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Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue № 05/2017
Contents of Issue № 05/2017
History of law and state
Krichevtsev M.V. - Legal regime of detention of foreign prisoners of war in France under Napoleon I (on dispositions of the Empire and the acts of the prefecture of Eure department in 1813 – 1814) pp. 1-13

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.5.20877

Abstract: The subject of this research is the changes in legal regime of detention of the foreign prisoners of war in France during the ruling period of Napoleon I. The work examines the normative positions pertaining to places of dislocation, organization of work and daily life of the prisoners of war, their financial support administration and police supervision over them, as well as punishments for violation of order and discipline. Legal regulation was exercised on general imperial level alongside separate departments, which causes a question about the interaction of the imperial law with the local law. The article compares the imperial regulations with the acts of prefect of M. de Miramont existing in the Eure department in 1813 – 1814. The relevance of this topic is substantiate by the insufficient study in science of the relation of administrations of various departments towards the dislocated within them prisoners of war and peculiarities of legal regulation of their detention. The conclusion is made that that legal regime of detention of the foreign prisoners of war in France during the late Napoleonic era, to a significant extent is defined not by the general imperial regulations but the local stipulations. Acts of the prefecture issued in the Eure department, testify to the extensive freedom of lawmaking of a prefect in this field. Particularly, the acts of 1814 significantly expanded the authority of the local civil administration pertaining to the depot of prisoners of war within the department’s territory and enhanced its impact upon the military structure in the late ruling period of Napoleon I.
Popov F.A. - Imposing state of emergency by the Provisional Priamur Government in October of 1921 pp. 14-22

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.5.19648

Abstract: This article analyzes the mechanism of imposing state of emergency by the “White” Provisional Priamur Government in October of 1921. Having come to power as a result of the upheaval on May 26, 1921, the Provisional Government faced opposition from the side of the left-wing public forces of the region, particularly Bolsheviks and SR’s. At the same time, the “white” regime in Primorye was not trying to establish the dictatorship on the example of such formed over the 1918-1919 in Siberia under Admiral Kolchak. The Priamur Popular Assembly had been convoked; it had the legislative initiative, and the government held responsibility before it. The declaration of state of emergency in October of 1921 was substantiated by the threat of Bolshevist uprising in Primorye. State of emergency was imposed without notifying the Popular Assembly, which caused the robust discussions among the parliamentarians. During the course of debates, the opposition appealed to the acting legislation, while the government explained its decision by the necessity of urgent measures pertaining to ensuring the security on the subordinated territory. Thus, the Provisional Priamur Government contravened the law and demonstrated its capability to violate the legal norms in favor of the own interests. The scientific novelty consists in introduction to the scientific discourse of the materials associates with the discussions in Priamur Popular Assembly and the reaction of the Primorye society upon it. The conclusion is mate that the decision of the Provisional Priamur Government had the contradictory consequences for the Far Eastern “white” statehood. The easiness of the government in imposing the emergency measures showed the immaturity of parliamentarism of Primorye, as well as its inability to confront the governmental iniquity using the legitimate methods.
Fomin A.A. - The evolution legal approach towards assessment of collaborationists’ activity during the Great Patriotic War pp. 23-40

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.5.20220

Abstract: The object of this research is the public relations emerged in the process of establishment and implementation of the legal institution of responsibility of the collaborationists in USSR during the Great Patriotic War. The subject is the system of the normative legal acts that regulate the responsibility of Soviet citizens cooperated with the German Fascist occupants during the war. The author reveals the essence and characteristic peculiarities of the legal regulation of the examined type of responsibility. Based on the analysis of protective legal norms contained in the legislative and institutional acts, the author reviews the specificity of establishment and transformation of the legal approach of Soviet State towards the assessment of collaborationists’ activity and demarcation of the various manifestations of collaborationism. As a result of this research, the author highlights a number of peculiarities common to the lawmaking and law enforcement in the area of counteracting collaborationism, which under the conditions of the urgently elevated during the wartime political and ideological orientations, conduced the formation of the practice of unreasonable and unjust repressions with regards to the Soviet citizens, who were involved in collaboration with the German occupants. The author makes a conclusion on the appropriateness of assessment of the institution of collaborationists’ responsibility as an exceptionally repressive and deprived of any fairness. At the same time, he believes that the enhancement of responsibility for the unlawful activity of collaborationist nature under the extreme circumstances of the Great Patriotic War was necessary and justifiable. Separate examples in the article demonstrate the trends of the gradual transformation of the protective norms towards differentiation and individualization of responsibility of the persons that in one or another way are involved into cooperation with the enemy.
Regions of the world in the global historical process
Ganiev R.T. - Problems of the Turkic-Chinese relations in 735 - 745 AD. pp. 41-47

