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Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue № 06/2017
Contents of Issue № 06/2017
Ethnography and ethnology
Karpov G. - Africans in Great Britain: the colonial period. pp. 1-19

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.6.22934

Abstract: The article is devoted to studying of African migrants of the colonial period, from the XVIth century up to the first half of the XX century. The subject of the study of the article is the number of migrants from Africa, the channels of African migration to the metropolis, the employment of Africans, and their socioeconomic status. Particular attention is paid to the influence of the slave trade and the missionary movement on the African communities of Great Britain. Trends and tendencies of the first half of the XX century are considered in details. They prejudged the dramatic changes in the size of the population and the situation with British Africans in the second half of the ХХ century - at the beginning of the XXI century.Scientific novelty of the work lies in the detailed questions of the size of the population and the situation with British Africans concerning the employment sector of the colonial period. Until the beginning of the decolonization process the number of African migrants in Britain remained totally insignificant, not more than 10,000-20,000 people. The results of the study provide support for concluding that Africans had the possibility to be engaged in a wide array of activities, take part in social and religious activities, even trying to assert their rights and to combat discrimination.
History and Economics
Liu Y. - Economic legal system of PRC as the context of establishment of the Chinese investment law pp. 20-28

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.6.22953

Abstract: This article analyzes the Chinese normative, doctrinal, and historical legal material regarding the questions associated with the establishment of the investment law in PRC. The author determines the states of economic development of China, key positions and spheres of the open policy reform, peculiarities of China’s economic development, trends of development of China’s economic legal system, as well as normative legal foundation of the investment law. Due to the differences in prevalence of one or another ideology affecting the development of economic system at various stages, in the structural sense, content, and management of economic and legal systems, the mechanisms of implementation alongside the impact of economic legal system significantly vary at each stage. The author underlines that since the establishment of People’s Republic of China in 1949, the Chinese economic legal system has undergone multiple and constantly transforming stages, which illustrate different peculiarities at each of the stages that manifest as a result of interaction between the changing economic system and legal ideology. For the first time in Russia is examined and generalized the experience of legal development of the investment legal relations in China, which are of great importance for the assessment and improvement of PRC’s legislation in the field of investment activity.
History and Ideology
Zaretskaya O.V. - Soviet-Norwegian relations and the image of Norway in Soviet printed media over the period of 1955 – 1960’s (using the material of “Pravda” newspaper) pp. 29-43

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.6.22819

Abstract: The subject of this research is the image of Norway in Soviet printed media over the period of 1955 – 1960’s, which was formed under the influence of transnational relations between the Soviet Union and Norway. The object is the Soviet-Norwegian relations under the conditions of crucial changes in the system of global politics and international relations. Special attention is given to the peculiarities of establishment and transformation of the image of Norway alongside the character of Soviet-Norwegian relations in Soviet printed media over the stated timeframe. The concept of myth (generalized perception of the reality) lies in the foundation of this work. Examination of the reflection of reality in the consciousness, as well as effect of the political myths upon the formation of a desired image of any objects is a necessary condition for analyzing the printed media. The scientific novelty consists in the attempt to trace the qualitative transformations of Norway’s image in the Soviet printed media over the period of 1955 – 1960’s. The following conclusions were made: in 1954 – 1955 the criticism of Norwegian pro-NATO policy acquires constraint character, which was a result of achieving certain balance in the bilateral relations; the image of Norway becomes neutral. Visit of Einar Gerhardsen to USSR in 1995 alongside the following visits of high officials in 1964 and 1965 positively affected the relations between the state, and thus, resulted in formation of a pleasant image in the printed media. However, the question of Norway’s membership in NATO remained topical. Due to the fact that on the intergovernmental was achieved close cooperation, and within the NATO block have increased centrifugal trends, the media were actively discussing a possible exit of Norway from the organizations. Dissatisfaction of the Soviet leadership by the decision of Norwegian government to remain the member of NATO led to worsening of the bilateral relations in 1970’s.
Factors of historical development
Gegհamyan V.G. - Characteristic of modernization in Turkey over the period of Kemalist authority: an attempt of reassessment pp. 44-55

