Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue № 06/2016
Contents of Issue № 06/2016
History of regions of Russia
Popov A.D. - “Boxer Rebellion” in China in perception of the Siberian common people (based on the materials of Tomsk and Irkutsk newspapers) pp. 1-8

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.20976

Abstract: This article reconstructs the perception of the “Boxer Rebellion” in China (1898-1901) among the common people of Siberia. The research is based primarily on the materials of Tomsk and Irkutsk private newspapers. Altogether, the author examined approximately 20 correspondences from the cities and villages of Western and Eastern Siberia (Irkutsk, Tomsk, Yeniseysk, Omsk, Ulan-Ude, Kokshetau, and others). The author also provides a brief description of the key events of “Chinese revolt”, as well as demonstrates the general historiographical background of the explored topic. The work is structured according to the principles of historicism and objectivity. The scientific novelty first and foremost consists in the introduction of the new circle of sources on this problematic into the scientific discourse (as a rule, in analyzing the “vox populi” regarding the Yihequan uprising, the historians used to refer to the Moscow or Far Eastern mass media). The conclusion is made that the events of 1898-1901 aroused great interest among the “ordinary” Siberians, as well as were widely discussed in cities and villages. However, the lack of information about the events taking place in the neighboring country substantiated the formation of a tense atmosphere in the region, which resulted in a number of tragic incidents.
Kattsina T.A., Marinenko L.E. - Change of the model and practices of solution of the problem of child neglect in the early XX century (on the materials of Yeniseysk Governorate) pp. 9-19

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.20730

Abstract: The article is dedicated to examination of the model and practical activity of the local leadership of Yeniseysk Governorate in solution of the child neglect problem during the period of 1917-1925. The chronological framework of the research capture the term of establishment of the Soviet authority in the country, as well as the first reforms in the area of protection of childhood. The study of the aforementioned issue on the materials of Yeniseysk Governorate allows formulating an idea about what events took place in the region and the entire country. The scientific novelty consists in introduction into the scientific discourse of the new archive materials that have never been published earlier, which allowed reconstructing the practice of implementation of the Soviet model of solving the problem of child neglect on the example of Yeniseysk Governorate. The conclusion is made about the changes made in providing help to the street children during the first years of Soviet government, when the private initiative of separate individuals was replaced by the state centralized system. The article gives the analysis of the system of government measures on the struggle against neglect in the region; determines and systematizes the factors which formed the children homelessness during the stated historical period; and presents the assessment of the efficiency of work of the local self-governance in solution of this problem.
History of ethnicities, peoples, nations
Orbodoeva M.V. - Buddhism translation activity in China during the Western Jin period pp. 20-24

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.21547

Abstract: This article is dedicated to one of the most important stages of spread of Buddhism in China – activity of translators and establishment of translation tradition. The expansion of Buddhism in China is closely related with translations of Buddhist literature from Sanskrit onto the Chinese language. Therefore, the work of Buddhist missionaries became an imperative component of the spread of Buddhism. The ruling period of Western Jin is the crucial time in establishment of Buddhism in China. This period is signified by translation of the canons.  The article caries out the analysis of translation activity in Chine during the period of Western Jin based on the translations of works of the Chinese scholars. The author thoroughly describes the activity of Buddhist texts translators into the Chinese language. The work introduces multiple new names of the translators, which are rarely mention in Russian literature. It is also determined that during the period of Western Jin, main attention was given to the translation of Buddhist text.
History of regions of Russia
Mikheev M.V. - Problems of the demilitarization of the Urals industry afte rthe Great Patriotic War pp. 25-35

