suspected in political unreliability impeded the development of statistics during the indicated period. Patronage of the emperor relieved some of these constraints for Arsenyev; thus, receiving more freedom for scientific pursuits, he achieved impressive results. Overall, the representatives of conservative part of the elite continued to view statistics as a political science, which requires deliberate attention and control of the government.
History of law and state
Pletnikov V.S. - Draft Constitution of the УThawФ period: historical-legal analysis pp. 48-65

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.11.34331

Abstract: The author discloses details of the work of the Constitutional Commission on the new Constitution of the Soviet Union in the period from 1961 to 1964. The list of members of the Constitutional Commission, persons responsible for the formation of constitutional values at the initial stage of building a communist society, and their reassignment to subcommissions is published for the first time. On the example of the activity of the subcommission on the questions of “Public administration, activities of soviets, and nongovernmental organizations”, the author describes the organizational aspects of its work and the nuances of functionality. Assessment is given to the organizing role of apparatus of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR with regards to elaboration of a number of articles for the new Constitution, through the prism of the form and content. The article leans on the materials preserved in the State Archive of the Russian Federation (Fund 7523. Register 131). The presented material is the result of summary of archival research previously not available to the broad academic community. It allows you to debunk the myths that developed after publication of some works and memoirs on the topic. The article illustrates the contribution of staff members of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and a researchers to the creation of the first constitutional framework of the establishing communist society. The author also lists the actors who made considerable contribution to the development of basic constitutional values.
Regions of the world in the global historical process
Antonov I.V. - Eastern policy of Mengu-Timur (1266-1282) pp. 66-75

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.11.34476

Abstract: The object of this research is the political history of the Ulus of Jochi as a part of the Great Mongol Empire. The subject of this is the Eastern policy of Mengu-Timur – the 6th ruler of the Ulus of Jochi (1266-1282). The author examines such aspects of the topic as the relationship of Mengu-Timur with the rulers of the uluses of Hulagu – Abaga, Chagatay – Borak, Ugedei – Kaidu, decisions made by the representatives of the uluses of Jochi, Chagatay and Ugedei in Talas Kurultai. Special attention is given to the analysis of relationship between Mengu-Timur and the ruler of the Central Ulus of Kublai, who founded the Yuan Empire. Comparative analysis is conducted on the written sources and scientific works on the topic. The sequence of events is reconstructed in chronological order. The author agrees with his predecessors that Mengu-Timur became the first sovereign ruler of the Ulus of Jochi. The scientific novelty consists in the conclusion that entitlement of Mengu-Timur as independent monarch was not a decision of Talas Kurultai. In Talas Kurultai in 1269 Kaidu was recognized as the leader of the right wing of the Mongol Empire, which included the Ulus of Jochi, Chagatay and Ugedei. The relations with the Great Khan in Kurultai were not settled, and the independence of uluses was not proclaimed. In the early 1370s, Mengu-Timur was named qayan, i.e. the supreme ruler above the khan. In 1277, Kublai's sons Numugan and Kukju were caught by the rebels, who sent them to Mengu-Timur. He did not support the rebels, but kept the son of Kublai. Since that moment, Mengu-Timur did was not subordinate to Kublai or Haidu, did not interfere into the conflict between them, restraining both of them from military clashes. Although Mengu-Timur maintained peaceful relations with other uluses, he was qayan title was not recognized.
History of science and technology
Yashchuk T. - Determination of the subject of history of state and law in Russian legal science in the late 1950s Ц early 1960s pp. 76-87

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.11.34138

Abstract: The subject of this research is analysis of the process and key approaches towards determination of the subject of history of state and law of Russia in in the late 1950s – early 1960s, considering the designation of science and academic discipline in this period as “The History of State and Law of the USSR”. The research is based on chronological, institutional, and historical-comparative methods. The chronological method allowed reconstructing representation on the subject of the science of history of state and law of the Soviet Union in historical sequence. The institutional method established the basic framework for discussion the subject of science. The historical-comparative method ensured comparison of different approaches towards understanding of the subject of science. It is determined that the initiators of determination of the subject of history of state and law were the educators of historical-legal disciplines. The author reveals and analyzes the main publications that contain records of comprehension of the subject of science. Characteristic is given to the circle of scholars dealing with the indicated problematic. The authorial approaches are discussed.  The general and peculiar comprehension of the subject of science is demonstrated. The general consists in determination of the subject based on the historical type of state and law, highlighting the significance and specificity of the Soviet state and law. The differences pertain to setting priorities in the subject of science: establishment of general patterns in evolution of state and law, or examination of particular phenomena, processes and institutions in the history of state and law. The acquires results can be applies in the history of legal science. Discourse on the subject of history of state and law that unfolded in the late 1950s – early 1960s was beneficial to the advancement of historical-legal science.
History of ethnicities, peoples, nations
Borisov A.A., Pavlova-Borisova T.V. - The image of Tygyn in Yakut culture: problems of preservation and maintenance pp. 88-105

