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Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue № 05/2018
Contents of Issue № 05/2018
History of regions of Russia
Azarenko I.S. - Change of status of the serfs of Kaluga Province in 1859-1862 in the context of implementation of the Serfdom Abolishment Manifesto pp. 1-8

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.5.26044

Abstract: The object of this research is the aspects of socioeconomic status of peasants in the Russian Empire in second half of the XIX century until the adoption of Emancipation Manifesto of 1861 and as a result of its implementation. The subject of this research is the peculiarities of the change of status of the serfs in Kaluga Province in 1859-1862 due to the Emancipation Reform. Based on the studied materials, the author provides the data on peasants’ life until the reform of 1861 and specificities of their dependent status. The author examines the specificity of conversion of peasants in Kaluga Province into the status of the temporary obliged; as well as analyzed the precise examples of conflict situations emerging in the post-reform period between peasants and landowners in the region. The scientific novelty lies in analysis of the previously unused archival documents from the State Archive of Kaluga Oblast that allowed considering the new factual material regarding the status of serfs in Kaluga Province during the indicated timeframe. A conclusion is made about the insignificant changes of serfs’ status with proclamation of the Manifesto of 1861, which mostly affected the civic-legal status rather than land relations. It is determined that in overall discontent with the terms of liberation, the declaration of the provisions of peasant reformed was met by the peasants loyally due to the mediate policy of the governor general of Kaluga Province V. A. Artsimovich
Nagornov V.P. - Economic modernization of Russia of the middle of XIX – the beginning of XX century in the history of mining factories of Ryazan Province pp. 9-18

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.5.26169

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the impact of capitalist modernization of Russian of the second half of XIX – the beginning of XX century upon the development of metallurgical industry of Ryazan Region. The object of this research is the infrastructure of metallurgical branch of Ryazan Province, trade-industrial and financial institutions that participated in financing of manufacturing, factory personnel, dynasties of the factory owners. Major attention is given to the dynamics of performance indicators of the factories, development of the new centers of metallurgical industry in Sapozhkovsky, Kasimovsky and Ryazansky districts, and transformation of the output structure of the factories. The research is carried out on the basis of modernization approach and principle of historicism, with application of system analysis, problem-chronological, logical, and historical-comparative methods. The results can be valuable in development of the modernization programs for Russian industry. The article introduces into the scientific circulation the new facts that reflect the specificity of entering of the Ryazan mining factories into the system of the commodity and financial market. A conclusion is made that despite the fragmentary nature and instability of the modernization tendencies in development of the Ryazan metallurgy, its structures have played an important role in diversification of the economy and evolution of the social space of Ryazan Krai of the post-reform era.
Sevostyanova E., Skobina E.A. - Delimitation of the China-Russia border since the XVI century until 1917 pp. 19-31

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.5.26151

Abstract: This article examines the key landmarks in delimitation of the China-Russia border since the XVI century until 1917, as well as its peculiarities. Russia and China are the two state that historically never had any serious armed clashes, and most questions regarding delimitation and demarcation were settled peacefully, despite the geopolitical and economic frictions, as well as territorial disputes. Regardless of difficult negotiations and an attempt of unilateral denunciation, both parties searched for a compromise and recognized the line of demarcation. Based on the chronological and problem-historical method, the article analyzes the key landmarks in delimitation and demarcation of the borders. A conclusion is substantiated on the existence of an objective need for factual establishment and legal formalization of the borderline. The legal formalization of the border lagged behind its factual establishment because on one hand, both parties did not have the required resources, while on the other – both empires had the concealed colonization plans. The delimitation took place in the territories that belonged neither to Russian or Chinese empires, but were of same importance for both countries. Their legal status has been changed accordingly. Delimitation not only considered the existing natural barriers – rivers and mountain ridges, but for the first time established the artificially determined landmarks. Legal aspect of agreement execution was improved by establishing jurisdiction for border violators, determining the legal regime of border checking, formalizing the border markers by protocols. The difficulties with the demarcation are already confirmed by the fact that the legal arrangement of 1689 continued into the XXI century.
Starikov I.V. - Orenburg Cossack detachments in battles in Transbaikal territory at the final stage of Civil War (February – November of 1920) pp. 32-42

