Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue № 05/2016
Contents of Issue № 05/2016
Personality in history
Loshchenkov A.V. - Panchen Lama II Lobsang Yeshe and his creative heritage pp. 1-8


Abstract: The subject of this research is the figure of Panchen Lama II Lobsang Yeshe (1663-1737), the second of the highest hierarchs of Tibetan Buddhism, as well as his written heritage which is referred in its genre to the Buddhist texts – Gsung-'bum. This topic until present has not been a subject of examination in the Western and Russian Buddhology. This work sets a goal to fulfill such gap, as well as give characteristics to the figure and activity of Panchen Lama II based on the original Tibetan sources. The main stages of his biography along with the texts that belong to the tradition of Lamrim (“stages of the path”) are being described. The scientific novelty is defined by the subject of the research. The author makes an attempt to understand the role of Panchen Lama II in the strengthening of independence of the Buddhist civilization of Tibet and Tibetan statehood. For the first time the biography and overview of Panchen Lama’s heritage is being presented: the author describes the compilation of his works, analyzes its content, and determines the landmark compositions. All of this characterizes the author as a highly qualified multifaceted master of the Tibetan Buddhism.
Academic schools and paradigms
Rudnev Y.V. - Emergence of the idea of the “modern history” in the texts of Lucien Febvre and Fernand Braudel pp. 9-17


Abstract: The subject of this article is the idea of the need for renovation of the French historical science, formulated during the post-World War II period in the texts of Lucien Febvre and Fernand Braudel. In the situation of epistemological instability, originated by the global disastrous events that took place in Europe, they appealed to creation of the “modern history” (nouvelle histoire). The project of the new historical science based on the synthetic approach of the Annales School had to unite the theoretical novelties, which occurred in the sciences about human and society, as well as the scholars who realized them in their works. The scientific novelty of this work consists in the fact that it allows overwieving the established within the historiography opinion, according to which the French “modern history” as a scientific program has emerged in the works of the members of the Annales School referring to the 1970’s. The article demonstrates that the intuitions characteristic for the new “regime of historicity” have emerged significantly earlier (by the end of the 1940’s); and back then represented the coherent and sequential system, which later was developed in the works of Pierre Nora, Jacques Le Goff, and other renowned representatives of the “third generation” of the Annales  School.
Culture and cultures in historical context
Orbodoeva M.V. - Spiritual culture of China during the period of Wei and Jin pp. 18-22


Abstract:  The author gives particular attention to the topic of spiritual culture of China during the period after the collapse of Han Empire, namely the period of Wei and Jin. The era of Wei and Jin represents a breaking point in the history of this country, which was preceded by the time of ruling of the powerful Han Empire and its collapse. The crisis of the empire, disintegration of the unified statehood, destruction of the previous foundations in sociopolitical and economic spheres of Chinese society affected the spiritual culture of China. In writing this article, the author analyzed the works of the Russian, as well as foreign scholars. Special accent is made on the works of Chinese scholars. The main conclusion of this work consists in the facts that the spiritual culture of China during the period of Wei and Jin dynasties was on one hand the reflection of the processes that took place in the stated period; and on the other – served as preparative basis for implementation of Buddhism into the sociocultural space of China.  
Interdisciplinary research
Markhanova T.F. - The establishment of the central government during the ruling of the Emperor Wen of Sui pp. 23-28


Abstract:  This article examines the structure of the government administration during the ruling of the Emperor Wen of Sui. This topic was not yet been studied in the Russian historiography. The goal of this work is to fill this gap and characterize the establishment of the central government of the Sui dynasty based on the Chinese sources and Western-European literature. The works of Arthur Wright and Victor Sui Cunrui, who thoroughly studied the Sui period, are being introduced into the scientific discourse. The system of government structure and bureaucratic apparatus in feudal China were formed based on the experience acquired in ancient times, taking the roots in the ideas of Confucius. The idea of centralization of power lied in the foundation of establishment of the government administration. The scientific novelty is defined by the subject of the research. The author is first to analyze the structure, composition, and tasks of the central government bodies of the period of Sui dynasty, as well as lists the names of the officials who were in charge. It is demonstrated that during the ruling of the Sui dynasty, there had been created a powerful bureaucratic apparatus that strengthened the centralizes power; and thus, such administrative structure becomes the political heritage for the Tang dynasty (618-907), which was the pinnacle of the medieval Chinese Empire.  
Anthroposociogenesis and historical anthropology
Markhanova T.F. - Population of China during the time of Sui dynasty (581-618) pp. 29-37