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.5.22747

Abstract: This article is observing the last decade of existence of the Eastern Turkic Qaghanate. This period had attracted the attention of Russian Soviet scientists much earlier, however, due to the limited use of the Chinese written sources and emphasis on other issues, the Turkic-Chinese relations have not received proper attention. Herein, for the first time, this article will discuss materials of the court chronicler Zhang Jiulin, who was in charge of the central chancery of the palace in 734-736 AD; the biography of the Chinese commander Wang Zhongsi; analysis of the regional situation in the steppe after the death of the Eastern Turkic Bilge Qaghan and the policy of the Tang dynasty regarding the northern nomadic neighbors. The research includes comparative historical analysis, historical- genetic and structural methods and will apply a novel approach by studying an open field areas of the Turkic-Chinese relations, China's foreign strategy towards the nomads, as well as the policy of nomadic tribes Kumo xi and Khitan (who previously were a part of the Eastern Turkic Qaghanate, but after 735 AD they rebelled against Turks with the support of China). The unification of interests of China and the nomads became the main factor, along with the internal political struggle in the Qaghanate that led to the weakening of the Turks and the fall of their sovereignty in 745 AD.
History and Politics
Salamatova M.S. - The recall of a deputy in Soviet Russia: legislation and practice of realization (1917 – 1936) pp. 48-60

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.5.19603

Abstract: The subject of this study is the terms, conditions and implementation of the recall of deputies in the period of the Soviet political system. The opinion of the Deputy had a limited distribution in the world and domestic practice, in the first quarter of the twentieth century. Came to power, the Bolsheviks introduced a recall of a Deputy in the Soviet electoral system, considering it an important form of direct democracy, revising the mechanism of interaction of deputies and voters. Contrary to initial plans, the recall of a Deputy in the Soviet reality, did not become a form of "genuine proletarian democracy" was implemented under the directives, top-down, and was not supported by any broad initiative of the population. However, the recall of the Deputy was not and meaningful way of dealing with opposition deputies, the Bolsheviks used the more cruel political practices to displace disloyal members of the councils.The study is based on the methodological principles of historicism, system analysis and objectivity. The principle of historicism allows us to consider the evolution of the institution of recall of deputies in the context of the historical era. Systems approach and structural-functional analysis allowed us to determine the mechanism of recall of deputies as well as the place of the Institute in the Soviet electoral system.The novelty of the research consists of a comprehensive study of the legal regulation of the grounds, conditions and procedure for the implementation of the recall of deputies at the stage of formation of the Soviet electoral system. For the first time introduced into scientific circulation sources helped to reveal the mechanism of functioning, the real value of the Institute and the problems of implementation of the recall of deputies in Soviet political practice.Until the mid-1920's the institution of recall of deputies could not find the real development in the Soviet legislation and practice. During the period of implementation of the policy of "revival" of the Soviets (1925-1929) opinion was considered as a measure of the revitalization of the Council deputies, in the Soviet law there were specified grounds, conditions and order of revocation. In practice, the recall of a Deputy remained unclaimed. The recall of a Deputy of the forms of direct will of the voter has become one of the forms of organizational-mass work of the Soviets. In the 1930s the recall of a Deputy was one of the elements of the mechanism of identification and suppression of "class enemies", but not widespread.
History and Economics
Moreeva S. - Analysis of the foreign trade activity of Russia since beginning of the World War I until lifting of the economic blockade pp. 61-72

