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Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue є 11/2019
Contents of Issue є 11/2019
West - Russia - East
Mironyuk S. - Changes in the policy of rendering British aid to the White Forces of Siberia and Southern Russia in July 1919 and their causes (based on the meeting protocol of the War Cabinet of July 25, 1919) pp. 1-10

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.11.31244

Abstract: The object of this research is the changes in the policy of rendering British aid to the White Forces of Siberia and Southern Russia in July 1919 and their causes. The subject of this research is the information on these matters, contained in the meeting protocol of the British War Cabinet of July 25, 1919 and related decision. Within the framework of the question “Situation in Russia”, were comprehensively discussed the reasonableness and possibilities of rendering British aid to A. V. Kolchak’s army in Siberia and A. I. Denikin’s army in Southern Russia. The author applies narrative method of research for description of documents that have not been previously introduced into the scientific discourse by the Russian scholars. The comparative method is used for correlation of data collected from various sources. The scientific novelty consists in the comprehensive examination of the claimed topic based on the meeting protocol of the War Cabinet of July 25, 1919, as well as other newly introduced documents from the United Kingdom National Archive. The author comes to the conclusion that the escalation of social tension in British society, major defeats of A. V. Kolchak, successful offensive operations of A. I. Denikin, along with the lack of financial resources for supporting the White Forces on all fronts, led to curtailing of British aid to Kolchak’s army and increased support of Denikin’s army, since his military achievements at the moment theoretically allowed counting upon invasion of Moscow.  
Philosophy of history, historiography, chronology/source studies
Baranov E.Y. - Migration of population in Ural in the XX century: problems of modern historiography pp. 11-28

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.11.31467

Abstract: The goal of this research lies in identification of the key problems of modern historiography with regards to the history of population migration in Ural in the XX century. The author analyzes the results of study of migration history in the region, determines the range of questions within the problematic field of the research, as well as the leading vectors of research. An attempt is made to shape future prospects of research work on the topic of migrations in Ural. The relevance of the article is substantiated by the possibilities of fundamental understanding of the historical and modern trends of population migration and scientific conceptualization of the history of migrations in the XX century. The migration of population in Ural in the centenary historical retrospective have not been previously been an independent subject of historiographical analysis. The conducted study demonstrates that the scholars determined the migration, its key factors and directions; suggested the variations of periodization of the history of migration in Ural; studied the role of migrations in demographic development of the Ural regions at different historical periods. The article highlights the main problems of historiography: exodus, evacuation and re-evacuation, migration policy, “migration transition”, migrations of urban and rural population, roles of migration in urbanization processes, formation of regional population, ethnic specificities of migration. It is established that significant attention of the historians is dedicated to the study of migrations in the 1920’s – 1930’s, as well as the years of the Great Patriotic War. The research carries fragmentary character. Its prospects are associated with the detailed examination of migrations in the Ural regions, and fundamental generalization aimed at identification of patterns and mechanism of the transformation of migrations, as well as the formation of their coherent picture in Ural in the XX century.
Culture and cultures in historical context
Khatanzeiskaya E.V. - Arkhangelsk Commercial Club (MarfaТs House) as a center of European culture of the port city of Arkhangelsk of the late XIX Ц early XX centuries pp. 29-39

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.11.31508

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the Arkhangelsk Commercial Club (Marfa’s House) – a cultural center of the port city during the late XIX – early XX centuries. The author traces the fates of the representatives of Western European dynasties of merchants and tradesmen who dwelled in the port city for several centuries and were subjected to repressions during the World War I and Soviet time. Currently, one of the paramount tasks of scientific community consists in the preservation of memory on the activity of the prominent people of the past, as not only the region, but also the country as a whole owes them for development of economy, culture, science, systems of state administration, education, and a number of other spheres of life. The theoretical-methodological framework for the research became the set of methods of new anthropologically-oriented branches of historical science, generalized by the concept of “historical anthropology”, which allowed shifting the point of attention from history of government structures towards life of households and separate individuals. The experience of working with cognate disciplines – such as historical sociology and sociology of everyday life became useful, especially when working sources of personal origin. The article employs modern methodology and introduces into the scientific discourse documents discovered by the author in the State Archive of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Archive of the Arkhangelsk Regional Museum of Local Lore, as well as biographical records on the representatives of the prominent Arkhangelsk merchant dynasties – families Leuzinger and Petz from the personal archives of the descendants.
History of law and state
Gigauri D.I., Korovin K.S. - Revolutionary myth of Уproletarian dictatorshipФ in the Soviet constitutional doctrine of 1918 and visual communication pp. 40-57

