Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue № 07/2017
Contents of Issue № 07/2017
Philosophy of history, historiography, chronology/source studies
Demina I.A. - General A. N. Pepelyaev’s “Yakut revolt” (1922-1923) in the Russian and emigrant historiography pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.7.23394

Abstract: This article provides separate results of examination, which was carried out by the author over the period of 2014-2017, on the poorly studied aspects civil war on the territory of Yakutia. The subject of this research is the analysis of the events of General A. N. Pepelyaev’s “Yakut revolt” presented in the Russian and emigrant historiography. The “Yakut revolt” became the final episode of civil war in Russia. Military operations have lasted from September of 1921 until June of 1923 in Ayano-Maysky District of the Russian Far East. Methodology of this work is based on the principle of historicism, systematicity, and objectivity, as well as historiographical approach. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that this work is first to conduct a comparative-generalizing study of the sources and literature that belong to the three directions of historiography of the “Yakut revolt”. The author substantiates the need for further development of historiography on this matter using the potential of the emigrant literary sources, modern Russian historiography, and research of the contemporary writers and journalists dedicated to the life and work of General A. N. Pepelyaev. The results acquired during the course of this research play an important role in examination and deeper understanding of the events of civil war in Yakutia, as well as can be applied in preparation of the special courses on the history of civil war in the Russian Far East in 1921-1923.
Theory and methodology of history
Kozhevina M.A. - To the question of periodization of the history of Soviet educational law pp. 10-19

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.7.23579

Abstract: The subject of this research is the process of establishment and development of the Soviet educational law in the context of modern requirements towards improving the cognitive means of historical legal phenomena. Among such means is the periodization that suggests determining the timeframes with internal conceptual completeness, as well as indicates the qualitative change in the examined object in particular time. The object of this work is the educational law as a structural element of Russian legal system, which historically forms based on the genetic, structural, and functional ties that in certain periods undergo profound qualitative changes, resulting in qualitative changes in the legal regulation of relations in the area of education, and this conducing the transformation of legislative branch into another capacity – branch of law. Within the framework of retrospective approach, the author analyzes separate stages of development of the Soviet educational law, as well as defines the system-forming legislative acts. The choice of periodization criteria must not be arbitral, but rather stimulating the formation of integral vision of the object at hand. Asynchrony can be noticed inside the process of cultural structuring in the Soviet State consists of relatively independent cultural directions (among which are education and enlightenment). Each direction has its own development mechanism, and thus, its own periodization. One of the defining factors in development of the Soviet system of education is the level of education of population. Highlighting the stages of establishment of the state education system and educational law in Soviet Russia, first and foremost, it is necessary leaning on the key events in development of the comprehensive school, the status of which fully determines the development of career school. Periodization should be realized based on the criterion of legal regulation of the development of general education as an intrinsic factor for development of the entire educational system.
History of law and state
Solomko Z.V. - About social grounds of the local justice reform of 1912 pp. 20-34

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.7.23233

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of the key social determinants that defined the content and results of the local justice reform in Russia in the early XX century (Law of June 15, 1912 “On the Reform of Local Courts”). The author disputes the idealistic interpretation of social grounds of the reform, the supporters of which are willing to see as a primary cause of such event the desire of government to adhere the path of “right-wing development”, ensure the legal need of peasantry, and equalize them in rights with other social classes. The arguments towards using the materialistic approach in studying the reform are being provided. It is proven that reforming the local justice of the early XX century was substantiated primarily by the peculiarities of the Stolypin agrarian reform aimed at development of the “Prussian way” of capitalism with regards to agrarian relations, as well as overall specificity of the Russian pre-revolutionary capitalism, which significantly differed from the capitalism of Western type. Namely these social prerequisites justified the limited restoration of justice courts necessary for ensuring the interests of the growing rural bourgeoisie, retention of volost courts, non-democracy of the reform, neglect in the process of developing the draft law on reforming the local court of peasant’s deputies, as well as delay of implementation of the reform after 1912, its inconsistency and incompleteness. The author highlights correlation between the content of local justice reform and logics of class confrontation throughout the period of formulation and realization of the Law of June 15, 1912. The substantiated in the article ideas allow concretizing the understanding of prerequisites, content, and results of the local justice reform in Russia in the early XX century.
Pozdnyakova A.S. - Criminal offences in practice of the Vyatka provincial revolutionary tribunal during the Civil War pp. 35-42

