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Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue № 11/2017
Contents of Issue № 11/2017
Question at hand
Vasin A.V. - Normative legal interaction of the state and mass media in covering military conflicts during the period of 1991-2015 pp. 1-12

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.11.24495

Abstract: The subject of this research is the experience, status, and problems of activity of the Russian mass media in covering the local military conflicts throughout the period of 1991-2015. The object is the historical experience of mass media in covering the military conflicts. The author meticulously examines such aspects of the topic as the key directions in interaction of the government authorities and mass media regarding the question of covering military conflicts in terms of the changes of legal framework. Special attention is given to the forms and results of such interaction. Methodological base is comprised by the principles of historicism, scientific objectiveness, systematicity and complexity that allow examining the experience of mass media in covering the military conflicts during the indicated timeframe in the context of interaction with the state and society as a systemic problem, analyzing the factual content cumulatively and with reference to each other. The main conclusion consists in peculiarities of interaction of the state and mass media in covering the local military conflicts. Author’s main contribution into the research of this topic lies in the comprehensive analysis of evolution of the activity of mass media as regulator of public opinion in covering the local military conflicts throughout the period of 1991-2015.
History and Ideology
Makulov S.S. - The role of Italy in Spanish Civil War through the lens of Soviet press (1936-1939) pp. 13-17

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.11.24923

Abstract: The subject of this research is the role of the fascist Italy in Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) reflected on the pages of Soviet periodicals of the time. This conflict became the first military clash between USSR and Italy, which resulted in the rapid deterioration of relations between the two stats. The goal of this work lies in studying the key methods applied by the Russian journalists and publicists for describing the indicated events in the context of Soviet-Italian relation and international status of USSR and Italy overall. The author used the historical method, text analysis, methods of scientific generalization, various newspaper and journal publications of the period at hand introduced into the scientific discourse for the first time, as well as works of the contemporary historians and specialists of international relations. Conclusion is made that the confrontation between USSR and Italy within the framework of Spanish conflict forced the Soviet press to strong criticism of the Italian fascism and militarism, however such campaign had certain peculiarities.
Evolution, reform, revolution
Kutergin V.A. - Discourses of the radical Irish nationalism in the second half of the XIX century pp. 18-29

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.11.24927

Abstract: This article examines the subject matter dedicated to the discourses of the radical Irish nationalism of the late XIX century. The author focuses attention of the anticolonial nature of Irish nationalism, showing it as a product of the entirely British imperialism. The work demonstrates the establishment and evolution of the basic discourses of the radical Irish nationalism, which allows viewing it as a formed “narrative of opposition”, which in the early XX century has come to the fore and radicalized the Irish national movement, as well as contributed into the “launch” of the chain of events that led Ireland to independence. The methodology includes the theoretical works of E. Said, hegemony concept of A. Gramsci, approaches towards examination of nationalism formulated by the neo-Marxist scholars B. Anderson, M. Hroch, E. Gellner, E. Hobsbawm). The author was able to describe the relation between the radical Irish nationalism and sociopolitical thought of the XIX century. On the other hand, it is an important fact that Irish nationalism was of anticolonial nature. The representatives of the radical direction of nationalism had formulated such discourses and concepts that were subsequently promoted by other representatives of the anticolonial nationalism.
World history: Eras and seasons
Zhirova N.S. - Relationship between the group “Kirti” and Communist Party of India (1925-1942) pp. 30-36

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.11.24712

Abstract: The subject of this research is the examination of peculiarities of the relationship between the Communist Party of India and the group “Kirti” –  center of the revolutionary nationalistic party “Ghadar” that was closely related to the Communist International. The author sets a task to explore the interaction process of the aforementioned organization over the period of 1925-1942, determine the contradictions between them, reveal the specificities of the Communist International pertinent to the two parties, as well as analyze the attempts of conflict resolution between the Communist Party and the group “Kirti” that ultimately led to unification of the indicated organizations in 1942. The scientific novelty of this work consists in coverage of the previously unknown pages in the history of the Communist Party of India, and insufficiently studied in the national historiography group “Kirti” along with the official section of the Communist International that was the conductor of interests of the latter in India. This became possible due to the attraction of materials of the Russian State Archive of Sociopolitical History, as well as published documents by the Intelligence Bureau and works of the Indian historians.
Zhirova N.S. - The activity of Ghadar Party in Latin American countries (1914-1941) pp. 37-44

