Ёлектронный журнал Genesis: исторические исследовани€ - є10 за 2019 г - —одержание, список статей. ISSN: 2409-868X - »здательство NotaBene
Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue є 10/2019
Contents of Issue є 10/2019
History of science and technology
Yashina A.V. - Science as an instrument of the Soviet state building during the 1920Тs Ц 1930Тs pp. 1-9


Abstract: Within the framework of this article, the author analyzes the state of national science and society during the period of drastic transformations of the 1920’s – 1930’s. Examination of problems of the history of science along with its impact upon the transformation of socio0cultiral and economic context, interaction between the scholars and government during the pivotal period of the Russian history, allows rationalizing the existing strategies for the new scientific and social breakthroughs. The author describes the main features of transformation of the organization of science in Russia during the period under consideration, as well as analyzes “science” through the prism of social design. The research leans on the theories, data and methods in the context of historical, philosophical, anthropological, politological and sociological studies of science, technologies and engineering. The conclusion is made that the Soviet government that perceived science as the major driving force of not only of economic, but also social and political progress, established new requirements to the academic community and adjusted the conditions of its existence and functioning, which allowed the authorities to ensure the essential foundation for the economic development and social changes. The early Soviet period was characterized not only by the emergence of the new institutional form for the science, but also mobilization of the country’s scientific potential, experimental and, at times, revolutionary scientific projects. At the same time, excessive indoctrination of science, repressive and utilitarian nature of government turned science into the mechanism for implementation of their political objectives “here and now”, rather than the institution of the development of knowledge.
Historical time and space
Kozlova S.A. - Historical-geographical peculiarities of the formation of Old Believer population (Semeiskie communities) in Zabaykalsky Krai pp. 10-20


Abstract: The object of this research is the Old Believer (Semeiskie) local communities of Zavaykalsky Krai. The subject of this research is the historical-geographical prerequisites of the formation of Old Believer communities in Zabaykalsky Krai. The comparative analysis of economic management in the different historical regions inhabited by Old Believers is carried out. The Semeiskie resided in the basins of Chikoy, Khilok and Selenga Rivers, and are a part of buffer zone of the Baikal natural site. The natural-geographical and ethno-social environment of Zabaykalsky Krai significantly differed from habitual to the Old Believer population circumstances and encouraged the emergence of the new strategies of natural resource management, life sustenance and communication with the social world. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that the traditional natural resource management of the Semeiskie for the first time is viewed as the historically established, long-term and ecologically balanced use of resources suggesting the possibility of their restoration. It determines preservation of cultural image of the Semeiskie and their uniqueness. Alongside the development of the traditional economic management in the Semeiskie local communities, has evolved the ethics of natural resource management, which encompasses valuing natural resources and religious-cultural specificity. Since the Old Believers settled down in the western part of Zabaykalsky Krai, the two types of live sustaining systems have been formed; they differ in the transport-geographical position, landscape and resource base. The first type is agricultural, while the second is agricultural taiga-hunting.
History of law and state
Sheptalin A.A. - Genesis and establishment of the institution of inheritance in primitive clan society pp. 21-37


Abstract: The subject of this research is the set of factors and peculiarities of the emergence of institution of inheritance and its establishment in the late-clan community. The goal of this article lies in the attempt of approximate reconstruction of genesis and establishment of the institution of inheritance in primeval society at the stage of emergence and institutionalization of private property. The research objectives lies in determination of the key stages of genesis of the institution of inheritance; as well as in review of the types, forms, principles, limitations, heirs, economic and cultural specificity, and normative status of heritable property. Methodology is based on the concept of multilinear neoevolutionism that allows usage and generalization of ethnological materials on primitive societies for the purpose of reconstruction of preliterate past. The author introduces ethnological materials of the XVIII – early XX centuries that describe synpolite primitive tribes that retained a centuries-old way of life and were never exposed to a direct influence of civilization. The conducted research is highly relevant, since genesis of the institution of inheritance has not previously become the subject of particular consideration within the Russian legal science. The author examines the multi-stage evolution of the institute of inheritance on the examples of tribes of the various economic and cultural types and levels. In the context of emergence and development of the institution of matrimonial law, the article demonstrates the formation of two types of inheritance within the late-clan community: by law and by will. The first type suggest matrilineal transfer of the right of use of collective property to the immediate cognate relatives, as well as patrilineal transfer of intangible goods – privileges, posts, statuses, etc. The second type was applied to acquisition of private property, and made a difficult path of institutionalization and stage-by-stage expansion of the power of testation.
Ul'yanov M.V. - State of criminology at the turn of the 1920Тs Ц 1930Тs pp. 38-46