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.7.23539

Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of one of the activity directions of the Vyatka provincial revolutionary tribunal – the investigation of criminal offences. Based on previously unstudied documents of the Kirov Region State Archive, the author analyzes the involvement of the special judicial investigating agency in the fight against crime, reveals situations when an investigative case could be subject to consideration by the revolutionary tribunal, as well as discusses the applied measures of punishment. The article provides the examples of criminal offences during this timeframe alongside the statistical data on the activity of the Vyatka tribunal. The scientific novelty consists on the fact that the author introduces the previously unexamined archive materials into the scientific discourse. One of the conclusions of this research implies that throughout its existence the Vyatka revolutionary tribunal had dealt with the criminal offences, the number of which varied from 10% to 20% of the overall cases. The author also underlines that by 1922, the tribunal gradually transformed into a civil court.
History and Economics
Tushkanov I.V. - Multi-sector economy of average size as the basis of agrarian entrepreneurship of the Lower Volga Region over the period of 1861-1899 pp. 43-52

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.7.23787

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the agricultural entrepreneurship in Lower Volga Region over the period of 1861-1899. The subject of this research is the modernization process of the former landed estates (both, remained in the right of noblemen, as well as fully or partially passed into the hands of the representatives of other social classes) and open market of production distribution. The object of this research is the diverse economies (differ in size, belonging to the owners of various social classes), as well as the key statistical indexes of agrarian sector of the Lower Volga Region. The author turns attention to the development of primary industries (crop husbandry, animal husbandry, and forestry) in the conditions of post-reform Russia. Among the main conclusions is the evidence of transformation of the former serfdoms into the fairly profitable economies. The scientific novelty consists in describing and comparing the economies of various size and owners of different social classes, which allows talking about the objective character of agrarian modernization process.
History of science and technology
Aleksandrova I.N. - Connecting youth to the scientific and technological achievements in the late 1950’s – early 1960’s pp. 53-67

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.7.23714

Abstract: This article is confined to the 100th anniversary of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (Komsomol). The author examines the role of Komsomol in realization of the state youth policy aimed at connecting of young people to the scientific and technological achievements of the late 1950’s – early 1960’s. Documents of the Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History, as well as the collections of regulations” sealed as “top secret” compiled the main group of sources for this research. Komsomol is viewed as a distinct Soviet “ministry of youth”, a linking point between the state and youth. The system of value orientations is presented as a generalized index of the direction of interests, demands, social position, and level of spiritual development of the generation. The article demonstrated the dynamic actions of Komsomol with regards to the establishment of a positive attitude to knowledge among the youth through introducing the most recent achievements of science and technology. Two opposite trends were noticed the within the overall practice of implementation of state youth policy: one was aimed at enhancing the ideological component, while the other was of high pragmatism considering the changes in the country and worldwide, associated with the scientific and technological progress and actual economic needs.
Culture and cultures in historical context
Khasanova M.S. - Cultural cooperation of Russia and Belarus in the post-Soviet space pp. 68-78

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.7.23310

Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the aspects of cultural cooperation of Russia and Belarus at the present stage as a foundation for profound integration. The goal of the research lies in determining the type, features, and factors of the development of Russia-Belarus cooperation in the area of culture as a foundation contributing into the integration of both nations within the particular historical context in the late XX – early XXI centuries. The need for studying the intercultural differences is indicated. Relevance of researching the interaction between Russia and Belarus in the area of culture is caused by the dynamically developing sociocultural and political situation in modern Europe and the world in the conditions of globalization. An attempt is made to understand to what extent and by which means the culture conduces integration or disintegration of the state. The article considers various options and prospect for Russia-Belarus cultural cooperation. The author introduces into the scientific discourse newest documents pertaining to the Russia-Belarus relations, as well as analysis all major joint cultural events.
Khisamutdinova A.F., Khairetdinova N.E. - History of conceptualization of the term “excursion”: some aspects of historiography of the problem pp. 79-86