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.11.24917

Abstract: The subject of this research is the history of Ghadar Party, the organization of revolutionary oriented Indian emigrants who fought for independence of their motherland in the first half of the XX century, as well as the party’s activity in Latin America. One of the tasks of the international organization Ghadar consisted in the awakening of self-consciousness and mobilization of Indian communities in various countries. Due to the American location of the leading center of the party, this region was one of the first in the circle of interests among the members of organization, although its remoteness from the main goal – India – defined the specificity of Ghadar’s operation in Latin America. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that this article represents one of the first attempts to systematically and fully describe the history of emergence and activity of the centers of Ghadar Party in separate countries of Latin America, as well as their place and role in the entire organization of Indian emigrants.
Regions of the world in the global historical process
Dzhazzan F.Z. - Iraq War of 2003 and position of the Syrian Arab Republic pp. 45-51

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.11.24686

Abstract: The subject of this research is the Iraq War and its impact upon the international relations. The author examines the domestic causes for war, as well as external factors that predetermines its transition into the acute, military phase. The article analysis its effect upon the entire range of international relations in the region, as well as defines the position of leading countries of the Near and Middle East regarding the conflict around Iraq. Special attention is given to the foreign political strategy of the United States in the zone of Persian Gulf alongside the project of creation of the Large Near East. The author applies the most recent publications in Arab and English languages, some of which are introduced into the scientific discourse for the first time. This allows conducting a comprehensive analysis of the task at hand in the context of serious transformations within the system of international and regional relations. As a result of this work, the author was able to identify the most essential factor.
History of science and technology
Bagaev A.B. - Modernization of small arms of Ossetians of the last quarter of XIX century pp. 52-56

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.11.24818

Abstract: The subject of this research is the small arms of Ossetians of the last quarter of XIX century. This topic remains insufficiently studied but is important in studying the military art of Ossetian people. Within the indicated timeframe, Ossetia faced the modernization processes in the area of small arms: the old armament, especially rifles, was actively replaced with the new, more improved. The author thoroughly examines the two systems of breechloader that were widely spread in Ossetia during this time. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that this question is subjected to extensive analysis for the first time. The results of this research covered the previously insufficiently studied question about the systems of rifles that comprised the inventory of Ossetians of the late XIX century. The author determined the time of replacement of the muzzle-loading flintlocks with the breechloaders. The article also describes the impact of the Russian military culture upon modernization processes in the area of armament of Ossetians.
Philosophy of history, historiography, chronology/source studies
Loshchenkov A.V. - Characteristics, composition elements and interpretation of the xylograph "Myur-lam" from the collection of the Department of Oriental Manuscripts and Xylographs, Institute of Mongolian, Tibetan and Budhist Studies of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
pp. 57-66

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.11.21329

Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the Tibetan xylograph, the content of which belongs to the Lamrim category (gradual path), under the name «Myur-lam», authored by the Second Panchen Lama, Losang Yeshe. This article aims to give a source-study description of the text, its composition and analysis on the example of the identified structure. The work of Panchen Lama is one of the most important sources of Tibetan Buddhism, the tradition of which has spread in the past in the Trans-Himalayan region, Mongolia, Russia (Buryatia, Kalmykia, Tuva), and is now widely distributed around the world. Work is part of the so-called root texts of Tibetan Buddhism, which determine the philosophical and religious content of the Tibetan tradition of Buddhism. Especially significant, this text is for the Gelug school, traditional for Mongolia and Russia. When working with the source, a combination of the classical textological approach and contextual and hermeneutic analysis, taking into account the Buddhist commentary tradition, was used. Methods of comparative historical analysis, methods of specific description of texts, analytical comparison, and their structural and substantive classification were also used. A textual analysis of the introduction from the introductory quatrains, provides information about the teachers of the line of continuity of these instructions. This allows concluding that the author, through the guidance of teachers, significant for the tradition of Lamrim in general and in particular for this type of commentary on Lamrim, demonstrated the instructions contained in his text, the holders of which they were. The history of constituting the text is presented. Particular attention is paid to the description of the structural composition of the work. It is noted here that the author of the text compiled the themes for meditation on Lamrim into a special structure, allowing the fastest possible achievement of the goal of these meditations. This principle of constructing the material emphasizes the special, practical orientation of the text.
Academic schools and paradigms
Nizhnik N.S. - Omnipotence of the police state in assessment of the Russian police science pp. 67-86