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.11.31215

Abstract: This article is dedicated to representation of the myth of “proletarian dictatorship” in the Soviet constitutionalism. Having emerged in the XIX century, this mythologem experienced certain transformations as a result of targeted work of the party leaders, legal experts and scholars on creating the first Soviet constitution. Later, its ideological content received normative consolidation in legislation. A symbolic reflection of revolutionary myth became the national holidays, demonstrations, cinematography and theatre, banners and other cultural phenomena that contributed to formation of the new civil consciousness. The authors trace the origin of the concept of “proletarian dictatorship”, as well as its further evolution in Lenin’s doctrine on the state. The description of symbolic practices of representation of ideological framework of the Soviet revolutionary regime allows demonstrating the practical implementation of the new type of constitutionalism – the Soviet. The article substantiates the gradual arrangement of the idea of “proletarian dictatorship” as a fundamental myth of the early Soviet State, as well as examines its visual and communicative aspects. The novelty of this historical-legal research is defined by the use of interdisciplinary approach and comprehensive analysis of the Soviet national ideology. The conclusion is made that the legal ideas contained in the Soviet constitutional doctrine proliferate and reproduce through large-scale cultural manifestations that create revolutionary institutions and examples of civil behavior. At the same time, the myth of “proletarian dictatorship” serves as distinct cultural foundation for the new political legal regime that expresses the essence of the Soviet constitutionalism.
History of regions of Russia
Asochakova V.N., Turezhanova S.A. - On prerequisites of the emergence of intelligentsia (XVIII-XIX centuries) pp. 58-64

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.11.31100

Abstract: The subject of this research is the lower layer of church intelligentsia – parish clergy. The goal of this article is the characteristics of parish priests as one of the elements of cultural-historical and social prerequisites of the formation of national intelligentsia of Khakassia. The authors analyze the origin, level of education, and quantitative indicators of parish clergy in the Khakass-Minusinsk region during the XVIII-XIX centuries – one of the national regions of Southern Siberia. The research is conducted within the framework of the concept accordant to which the church intelligentsia is divided into three layers: higher (administration), middle (teachers), and lowee (parish). The conclusion is made that parish clergy in the region formed a bit later than in other parts of Siberia. Throughout the entire period, the segment of clergy has reduced despite the growth of Orthodox population. The low level of education, lack of personnel, nepotism and heredity of positions in the XVIII-XIX centuries led to the low level of professional qualification of the clergy. The cultural and historical prerequisites of the emergence of intelligentsia in Khakassia were not fully developed until the end of the XIX century.
Yunina E.A. - Military daily life of 1941-1945 in epistolary documents of the Siberian combatants pp. 65-100

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.11.30885

Abstract: Through the analysis of epistolary documents, the author determines the information component of letters and perception of war by the Siberian combatants: weekdays and holidays in the field, adaptation behavioral strategies, emotional state, and transformation of mindset. The work is based on application of the techniques of military psychology, history of everyday life, historical-anthropological approach and text analysis. The sphere of personal human experiences are analyzed in the context of extreme conditions for the first time. The novelty of this work is defined by introducing into the scientific discourse of a complex of epistolary documents from the family archives of Tobolsk residents, which have not been previously subjected to scientific analysis. The specificity of communicative process, generation of information, emotional coloring of epistles directly depended on situational factors and addressing of correspondence; receiving a letter became the key event within the realm of daily life in the front. The attributes of soldierly letters contained consolation of relatives, recommendations on maintaining the household in case of death of the combatants, description of life in the field, recreation culture. In the atmosphere of potential danger to life, took place the process of reassessment of the fundamental human values, formation of views on the nature of war, personal aspects of its perception. These problems were solved based on the level of education, professional and social affiliation, intellectual capabilities of the addressers. The adjustment to military reality was accompanied by the negative form of stress, development of the habit to extreme existence. The form of written communication allowed realizing intra-familial socio-demographic role common to the traditional binary gender system. The distinct peculiarity of Tobolsk soldier consisted in understanding of spiritual connection with birthplace; the sense of compatriotism became much stronger.
World history: Eras and seasons
Bershov V.N. - Final stage of the struggle for independence of Syria: international discussion on evacuation of foreign troops (1945-1946) pp. 101-112