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.11.34121

Abstract: The object of this research is the image of Tygyn in Yakut culture. The subject of this research is the factors of preservation and maintenance of the image of the medieval ruler of Yakut people – Tygyn in modern culture of Yakutia. The authors examine the characteristic of the folklore and historical image of Tygyn. It is underlined that certain archetypes continue to play an important role in Yakut culture, for example, in folklore, literature, musical art, theater it is the archetype of the ruler reelected in the image of Tygyn. The article analyzes reference to this image in modern culture on the example of Yakut cinematography. The following conclusions were made: the authors believe, that modern Yakut culture still preserves archetype of the ruler reflected in the image of Tygyn, as it forms collective spirit of solidarity of Yakut people united around the image of a powerful forefather, prominent ruler and consolidator of Yakut nation. Its active manifestation in different forms of art, for example, in recently released film “Tygyn Darkhan”, alongside its stability, is based on the fact that people of art of Yakutia often reconstruct the archetypal forms of culture in their works, believing that the preserved ethnic traditions is the immense resource for further development of art.
Mikheev D.V., Grebneva I.V. - Indigenous population of the New World in reports of the discoverers, pirates, and privateers of Elizabethan era pp. 106-115

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.11.34116

Abstract: The American continent found by the Europeans at the dawn of the Age of Discovery, immediately drawn the eye of adventurers who dreamt of fame and wealth. Special attention is turned to the representatives of England, who quite missed division of the world between the two great Catholic powers of that time – Portugal and Spain. English explorers were interested not only in natural resources of the New World, but particularly in its inhabitants. Testimonies on the First Nations were reported to Europe mainly by the Spaniards, often in an overly tendentious manner. The discoverers, pirates and privateers of Elizabethan era were interested in all details that can be useful to Europeans, such as appearance, language, culture and lifestyle of indigenous population of the New World, peculiarities of their social structure, religious attitude. The evolution of ideas and formation of image of the holds special place in the modern historical science. Review of the testimonies of English discovers, pirates and privateers who first arrived to the American continent during Elizabethan era, allows reconstructing impression on region at the early stages of its colonization, as well as tracing the peculiarities of perception of the New World in Protestant England right before the country turned into one of the world's leading colonial powers. Examination of the First Nations that inhabited the American continent not only satiated the thirst for knowledge of the English explorers, but also served as the practical purpose for seeking allies in the fight against Spaniards and Portuguese in the region. The common features of forming image of strong and kind indigenous people suffering from Spanish tyranny were aimed at consolidation of Spanish “Black Legend”, which lays the foundation for English trade and colonial expansion in the region in future years.
Issues of war and peace
Tverdyukova E.D. - Work of medical and nutritional healthcare facilities in Leningrad (January Ц April 1942) pp. 116-126

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.11.34460

Abstract: The hierarchy of food supply in besieged Leningrad is one of the most polemical questions in historiography. The subject of this research is the measures taken by the city administration during the first winter of blockade (1941-1942) aimed at maintenance of vitality of Leningraders who were highly valued for economy of the city or regarded as creative elite of the city. The goal consists in clarification of facts on the work of medical and nutritional inpatient facilities intended for persons suffering from dystrophy, including municipal inpatient facility for emaciated workers of science, technology, art and executive personnel, located the Hotel Astoria. The work of medical and nutritional inpatient facilities in the period from January to April of 1942 had not previously become the subject of separate research for national or foreign historians. The conducted research demonstrate that the establishment of such healthcare facilities was the first attempt to organize food supply for citizens suffering from dystrophy. In the conditions of severe shortage of food resources, the city administration was able to help only a limited circle of people. Working in the extreme conditions with no electricity, water, shortage of qualified medical personnel, limited food funds, medical and nutritional inpatient facilities were could not fully solve the tasks imposed on them.
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