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.21646

Abstract: The article highlights the problems of reevacuation and the demilitarization of the industrial enterprises of the Urals in the post-war period. The object of research is the post-war recovery and development of the economy in the Soviet Union. The subject of the study is reevacuation and demilitarization measures, which took place in the industrial Urals since 1945. Particular attention is paid to the implications of these processes for the future economic development of the region. To find out their features, along with studies of precursors the author used documents of the central and regional archives.In the study, the author used principles of objectivity, historicist determinism, systematic approach, the method of quantitative data and comparative-historical method.The novelty of the work is proved by entering into a scientific revolution has not previously studied archival documents reflecting how all-union and regional aspects of the post-war demilitarization of the Soviet Union. principles of organization of reconversion at the plant Uralmash described in detail. States the problems of functioning pozdnestalinskoy command economy on the example of the processes of demilitarization and re-evacuation of the Urals. Showing organizational difficulties demilitarization of Soviet industry, the associated loss of income and productivity in the Ural enterprises. It is concluded that maintaining the Urals industrial facilities evacuated here during wartime.
History and Politics
Ippolitov V.A. - Socio-political attitudes of the members of Komsomol during the mid-1930’s pp. 36-48

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.17451

Abstract: This article analyzes the socio-political moods of Komsomol members over the period of 1934-1936 in the following aspects: assessment of the work of country’s leadership, perception of party’s policy in the village, relation to assassination of S. M. Kirov, and cancellation of the ration stamp. The main sources for this research became the unpublished archive materials from the State Archives of Socio-Political History of Tambov Oblast and Voronezh Oblast. In Komsomol’s history of this little-studied period, the author observes the consistent connection between the economic situation of the country and political attitudes of the youth. The theory of nationalization of Komsomol, according to which Komsomol is considered a peculiar Soviet “youth ministry” or interlink between the state and the youth, became basic for examination of the historical and Komsomol issues. The study of the public moods of the members of Komsomol allows evaluating the socio-cultural phenomenon of Komsomol more objectively. The scientific novelty consists in reframing of the controversial socio-political attitudes of the youth. The author concludes that a significant part of Komsomol members assessed the situation in the country rather critically. But it was dangerous to openly demonstrate such attitude due to the possibility of repressions by the government. The author notes that the mechanisms of repressions were used inside the Komsomol organizations during the mid-1930’s.
Academic schools and paradigms
Pirozhok S.S. - Robert von Mohl: contribution into the better understanding and systematization of the knowledge on state, law, and society pp. 49-60

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.17534

Abstract:  The subject of this research is the relevant part of the theoretical-legal heritage of the prominent German scholar and politician of the XIX century – Robert von Mohl (1799-1875). The work examines the following aspects: the establishment and genesis of Robert von Mohl state-legal views; his concepts in the area of domestic administration of German Empire; his outlook upon the government’s activity on resolution of the social issues; as well as views upon the place and role of public associations in life of the state and society, character of their interaction and mutual impact. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that this work is first to perform a special comprehensive research and interpretation of the theoretical-legal heritage of Robert von Mohl. The author presents the biographical facts of the scholar, gives characteristics to his contribution into the development of foreign and Russian science of the police law, as well as underlines the achievement of the German professor in development of the German culture. The article analyzes the Robert von Mohl views regarding the problems of the domestic administration, mechanism of ensuring and realization of the mutual rights and responsibilities of the state and its citizens. Attention is given to the fact that Robert von Mohl was not only one of the first who referred to the issue of social (labor) question, but also formulates the propositions on its resolution.  
History of law and state
Shatilov S.P. - Unlawful forms of realization of the law enforcement activity during the Great Patriotic War pp. 61-68

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.17549

Abstract: The subject of this research is the unlawful forms of realization of the law enforcement activity by the Soviet law enforcement agencies during the Great Patriotic War. The author analyzes the organizational forms of the law enforcement activity, such as study, generalization, and distribution of the positive experience of ensuring the legal order, selection and training of the law enforcement officials, etc.; as well as material-technical, such planning, analysis, preparation of the reports, execution of documents, clerical correspondence, registration of facts of the legal violations, and others. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that the author is first in the Russian jurisprudence who attempted comprehensive analysis of the normative consolidation and mechanism of realization of the unlawful forms by the Soviet law enforcement agencies during the Great Patriotic War. The conclusion is made that the unlawful forms can be subdivided into organizational and material-technical. The unlawful forms of realization in both, peace and war time, preceded the legal, encouraged the collection, processing, and analysis of the information; and as a result, the efficiency of their realization directly affected the efficiency of realization of the law enforcement activity during the Great Patriotic War.
Historical memory
Tinyakova E.A. - How the sorrow and joy reflect the historical moods in Russian traditional folk culture pp. 69-83