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.5.25313

Abstract:  The subject of this research is the consideration of military operations in Transbaikal territory at the finals stage of Civil War and foreign military intervention (February – November of 1920) with participation of the Orenburg Cossack military detachments. The selected framework allowed conducting a meticulous analysis of events of the past, as well as the entire complex of the major driving forces and factors. Leaning on remembrances of the participants of military operation, archival documents and scientific works, an attempt is made to trace the battle rout of the Orenburg Cossack detachments in Transbaikal, where they arrived in February of 1920 with the remnants of the Admiral Kolchak’s armies. The article explores the reorganization and participation of military units of the Orenburg Cossacks as a part of Far Eastern Army in battles against the People’s Revolutionary Army of the Far Eastern Republic and partisan regiments of the red forces in Transbaikal territory. The scientific novelty lies in generalization of information from the various published and previously unknown sources on the little-studied, but exceptionally dramatic pages of the history of Civil War and foreign military intervention in Transbaikal territory, which is relevant from the perspective of restoring a full picture of the events.  
History of political and legal doctrines
Surkov O.S. - P.E. Kazansky on the imperial power pp. 43-49

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.5.24634

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the teaching of a conservative legislator, Professor P. E. Kazansky on the imperial power. The goal of this work is the consideration of structural components of his teaching and their interrelation in the context of liberal and conservative views of Russian of the end of XIX – beginning of the XX century. The relevance of Kazansky’s teaching is defined by the fact that at the presents stage of development, the national political-legal thought experiences the constantly growing influence of the elements of conservative discourse. A conclusion is made that the committed monarchist and organizer of the All-Russian National Union P. E. Kazansky, created an original doctrine on the concept of imperial power. The indicated doctrine differs from the official interpretation of Theophan Prokopovich, as well as nationalist concepts. P. E. Kazansky suggests a complicated in its structure theoretical explanation to the nature of autocratic power, which includes the historical, factual, sacral, cultural and juridical components. The correlation of the aforementioned components is viewed by Kazansky as a complex diachronic process, within the framework of which the formal-legal components of the concept of autocratic power hold a collaterally subordinate position.
History and Economics
Kosykh E.S. - Joint companies in Soviet economy and foreign policy of the 1920’s pp. 50-57

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.5.26099

Abstract: The subject of this research is the activity of foreign concessions in form of the joint communities in Soviet economy of the 1920’s. The materials from central archives are used in the course of this work. It is noted that in terms of the political and economic boycott by Western countries, the solution was found in organization of joint companies. The author underlines that the joint companies were established in economic branches with highest profit ration – trade, forest industry, and transport. Using the comparative-historical and problematic-chronological methods, the author was able to determine the peculiarities of practical activity of joint companies in Soviet economy of the period of the New Economic Policy. The scientific novelty consists in demonstration of close correlation between the political and economic tasks in policy of the Soviet State pertinent to the joint companies. As a form of concessional entrepreneurship, the joint company implied the involvement of the state alongside the foreign entrepreneurs. A contract was signed with a foreign company, which defined the principal terms of its activity. Formally, the joint companies were established almost on the parity basis, but factually, the Soviet party was in privileged position. The activity of joint companies was strictly regulated; the profit ratio was established by the government. They played a role in breaking the economic blockade of 1920’s, as well as acquisition of deficit commodities and newest technology. Concession has existed until it was beneficial for the government. The majority of joint companies were liquidated beforehand.
Culture and cultures in historical context
Kulpina A.V. - Representations on musical instruments within the European intellectual tradition of the Early and High Medieval Period pp. 58-64

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.5.25948

Abstract: The subject of this research is the representations on origin, typology and role of the instruments within the intellectual tradition of Medieval West since the first centuries of Christianity until the XIII century. The author describes the main sources of instrumental lexicon and the nature of records about musical instruments in the Biblical text, as well as examines the tradition of definition of these instruments in the works of Church Fathers, early medieval “Etymologies” ofIsidore of Seville and “Letter to Dardanus” of Pseudo-Hieronymus, Latino-Latin Dictionaries of the High Medieval period. The author analyzes the commentaries to the Holy Scripture, compositions of encyclopedic lexicographic character. The scientific novelty lies in analytical generalization of the key trends in development of representations on the musical instruments within the indicated timeframe. A conclusion is made that the evolution of thought on the musical instruments and instrumental music-making in European culture of the Early and High Medieval Period has passed several stages. Having commenced with antagonism of the Church Fathers towards the practical aspects of instrumental music and strictly allegorical interpretations, the Latin authors synthesized the records of organological nature and descriptions of the symbolic imagery, in order to subsequently come to the need for genus-species systematization of the origin and structure of the actual instruments.
Historical sources and artifacts
Orfinskaya O.V. - Technological research of omophorion and belt of the XVIII century from Vologda State Historical, Architectural and Art Museum-Reserve pp. 65-96