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the demographic policy of Sui dynasty. The goal of the work is to demonstrate the size of China’s population during the ruling of Sui dynasty based on the Chinese sources and Western-European literature. The author is first to examine the methods of calculation of the population base during the ruling of Sui dynasty and highlights three of them: maoyue (visual inspection), registration of households, and dynamic of population base. The system of taxation lied in the foundation of the centralized census of Sui dynasty. Similar official enumeration of the population was conducted for tax collection and realization of labor duty. Analyzing China’s demographic situation during the time of Sui dynasty, it is noted that the growth and decline in size of population of China were associated with the periods of development of the country, as well as socio-economic and natural-geographical factors. During the bloom of the dynasty, the author underlines a significant economic growth, which affected the increase of the size of population. However, during the crisis and wars, the situation with population changed to negative. The author comes to a conclusion that during the time of Sui dynasty in 609 A.D., with the help of three analytical methods, the population comprised 46 million registered people, which allowed forming a new tax base for the country.
World history: Eras and seasons
Markhanova T.F. - Reforms in the area of local self-governance during the ruling of Sui dynasty (581-618) pp. 38-43


Abstract: This article examines the reforms carried out by the local self-governance during the ruling period of the emperors Wen of Sui and Yang of Sui. The three departments system of administration was replaced by the two departments system, which significantly lower the number of the local officials. The established by the emperors of Sui dynasty central ministries Li Bu 吏部(the Ministry of Personnel) and Yushi Tai 御史臺 (Censorate) were one of the forms of supervision over the local officials. Li Bu was responsible for appointing all of the officials, which stroke the interests of the local aristocracy. The inspectors (controllers) of the Censorate performed visits to the local authorities and reported about the work of the local officials to the emperor. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that the author comprehensively examined the reform in the area of the local self-governance during the ruling period of the two emperors of Sui dynasty. The main conclusion lies in the thesis that these reforms become one of the crucial steps towards the revival of the united empire with the strong centralized power, the political and economic administration of which was carried out from the single center.
Historical time and space
Rudenko I.V., Mitskevich I.V. - To the question about beard token and existence of beard tax during the 1698-1725 pp. 44-55


Abstract: The history of realization of Peter the Great’s reform, particularly, modernization of social lifestyle, is directly connected with the emergence of beard tax – first testimony to the legislative measures of Peter the Great on elimination of the ancient Russian tradition of wearing the beard. A number of sequential order forced the subjects to wear the old-fashioned Moscow dress wear, as well as shave the beard and moustache. In accordance with these laws, those who desired to leave the beard and had to pay annual fees. The article analyzes a large circle of numismatic and historical sources pertaining to the phenomenon of emergence and distribution of beard tax of 1698, 1705, 1724, and 1725, using the comparative and typological methods, which allowed critically regard the existing sources, as well as making conclusions based on the combination of gathered facts. The author were able to clarify certain details of the beard token and turnover of the beard tax, how they were issued, as well as their typology and circulation. The article attracted the fullest empirical base – all of the known varieties of the originals and replicas from the collections of the State Hermitage Museum (St. Petersburg), State Historical Museum (Moscow), National Museum of American History of the Smithsonian Institution (Washington, DC), French National Library (Paris), and others.
History of law and state
Akishin M.O. - State and legal languages of the Russian Empire of the XIX century pp. 56-73