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.17603

Abstract: The object of this research is the historical moods that can be captured and sensed in various forms of the Russian traditional culture, mostly in storytelling and folk songs. Sorrow and joy are the two opposite historical moods, multipliable in their variations. The context of the Russian traditional culture is aimed at mass historical consciousness in presentation and capturing of the events and personalities. The research rises a question: how the mentality of the Russian traditional population was affected by the lengthy serfdom; how does the folk culture reflect the living conditions of the people during serfdom; is serfdom is the only primary cause of the polarity of historical mentality of the collective consciousness. The methodology of this research refers to the use of the archive source of Kursk governorate, because it contains bright illustrations regarding the existence of the serfdom. This article is a part of the author’s thesis – “The Specificity of Historical Method in Perception of Personalities and Events within the Russian Traditional Folk Culture”. The historical content of the Russian traditional culture is notable by the fact that it is based on the people’s collective consciousness, which was applied during the different historical periods, in other words, sorrow and joy travel through centuries with the flow of history.
Academic schools and paradigms
Chukaev T.O. - Russian police science represented by: Vasily Nikolaevich Leshkov pp. 84-95

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.17909

Abstract: The subject of this research is the relevant part of the theoretical-legal heritages of the renowned Russian legal expert of the XIX century – Vasily Nikolaevich Leshkov (1810-1881); establishment and evolution of Leshkov’s state-legal views, as well as his theory of public law. The article gives characteristics to the scholar’s contribution into the development of the theory of police (administrative) law, views upon the peculiarities of the Russian national legal system, essence of the Russian foundations of law, and mechanism of regulation of public relations. The subject and method of research, as well as positioning of the research problem define the scientific novelty. The author makes an attempt of the problem-theoretical reconstruction and interpretation of the theoretical-legal heritage of the Russian police scientist V. N. Leshkov, focusing attention on his study of the questions regarding the role of society within the system of government administration. Until the present time Leshkov’s theoretical heritage did not undergo complex analysis, as the formulated by the scholar concepts did lose their relevance.
Kozinnikova E.N. - Russian police science in persons: Vladimir Matveevich Gessen pp. 96-107

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.17901

Abstract: The subject of this research is the relevant part of the theoretical-legal heritage of the prominent Russian jurist of the late XIX – early XX century – Vladimir Matveevich Gessen (1868-1920). The article characterizes the scholar’s contribution into the development of the theory of legal state, as well as examines Gessen’s views upon the importance of transition from the police state to legal state and correlation between the notions of “legal state” and “constitutional state”. The author also reviews Gessen’s outlook upon parliamentarism as the key factor of establishment of the legal state; administrative position of justice as the assurance of adherence to the subjective public rights; and ideas about the security of a person as a component of national security. The subject and method of the research, as well as the positioning of the research problem define the scientific novelty. An attempt is made of the problem-theoretical reconstruction and interpretation of the theoretical-legal heritage of the Russian police scientist V. M. Gessen; this topic has not been subjected to comprehensive analysis until the present time.
History of law and state
Nikulin V.V. - Legal and social aspects of matrimonial relationship in Soviet Russia (1917-1920’s) pp. 108-122