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the circumstances that directly affected the change of character of criminological research during the early 1930’s. Special attention is paid to the substantial contradictions between the representatives of the People's Commissariat for Justice and People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (NKVD). The interministerial opposition also reflected in criticism of the work of the criminological establishments that were under the jurisdiction of NKVD. The paramount importance belonged to the dispute on studying criminal activity in USSR, organized in 1929 by the sector of state and law of the Communist Academy after publication of the article by S. Y. Bulatov “The Revival of Lombroso in the Soviet Criminology”. The conclusion is made that the changes that took place at the turn of the 1930’s in the field of studying criminal activity, were substantiated by a set of various circumstances, including rival for the leadership in the law enforcement system and dominance of different government agencies in the ideological sphere of society.
Zagorodnyuk N.I. - The peculiarities of organization of cultural and educational activity in Tobolsk special detention center (1924-1929) pp. 47-60


Abstract: The subject of this research is the cultural and educational work in Tobolsk special detention center (detention facility for political prisoners) during the 1920’s. The objectives and content are determine by the Penal Code of 1924. The organization of curricular and extracurricular activity in the extreme conditions of incarceration has its own peculiarities, associated with multiple factors: number of prisoners, incarceration conditions, material resources, qualified teaching staff, theatre administration, etc. The article explores the questions of organization of schools, libraries, educational, professional, literary, music, theatre groups, and prison theatre. History of this penitentiary facility is not fully covered in the modern historiography. Precepts of the Penal Code of 1924 pertaining to organization of cultural and educational work has not become the subject of special research. The administration of detention facility for political prisoners observed the formal aspect of the problem: created an educational-custodial division, opened a school, library, various interest groups, maintained a theatre, published a newspaper. Similar to other prisons in the country, the results of work were negatively affected by the weak resource base, lack of financing, teaching personnel and specially trained instructor for the professional training of prisoners. The extreme incarceration conditions required the development of new approaches and methods for accomplishing set objectives.
History of regions of Russia
Akberdeeva D.I. - Everyday life of political prisoners of Tobolsk Governorate in the early XX century pp. 61-77


Abstract: The subject of this research is the everyday life of political prisoners of Tobolsk Governorate in the extreme conditions of isolation, including routine and behavioral aspects. Everyday life is characterized with routineness and repetitiveness. In the conditions restriction of practically all spheres of life and total control of prison authorities, the political captives were forced to adjust to the unnatural circumstances and constantly search for the ways of physical and psychical survival. The author examines the following questions: living and sanitary-hygienic conditions of incarceration of political prisoners, daily schedule, arrangement of free time, regime changes affected by various factors, struggle of prisoners against toughening of regime, application of disciplinary sanctions and interpersonal relations among them. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that the author is first to characterize the routine of political prisoners of Tobolsk Governorate in the context of extreme conditions of everyday life, which allows to get having a new perspective on the events taking place in the region during the late-imperial period. It is concluded that separate categories of political prisoners had a number of privileges if compared to criminal offenders. The majority of penitentiary facilities of Tobolsk Governorate were characterized by overcrowding and anti-sanitary state of prison wards, insufficient supply of food, clothes and footgear. To a large extent, the conditions depended on country’s domestic political situation, policy of prisoner authorities, peculiarities of adaptation of political prisoners to extreme conditions, and their commitment to achieving goals.
Aksarin V.V. - Agrarian reforms in Tobolsk (Tyumen) Governorate during the period of military-communist experiment (1918-1921) pp. 78-91


Abstract: The object of this research is the policy of “war communism” conducted during the escalated military-political crises by the central and local government authorities in Soviet Russia. The subject of this research is the agrarian reforms executed by the Soviet authorities in the territory of Tobolsk (Tyumen) Governorate during the time of Civil War (1918-1921). Leaning on the documentary materials of Tobolsk State Archive, the author meticulously examines such aspects of the topic as the implementation of food policy of requisitioning of agricultural products, creation of Committees of Poor Peasants , and exemption of “excess” from the population. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that based on the newly introduced into the scientific discourse archival materials and a number of other sources, the author analyzes agrarian reforms conducted in Tobolsk (Tyumen) Governorate during the period of military-communist experiment, reflected in the policy of requisitioning of agricultural products, creation of Committees of Poor Peasants  and exemption of agricultural “surplus” from the population.  The author believes that increase of administrative control over requisitioning of agricultural products along with tightening of food policy led to a more severe crisis among rural population of the governorate. In the conditions of socioeconomic and political crisis caused by the Civil War and frequent change power, the measures taken by the local authorities delayed and had certain peculiarities. The conclusion is made on the egregious excesses that carried anti-peasant character and drastic consequences of the reforms for the residents of governorate.
History and Ideology
Sidorchuk I.V. - Historical memory for the limitrophe state: policy with regards to medieval Lithuania during the post-Stalin period pp. 92-97