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.11.24883

Abstract: The subject of this research is the theoretical heritage of the Russian police scientists, who assumed that the police stat will be able to reach such level of socioeconomic development that an individual will not experience any material or spiritual needs. The essence of the police state was not reduced to compulsion or violence. At the same time, the implementation of the project of police state, the achievements of which became the lack of freedom and personal sacrifice to the state for the sake of the common good, practically led the society to stagnation. The article examines the ideas of the Russian police scientists, which encouraged the emergence of a new outlook upon the purpose of the state that consisted in providing triumph in the legal state, ensuring each one with the sphere of personal freedom, and restricting omnipotence of the state with legal norms. The author gives characteristics to the Russian police-legal thought in the context of analyzing the omnipotence (supreme power) of the police state. Theoretical construct of the police stat was built in accordance with the desire to make life on each individual decent, as well as achieve common good and national happiness. In practice, the means for achieving the goal of the police state consisted in development of the all-encompassing police activity, exhaustive regulation of people’s life, meticulous oversight by government agencies of the needs and interests of the citizens. Theory of the police state has an important historical meaning: within its framework has begun the process of comprehending the questions regarding the limitation of omnipotence of the police state and determination of the effective means of preservation and protection of personal rights and freedoms.
Kozinnikova E. - State of exception as special legal regime (experience of analysis of the normative acts and works of police scientists of the Russian Empire of the end of XIX – beginning of the XX century) pp. 87-95

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.11.22543

Abstract: The subject of this research is the special legal regime established in the Russian Empire in the end of XIX – beginning of the XX century that was entitled as the state of exception by the police scientists. The author analyzes the normative act, based on which was functioning the state of exception – “Ordinance on Measures for the Preservation of the State Order and Public Tranquility” of 14 August 1881. State of exception is characterized as the means of neutralization of the emergency sociopolitical situation and political preventative measures of revolutionary threat to the existing government structure. The article determines the contribution of the Russian police science into development of the theory of special regimes. The author provides characteristics to the legal norms that manifest as the foundation for imposing the state of exception in the Russian Empire of the indicated timeframe, as well as identifies the differences between the positions of increased security and special security. Attention is given to the analysis of the works of Russian police scientist V. M. Gessen, who provides characteristic to the essence and meaning of the state of exception, as well as assessment of the results of imposing the positions of increased security and special security in the Russian Empire. A conclusion is made that the long-term use of the special regime as the means of neutralization of the emergency sociopolitical situation and political preventative measures is not efficient.
Nikiforova S.A. - Nature, social meaning, and elements of state – the subject of theoretical legal research of E. N. Berendts pp. 96-111