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.6.23241

Abstract: This article represents an attempt of socio-anthropological interpretation of the process of modernization in the Republican Turkey. The process of radical modernization, which took place in Turkey during the ruling period of Kemalists (1923-1950), aroused extensive interest in the West and resulted in the emergence of large number of scientific publications. The foreign observers mostly admired the results of the modernization and claimed the creation of “New Turkey”. But all these works had apparent flaws, thus Kemalism and Kemalist modernization require a new critical approach. The author suggests examining the Turkish modernization in the context of difference of the sociocultural dynamics of historical process between the West and the East, as well as defines the key characteristic of Turkish modernization as authoritarian. At first, the author demonstrates the evolution of authoritarian modernization processes in Turkey, reveals their ideological roots, and then, the unidentified aspects of the Turkish modernization. The analysis of evolution of the Turkish modernization within the framework of differences in sociocultural dynamics of the historical process allows viewing the modernization processes of the traditional Eastern society not as a consistent phenomenon, but a complicated process, in which the authority discussed the modernization policy with the traditional society.  The article illustrates that modernization had limited direct impact upon the Turkish society, which opens the new research questions.
History of regions of Russia
Gergilev D.N. - Structure of the provincial and regional administration in Eastern Siberia from 1822 to 1917: principals of functionality and regional specificities pp. 56-69

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.6.22903

Abstract: The object of this research is the administrative policy in remote areas of the Russian Empire. The subject is the structure of the provincial and regional government authorities in the Eastern Siberia from 1822 to 1917. The system of public administration represents a system of local government authorities in the offices of the second degree. The place of the degree in the government hierarchy was between governor-general degree and district degree. The research covers the Yeniseysk and the Irkutsk governorates, Yakutia and Zabaykalsky regions. These parts of the Eastern Siberia are the bright examples of the managerial control. The chronological limits of the research cover the period from 1822 to 1917. The key historical events in the timeline are «Institution for Siberian province management» and regulations of the reform of regional management. The main idea of the reform lies in the principle of common ground for public administration in Siberia. The research sources are the rules of the Russian Empire, archival materials, reference publications and periodical press. Methodological base of the research includes cognition universal method, general and special historical methods, inversion method. The changes in the structure of province and regional government system are demonstrated. The conclusion is made that the local features of the public administration of second degree were the principles of collective nature and scantiness (due to the Councils and Presence at the government institutions); military-administrative features of the governor power; the lack of power of regional authorities, the dependence of regional authorities from province authorities. The research specifies and extends scientific knowledge concerning the administrative policy of the Russian Empire in the Eastern Siberia, creates the additional possibilities for widening historical investigations in study of the policy.
Ponarin P.V. - County response to famine in 1891-1892 in the Russian Empire (on the example of Tula governorate) pp. 70-81

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.6.21145

Abstract: This article summarizes the results within the framework of the project of Russian Humanitarian Scientific Foundation No. 15-01-00026 of 2016 “Crisis in agrarian society in the imperial Russia: famine of 1891-1892 in the Central Black Earth region”. The subject of the research is activity of the county council of Tula governorate over the period of 1891-1892 aimed at ensuring food provision, which the author define as county response to famine among the rural population. Using the published and unpublished sources, the article examines the county council’s initiatives on overcoming the agrarian crisis. The conclusion is made that the work of county councils in the famine of 1891-1892 was rather extensive, but only within the limits of their authority established by the legislation of the Russian Empire. Under the conditions of the existed legislation, the work of county councils was built in the state food policy. Granting of broader authority to the county council could take place only through crucial changes in the Russian legislation, which seemed practically impossible in terms of the conservative stabilization of Alexander III. Thus, the county response to famine of 1891-1892 was reduced mainly to the realization of local measures developed by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and governors.
History of political and legal doctrines
Mamychev A.Y., Filippova M.K. - Medieval tradition of archetypal research of the public authority organization pp. 82-94