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.11.31200

Abstract: The subject of this research is the final stage of the struggle for independence of Syria (1945-1946). The article explores the “Anglo-French Agreement on Near East” of December 13, 1945, as well as the response of Syrian society to its conclusion. The author reviews the discussion in the United Nations Security Council  that took place on February 14-16, 1946 regarding the question of evacuation of foreign troops from the territory of Levant , as well as the results of decisions accepted in the UN Security Council that affected the attainment of independence of Syria. Moreover, the article analyzes the final stage of negotiations between Syrian, British and French governments, which led to evacuation of foreign troops from Syria on April 17, 1946. This event resumed the result of French mandate control in the country. The conclusion is made that the “Anglo-French Agreement on Near East” of December 13, 1945 became a breakthrough moment in the struggle of Syrian nation for independence. After it has been signed, the protest movement in Syrian cities reached its heights, forcing the government of Levant to propose it for consideration in the UN Security Council regarding the evacuation of foreign troops on February 14-16, 1946. Although no resolution has been adopted, the question received an international resonance. Under the international pressure, Britain and France had to withdraw their troops in April 1946. This marked another – Syrian – chapter of decolonization of Asian countries. The mandate system was left behind.
History and historical science
Veselova I. - Francisco Javier Clavijero (1731-1787) and the Society of Jesus: the impact of order upon life and works of the New Spanish historian pp. 113-123

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.11.31327

Abstract: Francisco Javier Clavijero is a New Spanish historian, philosopher and a member of the Jesuit order. His most famous work became the “Ancient History of Mexico” published in Cesena in 1780-1781. Clavijero wrote it during his stay in Italy after the expulsion of Jesuits from Spain and its overseas colonies in 1767. The article examines Clavijero’s activity within the framework of his religious career as a member of the Society of Jesus. Based on the analysis of archival and published sources, the author determines the milestones in establishment and development of the New Spanish historian as a member of one of the most influential Catholic monastic orders. The Society of Jesus played the pivotal role in life and creative path of Francisco Javier Clavijero. The atmosphere, prevailing in the Jesuit collegiums in the middle of the XVIII century, contributed to the development of philosophical and scientific knowledge. In virtue of joining the order, Clavijero met the prominent contemporaries and took a great interest in studying the history of pre-Columbian civilizations. Even despite the uneasy relations with the primates, Clavijero remained entirely faithful to the order, for which he permanently left New Spain.
History and Ideology
Vorontsova I.V. - Anton Vladimirovich Kartashev as a publicist and social activist of the early XX century: analytical review of articles in the УRussian WordФ (1911-1913) pp. 124-133

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.11.31098

Abstract: This article is a sequence of publications on the role of Anton Vladimirovich Kartashev in religious movement for the Russian church reform of the XX century. The subject of this research is his journalistic activity during the 1911-1913. After participating in the Petersburg religious-philosophical gatherings, Kartashev joined the intelligentsia movement for the church reform; tried his hand at journalism; and picked the topic “Russian Church and Modernity” to write about for the liberal “Russian Word”. Observing Kartashev’s publicistic writing the author underlines his role as a social activist in the movement for church reform. For studying the systemic approach of A. Karthashev towards the problem of church reform in Russia, the author applies the historical method allowing to correlatie the evens of the history of Russian Church, crisis stage of religious movement and response in Kartashev’s publicistic writings. The period from 1911 to 1913 is one of the insufficiently studied periods in social activity of the future Minister of Religious Confessions of the Provisional Government and the last last Ober-Procurator of the Most Holy Governing Synod of the Orthodox Church in Russia (1917). The content of his works during this period were not viewed in the context of the upcoming church reform. However, it demonstrated Kartashev’s ideas on what impeded the Russian Church in becoming the center of historical-cultural and economic modernization of Russia.
History and Politics
Sushkov A.V., Bedel A.E., P'yankov S.A. - УThis is according to Soviet law, but we are in Tagil!Ф: corruption practices in Middle Ural during the 1930Тs pp. 134-147