Abstract: The relevance of this topic is substantiated by the following aspects: firstly, by the polemic on “Russification” policy of the XIX – beginning of the XX centuries, which negatively affects the international relations of the adjoining states alongside interpersonal communication of their citizens; and secondly, by the need to continue the examination of the changes that take place within the legal language of the Russian Empire of the XIX century. The subject of this research is the legislative regulation of the status of legal language and its development in the Russian Empire of the XIX – beginning of the XX centuries. The goal of the article consists in the study of the history of law policy in the area of language relations of the Russian Empire, as well as the impact of legal writing upon the language of law. The author determines that the law policy of the Russian Empire in the field of language relations was aimed at strengthening of state positions of the Russian language, which corresponded to the teachings of the Romanticism era about the meaning of language in consolidation of the nation. At the same time, the native languages of indigenous people were also respected in Russia. Legal language as the core of state language in the Russian Empire of the XIX century, represented an entire law institution with the scientifically developed language base. The requirements for the language comprised one of the sections of juridical knowledge – legal writing. The judicial reform of 1864, which strengthened the principles of adversary, publicity and oratory of court proceedings, led to the establishment of judicial public speaking.
Trofimov E. - Political-legal aspects of establishment of the Soviet one-party state (1917-1922) pp. 74-98


Abstract: The object of this research is the relations of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party and the Russian Communist Party with other political parties after the[WU1]  February Revolution of 1917, which ended with a complete monopolization of authority by the Bolsheviks and elimination of other parties. The political processes are examined simultaneously with the legal limitation of multiparty system and political pluralism. The author reviews the following important milestones: establishment of the Soviet one-party state, October Revolution, All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies, formation of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and Council of People's Commissars, negotiations in the All-Russian Executive Committee of the Union of Railwaymen, and political defeat of the “Right Bolsheviks”, All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Peasants' Deputies, etc. The causes and circumstances of elimination of political pluralism during the first five years of Soviet government are analyzed using the official documents, materials of the activity of representative institutions, as well a works of V. I. Lenin. The author explores the changes in the Soviet legislation concerning the freedom of activity of the political parties, as well as the process of elimination of political parties and their integration with the Russian Communist Party of Bolsheviks. In the context of Bolsheviks’ struggle for power against other parties, the article gives a political-legal evaluation to the activity of a number of representative institutions, and mutual positions of Bolsheviks and other political parties during the civil war. The role of coincidences and objective processes in strengthening of Bolsheviks’ dictatorship is demonstrated.   [WU1]
Shchedrina Y.V. - The judges’ affiliation with political parties and question of ensuring judicial independence in Russia: historical-legal aspect pp. 99-111


Abstract: The subject of this research is the normative regulation of judges’ affiliation with political parties due to ensuring the judicial independence. Throughout the three period of development of the Russian state (pre-revolutionary, Soviet, and post-Soviet), the article examines the relation of government to membership of the judges in political parties, as well as provides statistical data on this matter. The author attempted to conduct a comprehensive research, which allows tracing the position of a legislator regarding the party status of the judges across the entire period of development of the Soviet state. The conclusion is made that during these periods of development of the Soviet state, when the government strived to establish an actually independent court, it strictly prohibited the membership of judges in political parties. Violation of such prohibition resulted in preliminary cancellation of the judiciary powers or even resignation.
History of regions of Russia
Kleitman A.L. - History of the Lower Volga Region in historiography of the time of Peter the Great pp. 112-128


Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical essays of the early XVIII century, in which along with other issued, were examined the problems of history of the Lower Volga Region (diaries of Peter the Great’s travels, “Short History of the Great Northern War”, “Core of the Russian History”, as well as works of the foreigners who traveled or served in Russia – Bell, Perry, Strahlenberg, de Bruijn). The work defines the circles of the questions on the Lower Volga Region history, which presented the interest for these authors, as well as characterizes their contribution into the study of regional history. The conducted research demonstrated that in the early XVIII century, the issues associated with the history, modern status and prospects of development of the Lower Volga Region were analyzed, as well as materials on this topic were created. These essays differed from the previously existed traditions of description of history in their approaches towards understanding of the past, form, and methods of the work with the source. These compositions comprised the foundation for the main directions of further study of the history of Lower Volga Region during the XVIII-XIX centuries:Examination of events of the regional history in the context of history of the Russian State;Study of the historical problematic within the works dedicated to the comprehensive research of territory of the Russian Empire in geographic, economic, and ethnographic regard.
Regions of the world in the global historical process
Boltaevskii A.A., Balashkin I.N., Emets V.E., Pryadko I.P. - The Balkan Region through the prism of geopolitics: the end of the XIX - early XX centuries pp. 129-147