Abstract: The subject of this research is the policy in the field of historical memory during the period of late Stalinism explored on the example of medieval history of Lithuania. Having referred to an extensive range of published and archival sources, the author analyzes the factors and transformation character of historiographical paradigms in studying the history of relationship of the two nations and countries. Special attention is given to the examination of specificity of state order that required mandatory refusal from the Lithuania’s image as a historical enemy and adversary of Russia. The conclusion is made that the policy in the area of historical memory in the postwar Lithuania represented a fusion of imperial and Marxist heritage, which formed a unique and controversial image of the country’s past, called to revise historical memory of the citizens of Soviet Lithuania. This concept viewed the coexistence of Russians and Lithuanians within the boundaries of a single, Moscow State, as natural and necessary in the context of constant threat from the West. The idea of friendship of two nations aligned with the perception that the Russian territories have always been on a significantly higher level of development of social relations. The decisive role of Russian territories in the fight against the major external enemies of Lithuanians – German knight, merchants and Catholicism, was consistently emphasized.  
Pererva E.V., Kapinus Y.O. - Injuries among the population of timber-grave time of Volga Region (based on anthropological materials of III and IV Krasnosamarsky gravesites) pp. 98-108


Abstract:   The bone relics of 103 individuals from the burial sites Krasnosamarsky III and IV served as the material for this research. Archeological complexes Krasnosamarsky III and IV are located in territory of Kinelsky municipal districts of Samara Region. The explored bone relics belong to the timber-grave culture of Bronze Age; out of 103 individuals, there were 21 skeletons of men, 15 of women, 63 of children and 3 of teenagers. In the course of working with anthropological material, the authors applied the standard program for assessing pathological occurrences on the bones of postcranial skeleton and skull, developed by A. P. Buzhilova (1995, 1998). The injury rate among the population buried in the mounds of III and IV Krasnosamarsky gravesites was factored by frequency of the records of injuries on the skull and bones of postcranial skeleton. Usage of the method of recording pathologies on the human bone relics, as the foundation for conducting reconstruction of lifestyle of the ancient societies, gains population in the modern historical and biological science in Russia and abroad. Most frequently identified pathologies in exploring anthropological collections are injuries and deformations of different etiology on the scull, dentition, and bones of postcranial skeleton. The goal of this research consists in the analysis and assessment of the nature of injuries discovered in the bone relics of population buried in the mounds of III and IV Krasnosamarsky gravesites, dating back to the Late Bronze Age  
Bravina R., Prokopeva A.N., Petrov D.M., Syrovatskiy V.V. - Cremation rites At Batyran III and Kuuduk III in Erkeeni Valley of the upper Lena River (XIV Ц XVIII centuries) pp. 109-123


Abstract: The traditional Yakut culture preserved the rituals rooted in the Ancient Turkic era of Southern Siberia. Particular interest arouses the burial rite of Yakut people, among which was cremation of the deceased. In legends, this ritual is associated to the ancient tribe Kyrgys that lived well ahead of the arrival of the ancestors of Yakut people to the middle Lena River – Omogoya and Ellyaya. Noteworthy is that accordant to the Chinese manuscripts, this ritual is also known among ancient Turkic and Yenisei Kyrgyz people. Records on the existence of isolated instances of cremation of the deceased among Yakut people of the northern suburbs occur all the way until ethnographic modernity. The article applies the authentic historical sources, as well as the interdisciplinary research data in the field of forensic medicine, ethnography and folklore, which allow examining the materials on both, historiographical and interpretational levels. The goal of this work lies in the description and analysis of cremation rite and burial objects At Batyran III and Kuuduk III in the XIV – XVIII centuries, discovered and explored in one of the three valleys of middle Lena River – Erkeeni. The author assumes that at the end of first millennium AD, some part of Yenisei Kyrgyz people arrived to the territories of Lena River, and having gradually adjusted to the local environment, became a part of the forming Yakut nation.
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