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.5.20554

Abstract: The subject of this research (carried out based on the results of scientific research work on the topic “Economic and legal aspects of foreign trade activity of Russia since the beginning of the XX century: past, present, and prospects”) is Russia’s foreign trade over the period from the mid 1914 until the early 1921. The author analyzes the transformation of the Russian foreign trade policy and transactions associated with the country’s participation in the World War I, as well as domestic events of the following years, trade and "golden” embargo of Soviet Russia from the side of the Western countries. The work traces the sequential changes in state regulation of the foreign trade activity: transition from the limited meddling of the government into foreign trade activity, towards the prohibitive-permissive system of regulation with the further establishment of state monopoly in foreign trade right after the October Revolution. Using the acquired statistical data, the author demonstrates how the participation in the WWI alongside the following domestic events affecter the trade balance of the country, volume and structure of export and imports, as well as the list of Russia’s trade partners.
Culture and cultures in historical context
Khairetdinova N.E. - Theatre of war: on the motives of audience activity during the Great Patriotic War (using the materials of Ufa in 1941-1943) pp. 73-96

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.5.19671

Abstract:  The subject of this research is the motives of activity of theatrical audience in rear during the initial period of the Great Patriotic War. Theatres, along with the other facilities, continued to function; and moreover, they were never empty. But the understanding of fact that people far from the frontline, working for the victory, suffered deprivations, raised the questions regarding the moral and ethical views, demands, and financial opportunities of population. The research is conducted on the example of entertainment events of Ufa – capital of Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The source base for writing this article consisted of the unpublished archive materials, as well as the published materials, including the reminiscences of participants of the events. During the course of the research, it was established that the theatre as far back as 1930’s was viewed by the government as agitation and educational platform, as a powerful and endowed with artistic virtue tool of interaction upon public consciousness that in the severe conditions were boosting the economy of the country. And because the agitation force of the theatre would have been worthless without the full audience halls, the party-state apparatus were putting effort into increasing the popularity of cultural entertainment. Namely during this period, the theatre began to define the personal prestige of a Soviet citizen. In other words, by 1941 the spectator potential in the country, especially in the cities, was rather high. The agitation-educational meaning of theatre highly increased with the beginning of war, which of course, affected the cultural policy of the state. Multiple famous theatrical troupes from Odessa, Kiev, and other cities, were evacuated to Ufa due to favorable circumstances that encouraged the interest towards theatre. The city provided affordable prices for such events, including free service for the wounded in battle and active duty sergeants. Overall, the author notes that the tragicalness of situation did not interrupt the cultural upturn.  
Historical sources and artifacts
Kosov I.M. - Rhetorical functions of bestiary in Giraldus Cambrensis’ "Topography of Ireland" (according to manuscript of the year 1200) pp. 97-109

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.5.20836

Abstract: The subject of this research is the body of miniatures of the NLI MS Giraldus 700manuscript. The object is the rhetorical tools and ways of amplification of the visual text of images of the authorial manuscript in the third version of “Topography…” into the semantic layer of stylistic of the presented treatise of the late XII century. Special attention is given to the classification and typology of miniatures in the Russian and foreign historiography. The researcher specifies the typology of the studied manuscript and its place within the tradition of the English bestiary of the High Middle Ages. The scientific novelty of this work consists in exclusion from the selection of lists of the non-contemporary to the author source – “Topography of Ireland”. In other words, based on such depicted rhetorical tools, the stylistic and rhetorical method of the medieval scribe – the logic in-phase is vividly restored. An important practical result of the conduced analysis of the miniatures will be consciousness within the framework of comparativist approach of the archetype nature of synchrony of the visual and written text as such over the period of III – XII centuries.
Auxiliary historical disciplines
Nilogov A.S. - To the ancestry of Konstantin Fedorovich Roerich pp. 110-126