Abstract: The subject of research are the geopolitical games that revolved around the Balkans in the late XIX - early XX centuries. Bulgaria, Serbia, Romania - - Key countries in the region were involved in the diplomatic intrigues of the two opposing coalitions of the Entente and the Triple Alliance. Russia played an important role in the liberation of the peninsula from Ottoman rule, lost his position under pressure from England, Austria-Hungary and Germany. The diversity and heterogeneity of the ethnic composition of the peninsula, the difference of cultures, religions, landscape diversity - these are the reasons for a special kind of "contentiousness" of the Balkans. The authors used a wide range of domestic and foreign sources and studies, based on the comparative historical approach, the method of deduction and induction.The authors show that any interference by outside forces in the Balkans have a detrimental and fatal, not only for the region but for the entire world. The Balkans can be considered as the European continent in miniature, so dominant in the region within the state in its historical destiny is to be likened to the lead in Europe in Germany. From the tragedy of the Bulgarian monarchy after the First World War or the collapse of the Union of Yugoslavia after the end of the Cold War, in something similar to the German catastrophe that befell this country during the Second World War.
History and Ideology
Yakimov K.A. - Peculiarities of the political education in Komsomol during the period of 1937-1938 pp. 148-165


Abstract: The relevance of this research is substantiated by the necessity of historical cognition of the role of Komsomol in political education of the youth. Based on the materials of the State Archive of the Sociopolitical History of Tambov Oblast, this article examines such compositional elements of political upbringing as participation of Komsomol members in the work regarding the struggle against the “public enemy”, well as anti-religious and educational activity of the Komsomol organizations. The author conducts the analysis of the impact of political education upon the formation of specific feature of the Soviet youth, as well as gives assessment to the quality of education in political schools and groups. The article also examines the influence of political upbringing on the character of public moods of the youth, which allows more objectively evaluate the sociocultural phenomenon of the Komsomol. The scientific novelty consists in reframing of the controversial sociopolitical moods of the youth during the most difficult stage in the history of Komsomol. The author underlines the influence of Komsomol organization in the field of political education and upbringing of the young generation upon the establishment of specific features among the Soviet youth.
History and Literature
Brykina Y. - The early works of A. N. Ostrovsky as a historical source for study of the real world of the merchants (on the example of the merchant house) pp. 166-173


Abstract: The subject of this research is the description of the merchant house in the compositions of A. N. Ostrovsky of the pre-reforming period. The goal this work consists in establishment of the level of authenticity in description of the house and elements of the home interior in the early oeuvres of the playwright. Stereotype about the creative work of A. N. Ostrovsky as the literary pathfinder of the merchant class, formed during the playwright’s lifetime. His plays were perceived as the “image of life” of the tradespeople, which in the 1830-1850’s has existed in its own, hidden from the strangers’ eyes world. Even the very first works of Ostrovsky attracted the interest of the critics and audience. The acquaintance with the environment from inside, language, and artistic manner of Ostrovsky imparted his compositions with a specific believability. The comparison of description of the elements of the merchant house in the works of A. N. Ostrovsky with the similar facts from the memories of the representatives of this class allow establishing the level of authenticity in depiction of the realities of the merchants. The memoir heritage, which has records of the life of Moscow merchants of 1845-1860’s, is not quite large. The scientific novelty consists in the use of the dramaturgical compositions for examination of the real life of the merchant class. The relevance of the work lies in the fact that home interior can be viewed as a cultural code towards understanding not only of the characters of its dwellers in particular, but also social group which they belong to as a whole. The description of the house contains two parts: description of the interior and exterior. The research demonstrated that the plays do not depict the outside view of the merchant house. A. N. Ostrovsky just mentions the place of action. The memories of the merchant class representatives help to fulfill this gap in lack of information. As of the interior scenery, the comparative analysis of the works of A. N. Ostrovsky with the memoirs indicates the complete identity of the interiors pictured in the literary compositions and existed in reality.
Philosophy of history, historiography, chronology/source studies
Romanova A. - Sources of the Russian hagiography: menology of the Pomor mentor Fyodor Babushkin pp. 174-180


