Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue 01/2019
Contents of Issue 01/2019
History of regions of Russia
Baranov E.Y. - Peasantry, social transformations and famine in the USSR during the early 1930s (on the materials of Ural Region) pp. 1-16

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.1.28498

Abstract: The goal of this research is to determine the changes in social behavior of peasantry in the conditions of escalation of the food problem and famine during the 1928-1934 (on the materials of Ural Region and Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic). The author examines the factors and behavioral characteristics, giving special attention of the analysis of evolution in the actions of Ural peasants as the situation worsened. The relevance of this work is substantiated by the attempts to have a more detailed perspective on the scale of social disruption in the agrarian sphere and rural community in the USSR during the 1930’s. The descriptive method allows characterizing the changes in peasants’ behavior in terms of worsening of the food situation. The historical-genetic method allows viewing the changes in peasants’ actions at the initial stages and escalation of famine, determine the cause and effect links between the growing food crisis and changes in behavior of the rural population. The scientific novelty consists in conducting a special research on the social behavior of Ural peasantry in the conditions of famine in the early 1930’s, which has not previously become an independent subject of study. It is demonstrated that initial cause of peasants’ protest was the procurements, and then the focus shifted towards the indignation over famine. During the 1932-1933, the collective demonstrations, escape to cities, and looting were mostly justified by filling their need in food. Escalation of famine also led to manifestation of social deviations. In 1933, the rise in mortality created a threat to reproduction of the rural population, which in the Ural Region was more evident than in Bashkir ASSR.
Tatarnikova A.I. - Populated localities in Tobolsk Province: administrative and unauthorized ways of formation and peculiarities of development in the late XIX early XX centuries pp. 17-27

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.1.28630

Abstract: The subject of this research is the populated localities in Tobolsk Province formed over the late XIX – early XX centuries by the government authorities or by the initiative of rural population without authorization. The article analyzes the actions of central and local authorities with regards to newly emerged “unplanned” settlements and their further development; gives comparative characteristics to the size of populated localities formed either by the administration or on the authority of peasants; analyzes their economic and sociocultural infrastructure. The article is structure on the bases of the “List of populated localities” of Tobolsk Province of 1868/1869, 1893, 1903, and 1912; reports of economic department of the Administration of Public Property on the unauthorized formation of settlements in Tobolsk Province; materials of the local periodical press pertinent to separate populated localities and their functioning. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that this article is first to reveal and compare the peculiarities of formation and development of settlements that appeared as a result of actions of the local administration or upon the initiative of population. The conclusion is made on the strengthening of administrative control over the newly emerged populated localities, policy tightening with regards to settlements formed without authorization, significant underrun of the latter by the level of social development. The settlements formed upon the initiative of population were characterized by their small size, weak infrastructure, and shorter existence.
Evolution, reform, revolution
Ovchinnikov V.M. - Peculiarities of establishment of the French Officer Corps during the Great Century (1589-1715) pp. 28-40

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.1.26599

Abstract: The object of this research is French of the early Modern Age, while the subject is the examination of the establishment and development of the French Officer Corps during the period of highest military activity of the kingdom associated with the ruling of Louis XIV. The article demonstrates the practice of using of military mechanism by the Sun King for strengthening his power in the context of further advancement of absolutism as the military-political concept, which relates to the active instrumentalization of the ancient, namely Roman legacy, required by the realities of such global process as the “European military revolution”. The author states that throughout the XVII century in France has formed a relatively stable military hierarchy, which became the model for the development of officer corps of the various European countries. A significant role was played by the table of ranks (Ordre du tableau) introduced in 1675 upon the initiative of Louvois, which was skeptically assessed by the Duke of Saint-Simon. It illustrates the active instrumentalization of the Roman military and political practices that defined the transformation of absolutism into the highly ideology-driven and complicatedly structured military-political doctrine, which carved out its place in the history of European civilization.
History of law and state
Pastushenko A.A. - Criminal liability for unlawful use of budget funds in accordance with the Russian Penal Code of 1845 pp. 41-46