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.6.21163

Abstract: The subject of this research is the medieval political legal thought, within the framework of which have developed the archetypal (divine) ideas, as well as the antique perceptions about the “arche” (initial foundation, proto-idea, etc.) as a deep foundation of the public authority organization and value-normative system. The article demonstrates that the medieval though has formed two axial lines of evolution of the archetypal research: first one is associated with the highest arche-ideas, initial principles, divine concepts, etc.; second one, on the contrary, is associated with the purely human, material measurement of an archetype – archaic heritage, unconscious structures of mentality, collective ideas, initial outrage and "cultural amnesia" of the sources of sociopolitical and legal cultural integrity, as well as particular political legal institutions. The theoretical methodological basis of this research consists in the experience in world history of state and law, positions of juridical anthropology, and cultural-historical approach applied on legal studies and political science. The scientific novelty of this work lies in the author’s interpretation of the medieval tradition of archetypal research. The article reveals and substantiates a unique tradition that in conceptually framed by the medieval theologians and associated with perceiving an archetype as simultaneously final and initial “point of harmonization” of the volitional, cognitive, and spiritual powers. This aspect depicts the ideative character of interpretation of the archetypal foundations. Archetype “originates” the crucially new dimension, forms the “point of convergence”, or the “way of ascension” to the uniform, universal. The article also substantiate that the idea of archetypal foundations as a descriptive discourse became dominant in the era of Renaissance and Reformation, as well as significantly influences the establishment of the theory of Jungian archetypes. The novelty also implies the characterization of the formed in Medieval Times tradition of examination of the positive law in instrumental aspect, in other words, as a necessary institutionally normative form that ensures manifestation and presence of the highest values and norms within the public authority organization, including forcing the members of community to follow the highest principles and ideals.  
Philosophy of history, historiography, chronology/source studies
Khasyanov O.R. - The dynamic of size of the collective farm peasantry of the mid-Volga village during postwar quinquennium pp. 95-100

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.6.21777

Abstract: The subject of this research is the transformation in size of the collective farm peasantry of Ulyanovsk Region during the first postwar quinquennium. It is a known fact that in the prewar period peasantry represented one of the largest social groups of Soviet society. Thus, the biggest losses during the time of Great Patriotic War fall onto this particular social group, which later will become one of the causes for demographic crisis of the rural areas and Russian society. During the course of this work, the author applied the methods of comparative analysis, which contributed in reconstruction of the process of population change among the collective farm peasantry. The scientific novelty is defined by the choice of the subject of the research and territorial frameworks. The collective farm peasantry of Ulyanovsk Region did not attract due attention among scholars, and the modern historical science does not have special works that examine the process of dynamic of size of the collective farm peasant population of Ulyanovsk Region during the postwar period. Heuristic potential lies in the conclusion that in the demographic processes of the postwar mid-Volga village, the demographic transition begins manifesting earlier than in the central region.  
Likhodey E.M. - The transition from the “protection of maternity and childhood” to the “protection of children's rights” in the recent scientific literature pp. 101-109

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.6.21847

Abstract: The article analyzes the approaches of researchers in the recent scientific literature to the study of state policy in the field of women's and children's issues in order to reflect the transition from the "protection of maternity and childhood" to the "protection of children's rights".A study of the transition between the terms is the process of particular relevance as proof of transfer can help in understanding the features of the policy on women and children, to eliminate the ambiguity of understanding of these terms, and to find gaps in the current policy in the women's and children's issues.The article is divided into three idea headings in accordance with the directions in the recent scientific literature, coinciding with the three periods of Russian history. The article sets a different ratio of researchers to study of the poicy, discusses their approaches to its study and analyzes the perception of women and children on the policy within the approaches.The methodological base of this study is founded on the principles of historicism, consistency and objectivity. The author applies the historical, comparative-historical, logical and dialectical methods. The scientific novelty of the present article specifies that this work wearing the comparative nature of the research synthesis, belonging to the three stages of the country's history reveals not noticed earlier presence of a transition between the terms in the policy, carried out during these three stages.The result of this work is the confirmation of the presence of the transition from the term "protection of maternity and childhood" to the term "protection of children's rights". It is important for the study of the development of Russia's policy in the children's issues. The results of this paper can be used in preparing special courses on the history of the state and law, history of policy development in the sphere of maternity and childhood, in writing textbooks and educational tutorials.
Auxiliary historical disciplines
Nilogov A.S., Bogdanova I.I. - To genealogy of A. S. Pushkin (using the materials of metrical books of the St. Petersburg Central State Historical Archive) pp. 110-121