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.11.31222

Abstract: The subject of this research is the corruption practices of the party leaders and economic officials during the Soviet industrialization of the 1930’s. Based on the documents of party control agencies, the author examines the factors of misappropriation of financial and materials resources for personal gain. Relevance of this study is substantiated by the possibility of deeper understanding of the causes of repressions of the 1930’s with regards to regional authorities and economic officials. The newly introduced into the scientific discourse historical sources allow clarifying the records on the factors contributing to backlog in construction of a number of large industrial enterprise, housing accommodations for workers, and public amenities in one of the largest industrial centers of the Sovier Union. The application of descriptive method allowed demonstrating the details of corruption relationships between the party leaders administration of a number of industrial enterprises. Historical-genetic method helped to reconstruct and specify the circumstances of failure in construction of a series of industrial objects and determine the causes that led to severe financial and living conditions of the employees of the large industrial construction sites in Nizhny Tagil during the period of industrialization. The novelty consists in conducting the first in history special scientific research dedicated to the corruption relations between party nomenclature and economic officials during industrialization of the Ural region in 1930’s. The conclusion is made that corruption actions of the economic officials and party leaders negatively affected the implementation of plans for industrial development. Their unlawful activity not only inflicted an immense damage, but also worsened the financial and living conditions of the employees and engineering and technical personnel.
History and Economics
Sapuntsov A.L. - Settler colonialism during the quasi-state period of the activity of HudsonТs Bay Company (1670-1870) pp. 148-157

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.11.31189

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the colonial activity of Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC) founded in 1670 by the British for exploitation of fur in North America and conducting geographical surveying un the Northwestern region. The author sets a goal to determine the forms of organization of the European colonial settlements and peculiarities of their cooperation with the Native Americans in HBC trade operations. It is also important to ascertain the reasons for conducting reforms prior to monopolization of HBC in the fur market, as well as within the system of colonial control. The research material contains the colonization theories, archival materials of HBC, travelers’ testimonies, and analysis of the relevant legal documents. The author also applies the methods of cognitive dialectics, historical objectivism, and comparison of multifaceted sources in the context of socio-philosophical observation. The conclusion is made on the dominance of enclave topology in the colonial activity of Hudson’s Bay Company, when the European settlers resided mostly in coastal areas (forts and trading posts), as well as practices exploitative approaches towards relations with the Native Americans. However, the latter got an opportunity to sell beaver pelts to the Europeans through monetary exchange and unqualified labor. After taking over the French competitors, HBC transformed into a quasi-state, incorporating privately operated enterprise with colonial administration. The conclusion is made that the escalated discontent of the British Crown with usurpation of administrative power and business in Hudson’s Bay Company along with its engagement in monopolization of the market, led to disassembling of the aforementioned colonization model in 1870; the power was partially delegated the Canadian government.
Shumkin G.N., Zubkov K.I. - Timber УfrontierФ of metallurgical Ural: development strategy of charcoal metallurgy of the region in the late XIX Ц early XX century pp. 158-169