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.7.23183

Abstract: The subject of this research is the notion of “excursion”, which undergone various interpretations within different historical periods. It had impact upon the character of historical research on this topic. In particular, the history of excursion affairs is currently being studied inseparably with tourism, and the initially educational nature of the excursion has become secondary. It is established that that the reason that tourism eluded the studying of excursion activity lies in insufficient reference of the modern educational facilities towards the excursion methods in the context of organizing the educational process. Prerevolutionary, Soviet, and contemporary works of the theoretician of excursion affairs alongside certain currently existing historical explorations served as a source base for writing this article. The scientific novelty is defined by separating the concept and word “excursion”. In fact, the history of excursion affairs must be considered since the time, when the word “excursion” has not yet introduced to the Russian language. The authors provide arguments, which prove the scientific novelty and relevance of such research.
Interdisciplinary research
Vlasova T.A., Slezin A.A. - Peculiarities of structuring of the Komsomol membership during the 1960’s pp. 87-104

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.7.23653

Abstract: The object of this research is the organizations of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (Komsomol). The subject is the peculiarities of structuring of the Komsomol organization. Chronological framework of the work are limited by the 1960’s, when Komsomol practically got past the “equator” of its historical path. The main sources apply the materials of the Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History, as well as “collections of regulations” that initially were sealed as “top secret” in low circulation into the republican and district committees of Komsomol, and results of surveys of the Komsomol veterans. Using the comparative-historical method, the author draws analogy between the quantitative and qualitative changes in Komsomol of the 1960’s. The article demonstrates that the all-round establishment of Komsomol organization under the particular circumstanced of 1960’s substantiated the amplitude of mobilization abilities of the Komsomol. Rejection of the mass exclusions from Komsomol alongside the rapid easing of regulations regarding the social origin of the entrants, stimulated the bonding of Komsomol with the largest masses of Soviet youth. In addition, the manifestations of formalism in terms of entering the Komsomol, vast number of young men and women who were Komsomol members only on paper, neglecting even the responsibility of paying the fees, contributed into the formation of a negative image of Komsomol among certain part of the youth.
Academic schools and paradigms
Roshchevskaya L.P. - Geneticist P.F. Rokitsky in the history of the Komi branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1949-1957) pp. 105-121

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.7.23255

Abstract: The subject of the research is scientific and scientific-organizational activity of the well-known geneticist P.F. Rokitsky in the years of forced stay in Syktyvkar in 1949-1957. The earlier unknown facts allow revealing the scale and nature of his project, pedagogical, educational and scientific-editorial activities. His influence on the formation and development of the Komi research team of the Komi branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences is demonstrated. The author examines these facts of the biography of the scientist as participation in the development of several large complex scientific problems, including the organization of work on radiobiology. Methodological basis of the research is the basic principles of modern historical science – historicism and scientific objectivity, as well as scientific methods: source analysis and synthesis, description, the construction of analogies. The main contribution of the author consists in finding out the objective results of P. F. Rokitsky activities with regards to development of the team of the Komi – branch of the USSR, from the perspective of sociology of science. Based on the archive documents the author first analyzed the energetic scientific and organizational and pedagogical activities of P. F. Rokitsky in the Komi branch of the USSR. Identified data prove that the P. F. Rokitsky very quickly got high authority in the team. He made a significant contribution to the study of animal husbandry in the Komi ASSR and the formation of radiobiological research. The study of the documents of the Scientific Archive of the Komi Science Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences allowed to find several large unpublished work by P. F. Rokitsky. Practically, P. F. Rokitsky encouraged Syktyvkar research team towards the "production of knowledge" that allows demonstrating the social position and role of the scientist.
Beliefs, religions, churches
Babich I.L. - Ecclesiastical dynasties and spiritual crisis in the prerevolutionary Russian (on the example of the Kazantsev hereditary Orthodox priests) pp. 122-132