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.5.18565

Abstract: This article is dedicated to resolution of the question on the origin of Roerich’s family, to which belonged a prominent Russian artist Nicholas Konstantinovich Roerich (1874-1947). The object of this research is the ancestry of the N. K. Roerich’s father – Konstantin Fedorovich Roerich (1837-1900). The object is the male bloodline of Roerich’s family that was studied on the material of metrical books of the Latvian State Historical Archive and Saint Petersburg Central State Historical Archive. Despite the fact that the artist himself was leaning towards the descent from the duke Rurik (Primary Chronicle of Novgorod), the discovered archive document allowed doubting such “Varangian hypothesis”. The scientific novelty consists in introduction to the academic discourse of Roerichology of the authentic metrical and other archive records about the representatives of Roerich’s family, who resided in Courland Governorate of the Russian Empire and St. Petersburg over the period of XVIII – XX centuries. In many ways it became possible owing to the genealogical findings of the Latvian historian Ivars Silars, who was able to documentarily trace the Roerich’s family up to the middle of the XVII century.
Archeology
Orfinskaya O.V., Chutkina S.S., Titova L.A. - Studies of pre-Mongolian embroidery based on archaeological excavations of 1966 – 1974 years in the city of Staraya Russa of Novgorod Region pp. 127-143

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.5.20642

Abstract: The subject of this research is the archeological textile material (XVII – XV centuries) discovered during the 1966 – 1974 archeological excavations in the city of Staraya Russa, which is divided into four compositions and stored in Novgorod open-air museum for over 30 years, and later, due to the unsatisfactory condition, has undergone restoration and exploration. The main goal of this research lies in determination of a number of the survived textile products, identification of the nature of fabrics, as well as the connection between the preserved artifacts – narrow golden ribbon and fragments of embroidery, which were earlier considered as part of the collar (necklace). It was established the most likely that origin of the golden ribbons is Mediterranean; the used fabrics has a distinct dense texture, and was brought from, perhaps, Byzantine Empire, as an expensive goods. All of the golden threads in the samples had identical characteristic (thin, with dense golden strip winding), which allowed suggesting that the ribbons alongside the finished embroidery “has come” from the same place.
Tabarev A., Gladyshev S. - Microcleavage in the complexes of early Upper Paleolithic of Northern Mongolia pp. 144-154

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.5.20049

Abstract: The subject of this research is the technology of microcleavage in the complexes of early Upper Paleolithic of Northern Mongolia. Microcleavage implies that the assemblage of stone artefacts associates with the procedure on manufacturing small-size blanks – microliths. Such combination contains micronucleuses, specially prepared cores for preparation of microliths. It is not the depleted nucleuses, but a particular independent group of the cores, which can be justifiable called micronucleuses. Moreover, microcleavage also includes microliths and their fragments. There have not been found any tools made out of microliths in the materials of the explored complexes. The research applies the traditional to archeological studies methodology: technical-typological and morphological analysis of stone inventory belonging to microcleavage of micronucleuses and microliths. Until present time, microcleavage has not been examined as an independent direction of development of stone processing technology in the early Upper Paleolithic of the eastern part of Central Asia. This is the first attempt on the example of the materials of Northern Mongolia to trace the facts of existence of microcleavage already at early stages of Upper Paleolithic (37,000 to 27,000 years ago).
World of ideas and world of the mundane
Sterkhov D.V. - Religious and patriotic holidays in Prussia over the years of Liberation Wars (1831-1815) as an element of Prussian state propaganda
pp. 155-166

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.5.20866

Abstract: The object of this research is the patriotic propaganda in Prussia during the period of Liberation Wars (1813-1815). The subject is the role of religious and patriotic holidays in Prussian state propaganda. The goal of this work consists in determination of propagandistic tasks, which were carried out by the religious and patriotic holidays, as well as their key structural elements. The author thoroughly studies such aspects as the mobilization potential of the religious and patriotic holidays. Special attention is given to the Christian symbols and religious argumentation, which the arrangers of patriotic holidays relied upon. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that the author underlines the importance of local patriotism, while in modern historiography of Liberation Wars of 1813-1815 are traditionally viewed from the perspective of German nationalism. The main goal followed by the arrangers of such events  was aimed at mobilization of population of the Prussian Kingdom towards the struggle against the enemy, as well as elevation of the moral spirit of people. Another goal was intended towards the creation of the image of unified Prussian nation, consolidate the king’s lieges, and thus, strengthen the loyalty of population regarding the ruling dynasty and the state. The narrow Prussian theme prevailed over the German national theme. The key means of establishment of the patriotic ideology were the religious symbols and images (Christian sacrifice, holy war); the ideas of God’s involvement into the armed conflict against the enemy were being formed. The results of this work allow turning attention to the role of religious factor in formation of patriotic ideologies in the European states during the era of Napoleonic Wars.
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