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.1.26678

Abstract: The subject of this research is the questions of criminal liability in accordance with the Russian Penal Code of 1845 for violations, the object of which is the social relations established in terms of the use of budget funds. The author comprehensively analyzes the Penal Code of 1845 for determining regulations that form the mechanism of legal protection of budget funds, particularly from the infringement of public officials, as well as conducts their systemic research and comparison. In the course of this study, the following methods were applied: historical-legal, comparative-historical, comparative-legal, formal-logical and systemic. The specific characteristics of such criminal law standards are described. The conclusion is made on the presence in the Russian Penal Code of 1845 of the ramified system of penal prohibitions in the financial-budgetary sphere. The author concludes on the possibility of use of the separate regulation of Penal Code of 1845 in the current criminal law of the Russian Federation.
World history: Eras and seasons
Bogatenko R.V. - Anglo-Italian relations during the period from October 1938 to January 1939 pp. 47-62

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.1.28702

Abstract: This article examines the paramount stage of Anglo-Italian relations during the post-Munich period. Particular attention is given to the problem of possible “separation” of fascist Italy from the axis powers due to concessions on the part of the European countries. The author analyzes the various approaches of the Prime Minister of Great Britain Neville Chamberlain and the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs 1st Earl of Halifax regarding the scale of such concessions. Focus is also made on the “Roman” negotiations between Chamberlain and Mussolini that had to determine Italy’s attitude towards Great Britain. The scientific novelty lies in referring to the diverse layer of publishes sources of various countries (diplomatic documents, British parliamentary sessions, notes from the sessions of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom). The main conclusion of the conducted research is that as a result of defeating the aforementioned negotiations, Italy is being irrevocably involved into the foreign policy orbit of fascist Germany.
Culture and cultures in historical context
Lepeshkina L. - Animalistic and ornitomorphic symbols in traditional rituals of the peoples of Volga Region (XVII-XXI centuries) pp. 63-70

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.1.28587

Abstract: The subject of this research is the animalistic and ornitomorphic symbols in traditional customs of the peoples of Volga Region (XVII-XXI centuries) and their functional purpose. The goal of this article is the analysis of the most typical and popular symbolic embodiments of animals and birds in the regional culture, determination of their role in the conceptual content of ritualism the Volga Region natives. The scientific novelty consists in perception of these symbols as the manifestation of the will to live and way of protection from nothingness. The empirical foundation for this publication became the historical sources from the regional archives, works of the travelers and ethnographers, field materials of the author. The research leans on the systemic approach that allows identifying the most consistent animalistic and ornitomorphic symbols in culture of the Volga Region. A conclusion is made that the presence of the images of birds and animals in various rituals can testify to the primeval fears of human being, when he his dependence on nature. Experiences. Historically, the animalistic and ornitomorphic symbols in culture of the Volga Region contributed to strengthening of interethnic relations and ensured interaction between the real and sacred worlds. Belief in the other, sacred being offered hope for the eternal human existence, while the birds and animals were the key of such existence due to their power, cunning and endurance. The research material can be valuable for anthropologists and historians, educators and students of humanitarian disciplines.
Social history
Pryadko I.P. - Political-ideological and religious contradictions of the era of Ivan the Terrible: modern outlook pp. 71-83