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.7.23639

Abstract: The subject of this research is the ecclesiastical Orthodox dynasties of the XIX century in Russia. The object of this article is the evolution of spiritual life of the hereditary priests Kazantsevs, who served in the Church of the Life-Giving Spring Icon of the Mother of God in Tsaritsyno (presently Moscow) that was a part of the unfinished by Bazhenov and Kazakov Catherine Palace. Ecclesiastical ministry of the Kazantsevs was suppressed in the end of 1903, when the next successor refused to accept the ministry. The goal of this work consists in demonstrating the causes for spiritual crisis in the prerevolutionary Russian, as well as its impact upon the events of 1917. The research is prepared based on the archive materials from the Central State Historical Archives of Moscow and Moscow Region, archive of the Kazantsevs family, and verbal discussions with the descendants of the family. Leaning on the collected materials, the article portrays the history of ecclesiastical Orthodox dynasty of the XIX using the method of historical reconstruction. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that based on the example of church ministry of several generations of the Kazantsev family, the author was able to trace the trend established in Russian in the late XIX – early XX century, namely the beginning of spiritual crises and infiltration of the revolutionary ideas into the families of priests. As a result, people with theological education refused from the ministry, preferring the various secular professions but remaining Orthodox in their soul. It is worth noting that the spiritual life of several generation of the ancestors could not “confront” the strength and pressure of the new ideology of the late XIX century. The author believes that the description of history of a single Orthodox dynasty helps understanding the inevitability of the following events in 1917.  
World of ideas and world of the mundane
Vlasova T.A. - To characteristic of the style of Komsomol activity during the period of 1960’s: organization of document control pp. 133-143

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.7.23660

Abstract: The object of this research is the organizations of All-Union Leninist Young Communist League, while the subject is the aspects of style of their activity associated with organizing the inner-union document control during the 1960’s.  “Compilations of documents” published by the Central Committee of All-Union Leninist Young Communist League for the administrative use of members of the republican and regional committees, which were long-term sealed as “confidential”, became the main source for this article. The research is based on the general scientific principles of historicism and objectivism. The problematic-chronological principle has also been applied. Having examined right before the 100th anniversary of Komsomol the insufficiently studied issues in the history of youth movement in Russia, the author concluded that the multiple attempts aimed at improving the document control during the 1960’s did not lead the Komsomol towards creation of the document control system, which allows efficiently solving the domestic organizational problems.
Historical memory
Lysenkov S.G. - No one is forgotten, nothing is forgotten: to the question about the record of Red Army’s battle losses and rendering military salute to the fallen during the Great Patriotic War pp. 144-157

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.7.23285

Abstract: The subject of this research is the legal grounds of organization of the record of irreparable losses of Red Army’s military personnel during the Great Patriotic War. The article reveals the peculiarities of recording the killed and missed in action, dead from injuries and diseases, as well as servicemen executed by shooting under the sentence of military tribunals and taken as prisoners by the adversary. The goal of the work consists in objective analysis of the normative legal acts regulating the organization of personal record and burial of the deceased military personnel, as well as their implementation under the war circumstances. The article is first to reveal the earlier uncovered questions within the Russian juridical literature. An attempt is made to analyze the normative legal acts of the Great Patriotic War time until the present stage that are inaccessible for the broad range of scholars. The authentic archive documents are introduced into the scientific discourse. Examination of the new sources allowed the author framing a representation on a number of little-studied issues of the military reality associated with the organization of record of the irreparable losses of the acting army and rendering military salute to the fallen during the Great Patriotic War.
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