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.11.24073

Abstract: The subject of this research is the updated part of theoretical legal heritage of the prominent Russian lawyer of the late XIX – early XX century Eduard Nikolayevich Berendts (1860-1830). Main attention is dedicated to the views of E. N. Berendts upon the nature, meaning, and elements of state, its goals and possibilities of their implementation, as well as problems of transitioning from the police state to legal. The author also turns attention to the essence of the state’s legal nature considered by E. N. Berendts. In analyzing the historical sources and archival documents, the author applied the historical-legal method, which allowed acquiring the knowledge about the events and drawing the corresponding theoretical conclusions. The scientific reconstruction of the past helped comprising a maximally full representation about the problem at hand within the timeframe and space. The portrait-individualizing method combines the chronological and problem-theoretical approaches, which revealed the individual distinctness of the scholar’s views upon the state and law, as well as determine the issues that on one hand connected the life and creative paths of E. N. Berendts, dynamics of the ideological struggle and intellectual creativity with the results, while on the other – manifested as the specific historical milestone of cognition. The scientific novelty is defined by the lack of comprehensive research dedicated to the theoretical heritage of E. N. Berendts within the Russian and foreign juridical science. The author used the previously untranslated into the Russian language works of the scholar and introduces them into the scientific discourse for the first time.
Egorov N.Y. - Special legal regime as the means of protection of public security (in accordance with the works of I. T. Tarasov) pp. 112-121

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.11.23738

Abstract: The subject of this study is the actualized part of theoretical and legal heritage of the prominent Russian lawyer of the end of XIX – beginning of the XX century – Ivan Trofimovich Tarasov (1849-1929); his representations on the essence of special legal regime as the means of protection of public safety; the provided by him characteristic of the state of emergency or martial law as the political preventative measures of prevention and methods for preserving the political system. The article discusses I. T. Tarasov’s idea regarding the possibility of ensuring public safety through the implementation of the special legal regime. The comprehensive problem-theoretical reconstruction and interpretation of theoretical legal heritage of I. T. Tarasov is realized in the modern legal science for the first time. The article discusses the views of I. T. Tarasov upon the capability of the special legal regime to ensure the public safety. The author characterizes the scholar’s ideas concerning the implementaiton, operation and termination of the state of exception and martial law, as well as analyzes his views on the questions of using the weapons by police agencies and administration in terms of the special legal regime. Conclusion is made that I. T. Tarasov insisted on the need for legislative regulation of the special legal status, within the framework which takes place the limitation of rights and freedoms , and expands the government interference in social life. Tarasov developed the theory of restriction of state intervention into the social processes and determined that the law must be the basic measure of restriction, including the implementation of the special legal regime. He argued the need to establish the boundaries of police activity and guarantees of the political and civil freedoms of an individual. The ideas of I. T. Tarasova pertinent to the special legal regime as the means for protection of public safety, found their reflection and development in the Russian theoretical-legal science and practice of legislative consolidation of the relations in the conditions of the state of emergency in modern Russia.
Gevorkian D.S. - Charity in the context of comprehension of state functions (in accordance with the works of V. F. Deryuzhinsky) pp. 122-132

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.11.23749

Abstract: The subject of this research is the theoretical legal heritage of the prominent Russian police scientist, publicist, and public figure of the late XIX – early XX centuries, editor of the journal “Labor Assistance” Vladimir Fedorovich Deruizhinsky (1861-1920); his representations of the purpose of charity, methods of providing help by the state and private actors to the people in need; about the experience of operation of forced labor camps and commodity stations; on the effective principles of organization of public assistance; his assessment of the experience of organization of public assistance in Russian and foreign countries. The comprehensive problem-theoretical reconstruction and interpretation of theoretical legal heritage of V. F. Deryuzhinsky is realized in the modern legal science for the first time. The article explores the views of V. F. Deryuzhinsky upon the purpose of providing help to people in need, subject compositions of those who provide help, and methods of the public assistance. The author determines the motivational grounds of charity; as well as characterizes the basic stages of social work in monarchical Russia that became the object of research of V. F. Deryuzhinsky. It is underlined that Deryuzhinsky considered that the proper organization of public assistance to the poor, whose number indicates the wellbeing of the state, is the crucial task of the government. The article characterizes the results of comparative analysis of the systems of public assistance conducted by V. F. Deryuzhinsky: classification of the state that provide assistance using various methods; definition of efficiency of the Elberfeld system for aiding the poor; assessment of the experience of operation of forced labor camps and commodity stations; possibility of implementation of the foreign experience in Russia. The conclusion is made that the professional and public activity of V. F. Deryuzhinsky influenced the development of the Russian state policy in the area of social assistance in the late XIX – early XX centuries, as well as his contribution in development of the theory of social work.
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