Abstract: This article reviews the lists of the manuscript menology from the library of the Vygov Old Believer F. P. Babushkin (1764-1842), which is preserved in the department of manuscripts of the Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg). Currently, there are three determined list of menology, edited or comprised with participation of F. P. Babushkin. Peculiar attention is given to the unique facts contained in menology, namely in commemoration of the Russian Saints, including founders of St. Nicholas Monastery Anthony and German Krasnokholmsky, as well as venerable Leonid Ustnedumsly and Iulianiya Semigorodskaya. The article presents observation for correlation of the menology and their chronological order. The author makes supposition that one of the sources of menology became the data from the "History of Russian Hierarchy" by Ambrose (Ornatsky). Thus, the time of creation of one of the menologies (collection of Druzhinin No. 131) is verified. The conclusion is made on the secondariness off the facts of Babushkin’s menology for the Russian hagiography. The article deals with copies of menologies, compiled by Pomorian Old-Orthodox mentor Fyodor Babushkin (1764-1842). A large part of Babushkin's library is nowadays kept in the Manuscript Department of the Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences (St.Petersburg), in collection of a prominent Russian scholar V.G.Druzhinin. The author discusses sources for adding of memories of Russian saints and concludes, that Babushkin could derive some data from the "History of Russian Hierarchy" by Ambrosii (Ornatskii) (Moscow, 1812-1815).
History of ethnicities, peoples, nations
Bleikh N.O. - The causes of emergence and transformation of military democracy among the nations of North Caucasus pp. 181-189


Abstract: The lifestyle and mentality of any nation form based on the geographical conditions, as well as economic, political, and sociocultural component of its existence. But they cannot always be consistent, and thus, depending on the living standards they vary, forcing people to adjust to the new circumstances. In this aspect, all native ethnoses of the North Caucasus were involuntarily subjected to a centuries-long challenge, because they often became an object of foreign attacks: Tatar Mongols, TImur, Iraq, England, etc. Namely under these conditions, an acute necessity for establishment of military democracy has emerged. The author concludes that the form of organization of authority characteristic to military democracy means that the power belongs to the leaders of the tribes. One of the external manifestations of the system of military democracy became the creation of the strong military organizations under the leadership of military chiefs, as well as plundering raids of the neighbors. Leaders for the campaign were chosen usually in a specially designated place. Within time, such democracy transformed from elected based on merits to inheritable, turning democracy into tyranny. This also bring changes into the system, content and forms of martial arts of the North Caucasian nations.
Kuchumov I.V. - Russians and Bashkirs in the processes of interethnic interaction in Southern Ural pp. 190-204


Abstract: The subject of this research is the examination of the process of interethnic interaction between the Russian and Bashkirian population in Southern Ural for the purpose of its periodization. The history in relationship between Russians and Bashkirs begins during the period of early Middle Ages, which is testified by the language facts and archeological findings, and continues until today. We can observe the peaceful, as well as conflict stages during the course of this process. The period of interethnic conflicts coincided with the time of Russia’s economic assimilation of the Southern Ural, political integration of the region into the composition of the Russian Empire noted by the clash of two diverse in their origin cultures. The author determines the periods of interethnic interaction, as well as interethnic conflicts between Russians and Bashkirs. The work also involves the written sources and field materials, the information of which allowed describing the general picture of the Russian-Bashkir relationship. The scientific novelty consists in highlighting and characterizing of the stages of interethnic interaction from the first contacts of the two ethnoses until their modern status based on the formulated within the Russian science theories. The author concludes that the episodic interethnic collaboration between the Russian and local population existed in Southern Ural prior to accession of the region to Russia. Such interaction in its various forms contributed into consolidation of the local pro-ethnoses into the full-fledged ethnoses and ethnic groups.
Beliefs, religions, churches
Kozlov M.N. - Late pagans of the Ancient Rus pp. 205-215