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.19612

Abstract: This article analyzes the process of changing the legislation in matrimonial field, as well as the practice of state regulation of matrimonial relationship in post-revolutionary period from the proclaimed at the beginning revolution of “freedom of love” to the tightening of the policy in the second half of the 1920’s. The author traces the process of synchronization of changes in ideology of the matrimonial relationship and the corresponding legislation. The article examines the legal and social regulators of the behavioral model of population in matrimonial relationship, formulation of the corresponding legislation, as well as separate aspects of the behavioral norms of certain social groups, particularly introduction of the behavioral norms in matrimonial relationship in form of the so-called “party ethics” for the ruling party. The author claims the the transition towards the more strict behavioral model of matrimonial relationship in the second half of the 1920’s was caused by the clear negative consequences of the free model of behavior in the initial period of revolution. It is proven that in the 1920’s, the practice of development and implementation of the norms of matrimonial relationship based on the revolutionary-innovation ideas did not stand the test of the practice of social life. The traditional family confirmed its importance as the core social institution. The revolutionary experience only led to devaluation of the behavioral norms and loss of multiple norms that control the human behavior.
History of public institutions
Serov D.O. - Legal educational qualification requirements and formation of the association of jurists in government service of the Russian Empire pp. 123-138

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.20515

Abstract: The object of this article is the part of Russian bureaucracy, which performed their service in justice agencies during the second and third part of the XIX century. The subject of this article is the processes that lead to the transformation of this part of bureaucracy into the association of jurists in government service of the empire. Due to this fact, special attention is given to the coverage of the history of introduction of the legal qualification requirements for the officials of the justice agencies in Russian legislation, as well as dynamics of the educational level of the judges, prosecutors, and investigators over the period of 1850’s – 1860’s. The work suggests the definition of the notion “professional association”, as well as formulates the conditions required for the emergence of the association of jurists in government civil service. The author substantiates the conclusion about the presence in pre-reform Russia of the deficit of individuals with the higher education in law. Based on the attraction of an extensive circle of legislative acts and normative material, the author carefully examines the history of establishment of the legal educational qualification requirements in the first half of the 1860’s. The article is first to provide the systemic data on the dynamics of the educational level of judges in pre-reform and reformed agencies of justice, prosecutors, and investigators over the period of 1851-1868. It is demonstrated that the conditions necessary for the establishment of the association of jurists have formed in Russian during the course of judicial reform and reform of the investigative bodies, and the graduates of the Imperial School of Jurisprudence comprised the backbone in origination of this association.
History of law and state
Zherebchikov D.P. - Thefts in the Russian province in the late XIX – early XX century (on the example of Voronezh governorate) pp. 139-148

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.20616

Abstract: The subject of this article is the most widespread type of crime against property in cities and counties of the Russian province of the stated period – theft. Based on the extensive circle of sources, the author reveals the following questions: legal assessment of thievery in the official criminal legislation of the Russian Empire; criminal statistics of thefts in Voronezh governorate; criminalistics characteristics of thefts conducted by the persons of lower urban classes. Special attention is given to thefts, which took place in the provincial cities. The main conclusion consists in the fact that the status of the agricultural Voronezh governorate along with the neighboring Black Earth governorates, on the “periphery” of Russian modernization, decrease the number of grand thefts. The incidence of thievery in urban society exceeded the incidence of thievery in rural society. During the period economic instability, which accompanies modernization in the Russian province, small thefts prevailed over the large thefts in the overall crimes. The lower urban classes, primarily peasants and male commoners, were the main actors of similar criminal acts.
Academic schools and paradigms
Nikiforova S.A. - E. N. Berendts on police status in the police and legal state pp. 149-161

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.21066

Abstract: The subject of this research is the relevant part of the theoretical-legal heritage of the accomplished Russian legal expert of the late XIX – early XX century, professor of financial law – Eduard NIkolaevich Berendts (1860-1930). Special attention is given to the views of E. N. Berendts upon the police status, place of police within the mechanism of police state, role of the police agencies in the legal state; importance of the Constitution in ensuring and adherence to the legitimacy in the process of realization by the police of its main functions. The scientific novelty is defined by the absence within the Russian and foreign legal science of the comprehensive research dedicated to the theoretical heritage of E. N. Berendts. The author uses the works of the scholar that have not been previously translated into the Russian language, as well as the archive materials originally introduced into the scientific discourse. The work is the first to examine the views of E. N. Berendts upon the role and place of the police in the legal state, importance of the normative consolidation of the powers of police officers, role of the Constitution in regulation of the police activity in legal state.
History of law and state
Motrevich V.P. - Camps of the Main Administration for Affairs of Prisoners of War and Internees of NKVD (MVS) of the USSR in Chelyabinsk Oblast during the period of 1942-1950 (numbers and dislocation) pp. 162-169