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.11.31111

Abstract: The subject of this research is the projects for colonization of forest of Western Siberia by the Ural metallurgical industry in the late XIX – early XX centuries. During the 1890’s, Ural metallurgy was experiencing the shortage of charcoal, which was the main type of fuel for iron production. As the means for overcoming such problem, the expert community started discussing the strategies of supplying metallurgical plants with charcoal from the forests of Western Siberia, which had to be transported by railways. The projects found their implementation through Tavdinskaya Railroad, which was put into operation during the World War I. The concept of “frontier modernization” serves as the methodological foundation for this research. Applicable to the topic at hand, “frontier modernization” consisted in the attempts to retain the specialty profile of Ural metallurgy and its conventional energy by forming at borders of metallurgical Ural of the new development, but with implementation of new technological solution. This work is first within historiography to provide a comprehensive analysis of the projects on colonization of forests of Western Siberia by the Ural metallurgical industry. The conclusion is made that although the project was implemented, it did not produce the results forecasted by the expert community, namely the creation of free charcoal market and decline of circuit system, as it was implemented too late- in 1917. In the context of profound changed in the principles of organization of Ural metallurgical industry in 1920’s, this project was no longer economically viable.
Traditions, innovations, adoption of ideas
Fugina O. - Manifestation of attributes of American culture in the works of George Balanchine pp. 170-180

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.11.31262

Abstract: The object of this research is the works of the Russian-American ballet master George Balanchine, viewed through the prism of dominant features of American culture, which in turn, were determined and formulated by the author (duality, permanent transformation, strive for innovation, American communicative behavior, “special” treatment of women, mass culture). In the course of this study, the author analyzes the cultural phenomena and processes common to the American society, as well as assesses the level of Balanchine’s integration into American culture as a creative individual and generator of ideas. The novelty of this research lies in the first ever culturological analysis of the work of George Balanchine; previously, his heritage was viewed from the perspective of art or ballet studies. It is concluded that despite the 50-year stay of George Balanchine in the United States, the nature of his creative thought remained Russian, while the means of realization leant on the American reality. Therefore, namely such cultural diffusion generated the new ballet aesthetics – neoclassical, which became traditional for the American ballet theatre. The conducted analysis allows to more profoundly understand Balanchine’s ballet heritage by the theoreticians and practitioners of ballet.  
Archeology
Nikolaev E.N. - Kuogastaakh: a new landmark of iron-smelting production in Tyung River Valley of Verkhnevilyuysk district of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) pp. 181-190

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.11.31345

Abstract: The subject of this study is the metallurgy of the Yakuts. The article provides the research results of iron-making factory, discovered during the survey of slag clusters in Kentinsky Nasleg of Verkhnevilyuysky District of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). Kentinsky Nasleg is considered one of the centers of the traditional Yakut metallurgy and blacksmithing. Accessible sources of crude ore and lumber contributed to the formation of the unique center of metallurgy, which products were widely known far beyond it. Attention is given to the various aspects of iron production. Metallurgy of the Yakuts is viewed from the perspective of ethnoarcheology. Archeological testimonies are compared to ethnographic data and historical records on iron production. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that this article is dedicated to virtually unstudied topic such as iron-making industry of the Yakuts, The new sources on the subject are introduced into the scientific discourse; their comprehensive analysis is conducted. Based on the used archeological, ethnographic and historical sources, the author attempts to interpret the testimonies of iron-making industry discovered in Kuogastaakh locality of Verkhnevilyuysky District of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia).
Syrovatskiy V.V. - Isolated burial Maganskoye cemetery (XVII century) in Central Yakutia pp. 191-199

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.11.31309

Abstract: The main goal of this research is the interpretation of burial materials Maganskoye cemetery, explored by the Srednelensky squad of archeological expedition Institute for Humanitarian Research and North Indigenous Peoples Problems of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the city of Yakutsk. The object of this research is the burial rite of Late Medieval population of Central Yakutia. The subject of this research is the isolated burial Maganskoye cemetery. The full review is conducted on location of the memorial, intra-burial construct and subjects of auxiliary inventory. Special attention is given to determination of social status of the buried based on comparative analysis with other memorials of the region under consideration. Interdisciplinary approach is used in the course of the research, Archeological data are juxtaposed to the ethnographic records and folklore sources. The novelty consists in peculiarities of the burial rite, which is considered deviant. The damages found on the bones of the deceased, as well as the folklore sources, allow interpreting the memorial as a reflection in archeological source of the warrior sacrificial offerings in the medieval Yakut society. The research results may serve as a theoretical foundation for further reconstructions dedicated to studying burial rite of the Ancient Yakuts.
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