Abstract: For the first time in Russian science, the subject of this research became the history of the late pagan communities of Ancient Rus (the end of the X-XII centuries), their socioeconomic structure and lifestyle. The author presented several dominant in the modern historiography antagonist theories associated with the problems of Christianization of Ancient Rus during the pre-Mongolian era. Based on the analysis of the written sources and data, the archeologist were able to trace the main directions of the escape of the population from the forced Christianization (the end of the X-beginning of the XI centuries), as well as demonstrate the types of the late pagan communities, and presence of pagans in multiple Russian cities of the early Christian epoch. On the example of the pagan community of the Zbruch cult center, the author carries outs a historical analysis of the socioeconomic structure of late pagans, and partially follows their lifestyle. The conclusion is made that a certain part of Eastern Slavic people did not accept Christianity, and under the leadership of the priests of the pagan cult migrated to the sparsely populated wooded regions of the Western, Northern, and Northeastern Rus. They were able to preserve a part of their pagan sanctuaries in many of the large cities and villages of Rus, as well as establish a major pagan complex in the territory of Galicia Province, which became a shelter for the highest representatives of the pagan cult headed by the ruling priest.
Iryshkov A.V. - Literary heritage of William Penn pp. 216-230


Abstract: This article summarizes the political-religious work of the leader of the Quakers movement William Pen, as well as offers their conceptual categorization. The author gives characteristics to each of the group of his work and provides examples and main emphasizing motives. The article also analyzes the essential and reference compositions of W. Penn, which reveal his innovative ideas of social structure and understanding of religious policy. The goal of the research consists in formulation of classification of the William Penn’s literary heritage, which is still absent in the Russian historical science, as well as compilation of a full list of the Quaker’s works. The methodological basis for this research is the principle of historicism, which is perceived as study of the object in question in its development. Applicable to this research, it suggest the examination of W. Penn’s literary heritage since his conversion into Quakerism until his death. Study of the ideological structures is impossible without framing them into a precise political context of its time. This can explain why only certain ideas have emerged and how they evolved. The scientific novelty lies in the review of the previously unknown works of W. Penn, their evaluation and classification. The conclusion and results can be useful in study of the history of Pennsylvania, Society of Friends, socio-political thought of England at the brink of the XVII and XVII centuries, as well as religious research regarding the establishment of Protestantism.
Historical facts, events, phenomena
Slezin A.A. - “Post-congress syndrome” in Komsomol pp. 231-239


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the situation inside the nationalized youth union – Komsomol after the XX Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Based on the archive materials and documental publications, the author examines the public moods of the Komsomol members, caused by the “debunking” of N. S. Khrushchev and inconsistency of the actions of party leadership during the congress and shortly after. The relevance of the selected topic is substantiated by a number of circumstances: firstly, the need for a comprehensive study of the experience of formation and specific features of social consciousness of the Soviet youth; secondly, the importance of cognition of the historical role of Komsomol in the process of transformation of public moods of the young generation; thirdly, the pending question on the controversial role of the XX Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union regarding the evolution of political culture of the Soviet society. Komsomol is being viewed as a sociocultural phenomenon. Big importance consists in recognition of the bases of the concept of I. M. Ilyinsky, who emphasized the necessity to form among the young generation the ability to survive, develop and grow spiritually, but not retrograde. The scientific novelty is associated with focusing attention of the manifestations of trends towards diversion from traditionalism at Komsomol sessions and conferences of the late 1950’s. Special attention is turned to an acute reaction of the party and Komsomol leadership upon the originating strive for destruction of Komsomol’s monopoly in the youth movement of the country.  
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