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.21086

Abstract: The object of this research is the Camps of the Main Administration for Affairs of Prisoners of War and Internees of NKVD (MVS) of the USSR located in Chelyabinsk Oblast over the period of 1942-1950, theor numbers, dislocation, and time they were active. The author bases himself upon the results of the conducted in the 1990’s search by Association “War Memorials” of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation for the purpose of detection of the location of camps for foreign war prisoner, separate labor battalions and specialized hospitals, as well as recently published in Russia and abroad documental materials. The article reveals the dislocation of all of the facilities for housing and treating of the foreign war prisoners and German internees during the World War II and first postwar years, as well as determines the stages of existence of the camp system of the Main Administration of NKVD of the USSR regarding the war prisoners and internees in Chelyabinsk Oblast.
History and Politics
Veber M.I. - The mutiny of workers of Polevskoy factory against the Bolshevik authorities (17-18th of June, 1918): causes and consequences pp. 170-182

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.21154

Abstract: The paper is devoted to the curious phenomenon of the Russian Civil War - uprisings of workers against the dictatorship of proletariat, namely, rebellions of mining population of the Urals against the Soviets in the spring and summer of 1918. One of the largest anti-Bolshevik rebellions of mining population in the Urals occurred in June 1918 in the village of Polevskoi factory, located 54 miles south-west of Yekaterinburg. These events are poorly described both in Soviet and modern Russian historiography. Based on the archive documents, memoirs and newspapers, the author reconstructs the events of the mutiny of workers of Polevskoy factory. The paper examines the complex of reasons, which provoked the mutiny against Bolsheviks. The paper also describes consequences of the mutiny, including comparison of the number of victims of red terror with the number of victims of white terror in Polevskoy factory. The author makes a conclusion about the need for national reconciliation and establishment of the general monument to the victims of the Russian Civil War in Polevskoy.
Academic schools and paradigms
Nizhnik N.S. - Police state – welfare state pp. 183-194

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.21223

Abstract: The subject of this research is the theoretical heritage of police scientists, within the framework of which welfare and security defined the purpose of the state. Police state as the idea of organization of people’s activity for the sake of public welfare has its past, present, and future. Examination of the history of police state as the political-legal technique of supporting the legal order is heuristically useful for understanding the practices of dominance in modern societies. The modern state that correlates with the discursive and institutional heritage of the police state era in the field of organization and activity of the police, continues to base itself upon the developed by police scientists idea of security, as well as attempts to find new ways for procurement of wealth for best distribution of benefits. The research is built on the principle of historicism, due to attempt towards determination of the dynamics and historical prospect of development of the ideas of police scientists regarding the creation of the welfare society by means of the police state. The foreign and Russian police scientists defined the purpose of the police state as the achievement of the general welfare. The idea of realization of the national welfare and happiness encouraged the development of the philosophy of eudaemonism, which became the ideological foundation of the system of government administration. The attempt to reach the set goal led to the actual neglect of the people’s interests. The inner controversy of the concept of police state substantiated the need for transition from the police state to the legal state.
Social history
Tverdyukova E.D., Prokhorova E.V. - Food substitutes in the daily diet of citizens of the Soviet Russia during the Civil War (1918-1921) pp. 195-205