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.6.18322

Abstract: This historical-genealogical research attempt to discover the authentic metrical records on the birth. Baptism, marriage, death of the ancestors and descendants of the prominent Russian poet Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin that resided in the capital of the Russian Empire and its surroundings in the late XVIII – late XIX centuries. Such illustrative biographical information is valuable for the Pushkinists for further study of Pushkin’s biography and ancestry. During the course of this work, the author applied such methods as analytical, biographical, hermeneutic, historiographical, descriptive, synthetic, heuristic, and epigraphic. The following records have been discovered: data on the birth/baptism of all children of A. S. Pushkin and N. N. Goncharova-Pushkina-Lanskaya – Maria (1832), Alexandra (1833), Grigory (1835), and Natalia (1836); on marriage of the their oldest son; on death/burial of A. P. Gannibal (1781), Arina Radionovna (1828), A. S. Pushkin (1837), N. N. Goncharova-Pushkina-Lanskaya (1963), and P. P. Lanskoy (1877).
Social history
Kenya I.A. - Public charity in central Russia in the second half of XIX - early XX centuries and its features pp. 122-134

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.6.21279

Abstract: The subject of this research public charity in the Russian Empire in the second half of XIX - early XX centuries and its features. The different types of charities vertical: national, provincial, district and horizontally: educational, parish, professional and other peculiarities of forming the system of organized public charity. Comparative analysis of the development of philanthropy in the territory of Orel, Smolensk and Vladimir provinces. Trends, the features of the development of charity in provincial and district towns. The study used methods of statistical analysis, comparative-historical method, historical legal method, logical-analytical and socio-cultural method of the study the Main conclusions of the study are :public charity in Russian Empire in second half XIX - n. XX centuries. was formed under the patronage of the Royal family of the Romanovs- the formation of a by n. XX in the system of organized public charity, which had its legislative framework- the appearance in the provincial offices of the Russian cities and provincial charities- charitable society in the province became the successors to the philanthropists- low initiative of the population was replaced by the municipal authorities in the establishment of charitable societiesThe novelty of the study is the first analysis of the emergence and development of the charitable societies on the example of Vladimir, Orel and Smolensk province.
Beliefs, religions, churches
Galibina-Lebedeva E.S. - Society of Jesus right before 500th anniversary of the Reformation pp. 135-157

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.6.22363

Abstract: The goal of this article consists in the attempt to prove that the Society of Jesus, which was created for the purpose of fighting the ideas of Reformation 477 year ago, did not lose its significance in modern world and continues to assert the Christian ideals and resolve new challenges faced by humanity in the XXI century, including the threat of a new world war, international terrorism, loss of moral and ethical values, lack of resources, and at the same time, reckless consumption, impose of the values of individualism and intense rivalry. The subject of this research is the ideology of the Society of Jesus and arising from it domestic and foreign policy of its successors. The article analyzes broad material regarding the life and activity of the Roman Catholic Church as a whole, and Society of Jesus in particular over the period of the late XX – early XXI centuries. Special attention is given to such issues as: struggle of the Society of Jesus against their ideological opponents - Masonic lodges, "Opus Dei" and liberalism; search for the allies for protection of humanistic ideals and a fair economic system, among different political powers and traditional religions, as well as atheists – the supporters of the Communist values and Marxist ideology. The scientific novelty consists in the comprehensive examination of the modern political role of Society of Jesus in Vatican and internationally. The aforementioned questions become especially relevant due to the anniversary dates that fall onto the second half of 2017: the 500th anniversary of Reformation, 30th  anniversary of the Masonic Grande Lodge, and 100th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution.
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