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.1.22870

Abstract: The subject of this research is the cultural transformations that took place in the XVI century during the ruling period of the Grand Prince of Moscow Ivan IV Vasilyevich. From the perspective of history and theory of culture, the author examines one of the most dramatic moments of national history of Moscow period. The events of intellectual history of the XV-XVI centuries are assessed through the prism of cultural-philosophical and political dispute, which in many ways determined the sociocultural landscape not only in the era of establishment of the centralized Russian State under the rule of Ivan the Terrible, but foremost, the dispute between the Slavophiles and Westerners in Modern Age. The scientific novelty consists in the thesis that such dispute is viewed from the standpoint of evolution of the communication and language, through the prism of liturgical books that signify the century under consideration. Which captures the ruling period of two Moscow Princes – Vasili III Ivanovich and Ivan IV Vasilyevich. The author draws a new conclusion on the political-cultural Westernism of Ivan the Terrible, which in essence, supported the practice of liturgical books following the “Renaissance” example suggested by Maxim Greek. The practice of liturgical books is compared with the efforts of cultural and literacy conservators grouped around the disgraced Grand Duchy Andrey Kurbsky.
Makarenko G.I. - Certain factors that justifies the drastic changes in ethnic and confessional picture of Crimea of the late XIX century pp. 84-93

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.1.26552

Abstract: This article explores certain factors in social and political situation in Crimea, as well as foreign political status of the Russian Empire that could predetermine the changes in ethnic and confessional structure of Crimea in the late XIX – right after the end of the Crimean War, as well as indicates some regularities in the activity of Christian and Islamic confession in the region during this period. The author underlines separate characteristics and historical factors of everyday life of Crimean peoples of this period, including economic, administrative and religious. The scientific novelty consists in generalization of the various factors that could substantiate the transformation of the structure of Crimean population as a part of the Russian Empire, as well as determination of the trends of state regional policy regarding the questions of population in correlation with religious affiliation of the nationals. An assumption is made on the possible influence of foreign policy factor upon the Russian domestic policy. As a result, the author proves the transformation pattern of the ethnic and confessional structure of Crimea in the late XIX century as a mandatory component of ensuring stability in the region and territorial integrity of Russia.
Drozdov A.I., Stepanov M.G., Ivanova S.I. - Emigration and remigration processes of the Russian Germans in the late XX early XXI century (on the example of Khakassia) pp. 94-101

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.1.28531

Abstract: The object of this research is the migration processes among the Russian Germans in the late XX – early XXI century. The subject of this research is the emigration and remigration services of the Russian Germans. The goal of publication lies in the analysis of the indicated migration processes using the nationwide and regional data. The authors examine the dynamics and causes of emigration process of Russian Germans in the Russian Federation overall and in the Republic of Khakassia in particular; analyze the process of returning of the Germans-emigrants to Russia, including the Republic of Khakassia, describes its causes and prospects. The authors apply the principles of structural-genetic approach towards the analysis of international migration of Germans. The scientific novelty consists in the following: 1) comparative analysis of the emigration and remigration processes of the Russian Germans at the national level and at the level of the Republic of Khakassia; 2) generalization and systematization of the material on the topic, using the cliometric tools and mathematical-statistical methods.
Archeology
Petrov D.M. - Tumuli of the Basin of Vilyuy River: little known artifacts of funeral rites of the Yakuts in the XVII early XX centuries pp. 102-111

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.1.28107

Abstract: The goal of this research is to confirm the existence of tumuli tradition in funeral rites of the Yakuts. The subject of this article is the funeral rites of the Yakuts; the object is the timuli discovered in the Basin of Vilyuy River in Western Yakutia during the field archeological excavations of various years. The author steps back in history of the topic under consideration, describes the constructive peculiarities of the Yakut tumuli, reviews the gender-age and social components of the burials. The chronological framework of the study are substantiated by the dating of the discovered archeological artifacts. It is assumed that the examination of such types of artifacts will play a significant role in conducting of ethnocultural reconstructions. The research method is based on the analysis and generalization of archeological data, archival materials and scientific literature. The scientific novelty consists in articulation of problem regarding the existence of tumuli tradition among the Yakut people in the past. This article is first to introduce into the scientific discourse the materials on the topic acquired during the field archeological excavations in the Basin of Vilyuy River. Having analyzes the archeological data, archival materials and scientific literature, the author concludes on the presence of the practice of tumuli in funeral rites of the Yakuts during the XVII – early XX centuries. The existence of such practice in the culture of Vilyuyan Yakuts is determines as a part of their ethno-local specificity.
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