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.21249

Abstract: The authors investigate the role of nutrition in the organization of the social life of people in 1918-1921th yrs. The chronological framework of the study covers one of the crisis periods in the Russian history - the Civil War. The paper presents in details the everyday practices of food consumption and the state attempts to make up for the disastrous shortfall of the food market by authorized use of substitute goods, the study of which was put on a scientific basis in this period.An interdisciplinary approach to the research (that is located at the cross–disciplinary of history, social nutrition and physiology) is because of using of the systematic analysis of food practices of the nation as a social problem. The comparative analysis is used for the retrospective characteristics of the consumed food substitute across the country. The Scientific novelty of the research is determined by the fact that based on the analysis of a large source base (archival documents, statistical publications, materials of periodical press and diaries described the events of contemporaries records) it is concluded that in the first post-revolutionary years the changing of eating habits affected both urban and rural inhabitants. Faced with starvation death people consumed everything: substitutes foods that were on the rise but the quality of surrogates became worse; all the second-rate, rotten, foul hit on the consumer’s table. «Starveling» diet resulted in serious consequences: massive gastrointestinal diseases, anemia and mental disturbance of the citizens.
Anthroposociogenesis and historical anthropology
Pererva E.V. - Paleopathological peculiarities of the impuberal adolescent population of the Middle-Sarmatian times buried in the Lower Volga Region pp. 206-220

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.21304

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the paleopathological examination of the remains of impuberal individuals and adolescents of the Middle-Sarmatian times from the near Kurgan burials, territory of the Lower Volga and Lower Don. During the process of this research, the specificities of the age structure of the group were being assessed. The character of pathological deviations was studied on the dentition (tartar and enamel hypoplasia), scull bones (signs of porosis, markers of iron-deficient anemia, inflammatory processes), as well as the bones of postcranial skeleton. Overall, 21 individual was subjected to this study. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that this article is the first to examine the anthropological materials of impuberal individuals and adolescents of the Middle-Sarmatian times in the context of paleopathology. In the result of this study, it was determined that during this timeframe there were not many children buried in near Kurgan Region, which is likely associated with the existence of other type of burial ritual of the impuberal population. The children of the Middle-Sarmatian period had prolonged breastfeeding and specific diet, which was based on meat and dairy. Thus, the illnesses, which emerge because of the lack of minerals and vitamins in the body, were common to the children of this period.
History of law and state
Akishin M.O. - Legal language of the Soviet government pp. 221-242

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.21362

Abstract: Similar to the other European countries, the establishment of republic, elimination of class rights and privileges, consolidation of the principle of equality before the law, in Russia took the revolutionary path. However, the Russian October Revolution was a reaction to not only the outlived feudal society, but also negative phenomena of the era of “wild capitalism” of the XIX century. The October Revolution led to the state regulation of the economy and its planning, which allowed realizing the position of the Marxist-Leninist teaching: elimination of exploitation of man by man, recognition of the socioeconomic and cultural human rights. Study of the positive experience, contributed by the Soviet authorities into the development of Russia and the entire world, remains relevant. The goal of this article is the examination of the legal language of Soviet authorities. The article substantiates that the core of the lexical-semantic system of legal language consisted of such political terms as “socialism”, “Communism”, “dictatorship of the proletariat”, “state of the whole people”, and others. The crucial achievement of the legislative technique of the Soviet government became the principle of the use of the Russian literary language in the national legislation. At the same time, there were no significant renewals in grammar and lexical composition of the legal language during this period. In other words, the legal language reflected not only the practice of Soviet construction, but also preserved the succession with the preceding stages of its history.
Beliefs, religions, churches
Nasonov A.A. - Emotional impact upon the believers during the process of distribution of Orthodoxy and Buddhism in the south of Western Siberia on the brink of the XIX – XX centuries pp. 243-249

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.21582

Abstract:  The object of this research is the process of distribution of world religions in South Siberia. The subject is the used strategy of emotional impact upon the believers of Orthodox Christianity and Buddhism during the spread in the south of Western Siberia. The article reveals the meaning of the emotional impact in realization of rituals from the perspective of the establishment of connection between the believers and the supernatural, as well as demonstration of the unity inside the religious congregation. Using the comparative-historical method, the author correlates the application of visual, audial, and sensible means emotional pressure upon the potential believers and neophytes by the Orthodox and Buddhist adepts. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that based on the specific historical material of the south of Western Siberia characterizes the tactics of emotional impact implemented by the ministers of the Altai Ecclesiastical Mission and the adepts of Burkhanism, as well as public forms of manifestation of the forming regional variation of Buddhism. The author makes a conclusion on the large variety and productivity of the tactics of emotional impact upon the believers of Burkhanism.  
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