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.5.25188

Abstract: The object of this research is the archeological textile of the XVIII century, which is preserved in the funds of Vologda State Historical, Architectural and Art Museum-Reserve. Two fragments of an omophorion and a belt, after having been extracted from the grave were poorly preserved. For their storage and potential exposition, the museum had to conduct restoration works. The modern scientific restoration implies the research practices that allow selecting the proper methods of restoration works, as well as refine the system of sewing garments, fabric ornaments, and the structure of textile interlacing; often it is possible to reconstruct the shape and color of the examined object. For determination of the ultimate composition of golden embroidery threads, was applies the method of X-ray fluorescence spectral analysis. The research was conducted in the department of restoration of leather and archeological textile (Head of the department N. P. Sinitsyn) of the Grabar Russian Art and Research Restoration Center. The main goal of this publication consists in introduction into the scientific discourse of the new artefact with precise daring and reference to a specific historical figure. Such research must be performed on all museum objects; therefore, the author provides the scheme and key directions in the area of examination and restoration of textile.
Ethnography and ethnology
Khaliulina A.I. - Language and cultural development of Tatar minority in Bashkortostan pp. 97-108

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.5.25881

Abstract: The subject of this research is the language and cultural development of ethnic groups in the polynational region. The object of this research is the Tatars of Bashkortostan. The problems of ethnocultural development of Tatar language population in Bashkortostan in the late 1980’s have become an accelerator in creation of Tatar national cultural clubs and organizations, which raised concerns regarding the studying of Tatar language in schools of the Republic, creation of theatres and philharmonic halls in Tatar language districts, expansion of the mass media in Tatar language. Methodological foundation is the historical-chronological method that allows revealing the indicated processes in diachronic cut, as well as sociological method that views the language and cultural development of Tatar minority in polynational region in synchronic cut. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that for the first time with the attraction of normative document on language issues and results of sociological survey, an attempt was made to describe the language and cultural development of Tatar language population in Bashkortostan. A conclusion is made that all of the aforementioned problems to a certain extent were realized by the republican authorities, although some questions remained unnoticed and were not removed from the agenda. Among the paramount, in accordance with an opinion of Tatar intelligentsia, is recognition the Tatar as national language alongside the Bashkir and Russian. The author underlines that insufficient TV and radio coverage in Tatar language, as well as lack of organization of education in the native Tatar language. The listed problems have constantly been raised by the republican authorities.
Beliefs, religions, churches
Markhanova T.F. - Leading Scientific Associate, Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences pp. 109-124

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.5.23953

Abstract: The subject of this research is the history of Buddhist temples of East Asia over the period of the V and VII centuries. The article review the layouts of Buddhist temples of China, which were similar to the monasteries of Korea and Japan. The author argues that Buddhist monasteries of Korea were built on the basis of Buddhist monasteries of Imperial China due to the cultural exchange between countries. The Chinese culture, in turn, has disseminated over the Japanese Archipelago. Some archeological materials allow concluding on the presence of the close religious contacts between the representatives of Korean Peninsula and Japanese Islands, among which was Harima Fudoki" (Jap. 風土記, "Description of the customs of lands") that depicts life, activities, and beliefs of the Korean migrants in Japan and their great impact upon the culture of local residents. The author used the principles of objectivity, historicism, determinism, systematic approach, method of quantitative data processing and comparative-historical method. The scientific novelty is define by the fact that the subject of comprehensive research for the first time in historical science become the Buddhist monasteries of China, Korea, and Japan since the V-VII centuries until the present time. A conclusion is made that the Chinese monasteries have become a prototype of the monasteries of Korea and Japan. Thus, the layout of Chinese monasteries "Central Pagoda and with Buddha Hall behind it" were the main type of layout in the Buddhist monasteries of the late V century, continuing until the beginning of the VII century. Such design of monasteries of the northern and southern dynasties with its Chinese peculiarities had a strong influence on the construction of early Buddhist monasteries of the neighboring countries, particularly Korea and Japan.
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